Skip to main content

Full text of "Transactions of the [1st]-56th annual reunion .."

See other formats

This  is  a  digital  copy  of  a  book  that  was  preserved  for  generations  on  library  shelves  before  it  was  carefully  scanned  by  Google  as  part  of  a  project 
to  make  the  world's  books  discoverable  online. 

It  has  survived  long  enough  for  the  copyright  to  expire  and  the  book  to  enter  the  public  domain.  A  public  domain  book  is  one  that  was  never  subject 
to  copyright  or  whose  legal  copyright  term  has  expired.  Whether  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  may  vary  country  to  country.  Public  domain  books 
are  our  gateways  to  the  past,  representing  a  wealth  of  history,  culture  and  knowledge  that's  often  difficult  to  discover. 

Marks,  notations  and  other  marginalia  present  in  the  original  volume  will  appear  in  this  file  -  a  reminder  of  this  book's  long  journey  from  the 
publisher  to  a  library  and  finally  to  you. 

Usage  guidelines 

Google  is  proud  to  partner  with  libraries  to  digitize  public  domain  materials  and  make  them  widely  accessible.  Public  domain  books  belong  to  the 
public  and  we  are  merely  their  custodians.  Nevertheless,  this  work  is  expensive,  so  in  order  to  keep  providing  this  resource,  we  have  taken  steps  to 
prevent  abuse  by  commercial  parties,  including  placing  technical  restrictions  on  automated  querying. 

We  also  ask  that  you: 

+  Make  non-commercial  use  of  the  files  We  designed  Google  Book  Search  for  use  by  individuals,  and  we  request  that  you  use  these  files  for 
personal,  non-commercial  purposes. 

+  Refrain  from  automated  querying  Do  not  send  automated  queries  of  any  sort  to  Google's  system:  If  you  are  conducting  research  on  machine 
translation,  optical  character  recognition  or  other  areas  where  access  to  a  large  amount  of  text  is  helpful,  please  contact  us.  We  encourage  the 
use  of  public  domain  materials  for  these  purposes  and  may  be  able  to  help. 

+  Maintain  attribution  The  Google  "watermark"  you  see  on  each  file  is  essential  for  informing  people  about  this  project  and  helping  them  find 
additional  materials  through  Google  Book  Search.  Please  do  not  remove  it. 

+  Keep  it  legal  Whatever  your  use,  remember  that  you  are  responsible  for  ensuring  that  what  you  are  doing  is  legal.  Do  not  assume  that  just 
because  we  believe  a  book  is  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  the  United  States,  that  the  work  is  also  in  the  public  domain  for  users  in  other 
countries.  Whether  a  book  is  still  in  copyright  varies  from  country  to  country,  and  we  can't  offer  guidance  on  whether  any  specific  use  of 
any  specific  book  is  allowed.  Please  do  not  assume  that  a  book's  appearance  in  Google  Book  Search  means  it  can  be  used  in  any  manner 
anywhere  in  the  world.  Copyright  infringement  liability  can  be  quite  severe. 

About  Google  Book  Search 

Google's  mission  is  to  organize  the  world's  information  and  to  make  it  universally  accessible  and  useful.  Google  Book  Search  helps  readers 
discover  the  world's  books  while  helping  authors  and  publishers  reach  new  audiences.  You  can  search  through  the  full  text  of  this  book  on  the  web 

at|http  :  //books  .  google  .  com/ 




Oregon  Pioneer  Association 







Mabsh  Printing  Co.,  120-122  Front  Street 



In  discussing  the  place  to  hold  the  Annual  Reunion  for 
1902,  President  Gray  said  that  he  had  expected  to  give  an 
invitation  on  behalf  of  the  citizens  of  Astoria  for  the  Asso- 
ciation to  meet  there ;  but  after  fully  considering  the  matter 
in  all  its  phases  it  was  decided  to.  be  impracticable  because 
there  was  no  building  in  the  city  large  enough  to  accommo- 
date the  gathering. 

On  motion  of  Director  Myers,  seconded  by  Director  Gal- 
loway, Portland  was  chosen  as  the  place  for  holding  the 

On  motion  of  Secretary  Himes,  seconded  by  Director 
Myers,  Hon.  William  M.  Colvig,  1851,  Jackson  County,  was 
chosen  to  deliver  the  annual  address,  with  Judge  Thomas 
A.  McBride,  a  native  son  of  1847,  Oregon  City,  as  alternate. 

On  motion  of  Vice-President  Moreland,  seconded  by 
Secretary  Himes,  W.  T.  Wright,  1852,  Union  County,  was 
selected  to  give  the  Occasional  Address. 

Rev.  Robert  Robe,  1851,  Brownsville,  was  elected  Chap- 
lain, and  upon  motion  of  Mr.  Galloway,  in  the  event  of  his 
inability  to  act,  the  Secretary  was  authorized  to  fill  the 

Upon  motion  of  Mr.  Himes,  John  W.  Minto,  1848,  was 
chosen  Grand  Marshal,  with  power  to  select  his  own  aides. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Galloway,  the  appointment  of  com 
mittees  was  taken  up  and  resulted  as  follows : 

Arrangements — Messrs.  Charles  E.  Ladd,  Geo.  H. 
Himes  and  William  Galloway. 

Finance — Geo.  T.  Myers,  W.  D.  Fenton,  L.  A.  Lewis, 
Tyler  Woodward,  M.  C.  George  and  Sol.  Blumauer. 

Transportation — Geo.  H.  Himes. 

Reception — William  Galloway,  Lee  Laughlin  and  Geo. 
L.  Story. 

Invitation — The  President  and  Secretary. 


Music  and  Building — Referred  to  Committee  of  Ar- 

Upon  motion  of  Mr.  Galloway,  all  matters  appertaining 
to  further  preliminaries  connected  with  the  Reunion  were 
placed  in  the  hands  of  the  Committee  of  Arrangements  with 
full  power  to  act. 

Woman's  Auxiliary — Mrs.  C.  M.  Cartwright  was  chosen 
Chairman,  with  power  to  select  her  own  assistants. 

Upon  motion  of  Mr.  Galloway,  the  Secretary  was  author- 
ized to  provide  necessary  letter-heads  and  envelopes  for 
the  Association,  and  to  print  looo  copies  of  the  Annual 
Transactions  at  the  rate  hitherto  charged. 

No  further  business  appearing,  the  board  adjourned. 
GEO.  H.  HIMES,  Secretary. 


Portland,  Oregon,  Wednesday,  June  i8,  1902. 
A  large  number  of  Oregon  Pioneers  participated  in  the 
procession  that  marched  to  the  Exposition  building  on  the 
occasion  of  the  Thirtieth  Reunion  of  the  organization.  In 
the  ranks  were  men  from  every  County  and  section  of  the 
State ;  men  from  every  walk  and  station  in  life ;  men  whose 
years  have  passed  the  three  score  and  ten,  and  those  yet  in 
the  full  vigor  of  manhood.  There  were  those  who  aided 
in  the  organization  of  the  first  government  west  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  and  those  who  today  fill  positions  of  the 
highest  honor  and  trust.  There  were  those  who  for  half 
a  century  have  lived  quietly  on  their  donation  claims  and 
those  whose  names  have  a  national  reputation. 


The  parade  was  formed  at  the  Portland  Hotel  at  1 130 
o'clock  P.  M.,  under  the  direction  of  Grand  Marshal  John 
W.  Minto  and  his  aides,  C.  T.  Belcher,  N.  H.  Bird,  F.  H. 
Saylor  and  W.  H.  Warren.  Led  by  DeCaprio's  band  and 
an  escort  of  F.  X.  Matthieu  Cabin  of  Native  Sons,  Butte- 
ville,  the  Pioneers  fell  in  line  under  banners  designating  the 
years  of  their  arrival  in  Oregon,  and  marched  to  the  Expo- 
sition building.  At  the  Exposition  building  seats  were  re- 
served for  members  of  the  Pioneer  Association,  and  the 
comfort  of  all  was  provided  for.  The  hall  was  beautifully 
decorated  with  evergreen,  roses,  potted  plants  and  the  Na- 
tional colors.  Flags  of  other  nations  were  displayed,  indi- 
cating that  Oregon  was  settled  partly  by  men  from  Euro- 
pean countries. 

After  the  band  had  played  a  few  patriotic  airs  the  meet- 
ing was  called  to  order  by  Vice-President  J.  C.  Moreland, 
1852,  of  Portland,  who  presided  in  the  absence  of  the  Presi- 
dent, Judge  J.  H.  D.  Gray,  1839,  o^  Astoria,  who  was  ill. 

In  his  introductory  remarks  Vice-President  Mbreland 

Fellow  Pioneers:  I  extend  to  you  my  hearty  congratulations 
that  so  many  are  permitted  in  health  and  strength  to  meet  and 
mingle  in  this  joyous  reunion;  to  recount  your  trials  and  suffer- 
ings, and  rejoice  over  your  triumphs.  For  surely  you  have 
triumphed.  Where  you  found  barbarism,  you  now  have  civiliza- 
tion. Where  you  found  waste  and  desert  places,  you  now  have 
smiling  fields  and  bounteous  harvests  and  pleasant  homes. 
Where  you  found  ignorance  and  savagery,  you  now  have  educa- 
tion and  enlightenment.  Where  you  knew  and  felt  want,  you 
now  have  prosperity  and  plenty.  Where  you  found  war  and 
danger,  you  now  have  peace  and  safety. 

But  while  we  thus  gather  on  this  joyous  occasion,  let  us 
pause  a  moment  in  memory  of  those  of  our  friends  and  loved 
ones  who  endured  with  you  the  trials  and  sufferings  of  the  pio- 


neer,  but  being  wearied  with  life's  burdens,  laid  them  down  and 
passed  over  to  join  the  ranks  of  the  immortals. 

Again  I  congratulate  you  and  welcome  you  nere  today. 

The  programme  of  the  hour  was  then  carried  out  as 
follows : 

Prayer  by  the  Chaplain Rev.  J.  W.  Miller,  1850,  Portland 

Annual  Address Hon.  Thomas  A.  McBride,  1847,  Oregon  City 

Music  Band 

Poem  Mrs.  Jane  MteMillen  Ordway 

(Read  by  Vice-President  Moreland.) 

Occasional  Address W.  T.  Wright,  1852,  Union 

Music  Band 

At  the  close  of  the  literary  exercises  the  Pioneers  were 
conducted  by  twos  in  compact  marching  order  to  the  ban- 
quet hall  adjoining,  where  they  joined  in  a  Reunion  feast 
prepared  by  the  Portland  Woman's  Auxiliary.  The  next 
hour  was  made  joyous  by  the  recounting  of  happy  occasions 
in  the  days  when  Oregon  was  young.  At  this  distance  of 
time  the  hardy  men  and  women  who  ventured  into  this  far- 
off  land  when  it  was  peopled  with  savages,  laughed  at  the 
dangers  and  privations,  which  seemed  more  serious  at  the 
time  they  were  endured.  Stories  of  early  day  adventure  and 
incidents  showing  traits  of  character  of  well-known  Pio- 
neers were  related  and  listened  to  with  the  keenest  enjoy- 

The  banquet  reminded  the  old-timers  of  the  Reunions 
of  years  ago,  from  the  fact  that  a  number  had  to  wait  until 
the  "second  table."  About  seven  hundred  were  seated  at 
once,  and  probably  two  hundred  more  sat  down  when  the 
"first  table"  had  been  cleared.  There  were  sandwiches, 
coffee,  meats,  salads,  cake  and  ice  cream  for  all,  and  none 
went  away  hungry.     No  effort  was  spared  to  make  every- 


thing  pleasant  for  the  old  men  and  women  whose  courage 
and  perseverance  started  the  work  which  has  brought  Ore- 
gon to  its  present  state  of  development. 

The  banquet  was  entirely  informal.  No  speeches  were 
made,  but  all  lingered  around  the  banquet  hall  to  talk  with 
old  acquaintances  and  inquire  after  friends  in  various  parts 
of  the  State. 

The  day  was  an  ideal  one  for  a  Pioneer  Reunion — cool, 
calm  and  bright — Nature  herself  seeming  desirous  of  mak- 
ing the  occasion  an  enjoyable  one  for  the  men  and  women 
who  have  already  seen  enough  of  the  storms  of  life. 

The  committee  in  charge  of  the  banquet  were  as  follows . 

Table  No.  i— Mrs.  J.  H.  McMillen,  Mrs.  T.  T.  Struble, 
Miss  Helena  Humason,  Miss  Minnie  Struble. 

Table  No.  2— Mrs.  George  L.  Story,  Mrs.  F.  R.  Strong, 
Mrs.  S.  B.  Linthicum,  Miss  Helen  Eastham. 

Table  No.  3 — Miss  Failing,  Mrs.  Elizabeth  Hamilton, 
Miss  Lucy  Failing,  Mrs.  W.  L.  Brewster. 

Table  No.  4 — Mrs.  John  McCraken,  Mrs.  George  W. 
Weidler,  Mjiss  Mayannah  Woodward,  Miss  Weidler. 

Table  No.  5 — Mrs.  Harriet  K.  McArthur,  Mrs.  George 
Taylor,  Miss  Agnes  Catlin,  Miss  Miriam  Strong. 

Table  No.  6— Mrs.  I.  W.  Pratt,  Mrs.  M.  C.  George,  Miss 
Gertrude  Pratt,  Miss  Florence  George. 

Table  No.  7 — Miss  Susie  Cosgrove,  Mrs.  J.  W.  Cook, 
Miss  Clarissa  Wiley,  Miss  Farrell. 

Table  No.  8— Miss  Fannie  E.  Taylor,  Mrs.  Edward  E. 
McClure,  Miss  Edna  Belcher,  Miss  Jean  McClure. 

Table  No.  9 — Mrs.  J.  C.  Moreland,  Mrs.  W.  D.  Fenton, 
M^ss  Agnes  Hill,  Miss  Beatrice  Hill. 

Table  No.  10— Mrs.  W.  R.  Sewall,  Mrs.  Charles  T. 
Kamm,  Miss  Bessie  Sewall,  Miss  Caroline  Kamm. 


Table  No.  ii — Mrs.  J.  M.  Freeman,  Mrs.  A.  B.  Croas- 
man,  Miss  Daisy  Freeman,  Mrs.  W.  W.  Harder. 

Table  No.  12— Mrs.  William  S.  Sibson,  Mrs.  D.  A. 
Robertson,  Miss  Alice  Sibson,  Miss  Grace  Warren. 

Table  No.  13— Mrs.  Grace  Watt  Ross,  Mrs.  H.  H. 
Northup,  Miss  Clara  Teal,  Miss  Grace  H.  Himes. 

Table  No.  14 — Mrs.  Thomas  Moflfett,  Miss  Celia  Friend- 
ly, Miss  Myrtle  Moffett,  Miss  Leona  Noltner. 

Table  No.  15— Mrs.  John  Gill,  Mrs.  J.  K.  Gill,  Mrs.  T. 
T.  Strain,  Miss  Frances  Gill. 

Table  No.  16— Mrs.  A.  St.  Clair  Gay,  Mrs.  H.  Ogilbie, 
Miss  Maud  Gilliland,  Miss  Belle  Ogilbie. 

Reserve  Tables — Mrs.  J.  A.  Strowbridge,  Mrs.  Robert 
Porter,  Mrs.  W.  P.  Gillette,  Mrs.  William  Grooms,  Mrs. 
D.  S.  Stimson,  Mrs.  Mary  E.  Holman. 

Decorating  Committee — Miss  Lorena  Rodgers,  Miss 
Clara  Teal,  Miss  Hkzel  Weidler,  Miss  Kate  Gibbs,  Miss 
Marguerite  Wiley. 

Meat  Committee — Mrs.  John  W.  Minto,  Mrs.  Herbert 
Holman,  Mrs.  D.  M.  McLauchlan,  Mrs.  D.  J.  Malarkey, 
Mrs.  Archie  L.  Pease,  Mrs.  L.  M.  Parrish,  Mrs.  C.  W. 

Refreshments — Mrs.  Marie  J.  Marsh,  Mrs.  Seneca 
Smith,  Mrs.  A.  A.  McCully,  Mrs.  I.  G.  Davidson,  Mrs.  M. 
A.  Stratton,  Mrs.  Watt  Morton. 

Committee  to  wait  on  old  ladies — Miss  I^jabella  Noltner. 
Miss  Marguerite  Leasure. 

Chairman  Woman's  Auxiliary,  Mrs.  C.  M.  Cartwright; 
Secretary,  Mrs.  Thomas  MofFett ;  Assistant  Secretary,  Miss 
Mary  A.  Burke. 

As  may  be  remembered,  this  was  the  thirtieth  anniver- 
sary of  the  organization  of  the  Association.    The  Reunion 


that  year — 1873 — ^was  held  in  Butteville,  on  November  11, 
in  commemoration  of  the  sixteenth  anniversary  of  the 
adoption  of  the  State  Constitution.  The  permanent  organ- 
ization of  the  Association  was  on  October  18,  1873,  several 
preliminary  meetings  having  been  held.  The  officers  then 
chosen  were  as  follows: 

P.  X.  Matthieu,  1842,  President. 

J.  W.  Grimm,  1847,  Vice-President. 

Willard  H.  Rees,  1844,  Secretary. 

Eli  C.  Cooley,  1845,  Treasurer. 

The  stalwart  figure  of  Mr.  Matthieu  is  still  with  us,  and 
it  is  believed  that  he  has  never  missed  a  meeting  in  all 
these  three  decades.  Mr.  Rees,  although  not  in  robust 
health,  is  yet  in  evidence,  and  was  present.  The  others 
passed  away  a  number  of  years  ago.  Mr.  Matthieu  is  in 
his  84th  year,  as  is  also  Mr.  Rees.  Forty-five  pioneers 
joined  the  Association  at  its  organization,  but  there  is  no 
evidence  to  show  who  they  were.  It  is  probable  that  the 
two  persons  last  mentioned  are  the  only  ones  now  living 
who  were  present  at  the  first  meeting. 

The  following  is  a  list  of  those  who  have  passed  away 
since  the  Reunion  on  June  14,  1901,  so  far  as  can  be  ascer- 
tained : 

Mrs.  Eliza  King  Carson  Rev.  Harvey  K.  Hlnes 

Mirs.  Mary  L.  Hoyt  John  Conner 

Mrs.  George  T.  Myers  S.  A.  Holcomb 

Mrs.  Lydia  Barnes  D.  P.  Thompson 

Ashby  Pearce  B.  L.  Henness 

John  T.  Hughes  Raleigh  Stott 

Robert   Patton  Carlos  W.  Shane 

Mrs.  R.  S.  Ford  Robert  Mays 

Mrs.  Stella.  B.  Kellogg  J.  C.  Bumside 

A.  Teargain  Edward  Chambreau 


Dr.  A.  I.  Nlcklin  Dr.  W.  J.  McDanlel 

George  P.  Gray  H.  W.  Belllon 

James  D.  Banzer  Clinton  Bonser  ^ 

W.  R.  Kirk  J.  L.  Ferguson 

W.  A.  L.  McCorkle  Mrs.  W.  P.  Burke 


At  7:30  P.  Ml  the  Association  was  called  to  order  by 
Vice-President  Moreland. 

The  first  business  in  order  was  the  election  of  officers  for 
the  ensuing  year,  which  resulted  as  follows : 

President — ^J.  C.  Moreland,  1852,  Multnomah  County. 

Vice-President — William  Galloway,  1852,  Clackamas 

Secretary — George  H.  Himes,  1853,  Multnomah  County. 

Corresponding  Secretary — Silas  B.  Smith,  1839,  Clatsop 

Treasurer — Charles  E.  Ladd,  Multnomah  County. 

Directors— J.  W.  Welch,  1844,  Clatsop  County;  W.  T. 
Wright,  1852,  Union  County;  Benton  Killen,  1845,  Mult- 
nomah County. 

The  Committee  on  Resolutions,  appointed  at  the  after- 
noon session,  reported  as  follows : 
To  the  Oregon  Pioneer  Association: 

Your  Committee  on  Resolutions  would  report  the  following: 

First — ^We   extend    to   the   Pioneer    Woman's    Auxiliary   of 

Portland  our  most  hearty  thanks  for  the  splendid  banquet  which 

they  have  so  elegantly  provided  and  served  to  the  pioneers  of 

Oregon.     If  in  the  early  time  we  were  constrained  to  live  on 


plain  fare  with  homely  surroundings  we  are  now  able  to  appre- 
ciate and  enjoy  the  more  elaborate  service  which  the  progress 
of  our  State  now  so  abundantly  affords. 

Second — We  greatly  appreciate  the  hospitality  and  kindness 
of  the  citizens  of  Portland  in  so  generously  providing  for  our 
comfort  and  entertainment  at  this  meeting  of  our  Association. 

Third — ^We  appreciate  the  generous  courtesy  of  the  trans- 
portation companies  for  afitording  us  red. iced  fares  in  coming  to 
and  returning  from  this  meeting. 

Fourth — We  commend  the  diligence  and  efficiency  of  the 
officers  of  this  Association  for  so  ably  conducting  the  business 
aftairs  of  this  Association. 

Fifth — We  again  heartily  endorse  the  proposed  Lewis  and 
Clark  Centennial  Exposition,  and  will  do  what  we  can  to  make 
it  a  success.  This  century  has  been  for  Oregon  one  of  adventure, 
discovery  and  settlement  by  which  this  great  Northwest  has 
been  won  from  the  grasp  of  the  Spaniard,  the  Russian  and  the 
Briton  to  the  United  States  and  to  freedom,  and  we  who  founded 
the  State  and  made  it  independent  and  prosperous  hope  for  it 
a  still  more  glorious  career  in  the  coming  hundred  years. 
BYaternally  submitted, 

R.   P.   BOISE, 
W.  T.  WRIGHT, 


Miss  Mabel  Hoopengarner,  a  grand-daughter  of  Isaac 
Butler,  of  Hillsboro,  a  pioneer  of  1845,  gave  an  amusing 
recitation,  which  was  heartily  encored,  and  she  responded 
by  reciting,  "When  Angelina.  Johnson  Comes  Swingin' 
Down  the  Line." 

Norman  Darling,  a  pioneer  of  1853,  played  a  few  mo- 
ments on  a  pair  of  bones,  much  to  the  delight  of  the  audi- 
ence. He  also  furnished  considerable  amusement  by  telling 
how  they  spelled  "bumblebee  with  his  tail  cut  off,"  in  the 
old-time  district  school. 


A  male  double  quartet,  composed  of  gray-haired  men, 
favored  the  audience  with  several  selections.  The  men  who 
sang  were:  S.  Bullock,  W.  S.  Powell,  C.  W.  Tracy,  R. 
V.  Pratt,  G.  A.  Buchanan,  A,  M.  Gumming,  H.  A.  Keinath 
and  Dr.  H.  R.  Littlefield. 

The  remainder  of  the  evening  was  spent  in  social  con- 
versation and  rehearsing  the  reminiscences  until  a  late  hour, 
when  the  Association  adjourned. 

GEORGE  H,  HIMES,  Secretary. 


Those  who  registered  with  the  Secretary  were  as  fol- 

Cyrus  H.  Walker 

Mrs.  M.  A.  Bird,  Hi|lsboro  Napoleon     McGillivray,     Port- 



Mrs.   Helen  C.   McClane,   Gas-      Wm.  Abemethy,  Dora.  Or. 

ton.  Or.  Mrs.  J.  R.  Nelll,  Sumpter 

Mrs.  Wiley  Edwards,  Newberg 


Mrs.  C.  J.  Hood,  Portland  Thos.   Mountain,   Portland 

Mrs.  6.  H.  Elliott,  Portland 

P.  H.  Matthieu,  Butteville  S.  C.  Pomeroy.  Cedar  Mills 


Mrs.  Ellza^  Sheppard,  Portland  Mrs.  W.  C.  Hembree,  McMinn- 
Mrs.  D.  Jenkins,  Yaquina  ville 

Mrs.    Rebecca    Griffith,     Port-  A.  Hill,  Gaston 

land  Mrs.  ETllen  Gaines,  Portland 



W.  C.  Hembree.  McMinnville 
James  T.  Hembree,  Lafayette 
Mrs.  M.  A.  Gillmore,  The  Dalles 
Mrs.  L.  A.  Dixon,  Portland 
W.  L.  Hlggins,  Portland 
Mrs.  A.  Hill,  Gaston 

Mrs.  James  T.  Hembree«  La- 

Mirs.  Daniel  O'Neill,  Oregon 

Mrs.  Charity  M.  Phillips, 


James  W.  Welch^  Astoria 
Mrs.  P.  6.  Baker,  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  E.  Reynolds,  Portland 
W.  D.  Stillwell,  Tillamook 
Mrs.    H.    F.     Bedwell,    North 

John  Minto^  Salem 
Mrs.  E.  A.  Belllon,  Portland 
B.  C.  Kindred,  Hammond 
Hez.   Caples,  Caples,  Wash. 
M.  Gillihan,  Sauvie's  Island 

Willard  H.  Rees,  Portland 
Fred  L.  Lewis,  Portland 
Jno.  Bates  Parker,  Portland 
Mrs.  J.  Johnson,  Carlton 
Mrs.  Martha  A.  Minto,  Salem 
B.  Grounds,  Mt.  Scott 
Mrs.  E.  M.  Helm,  Portland 
Dr.  Mary  A.  Quinn,  Portland 
G.  U  Rowland,  N.  Yamhill 
J.  C.  Nelson,  Newberg 
Wm.  M.  Case,  Champoeg 


Mrs.  Perrln  B.  Whitman,  Lew- 

iston,  Idaho 
Mrs.  D.  W.  Ellis,  Portland 
Mrs.  J.  I.  Handley,  Tillamook 
Mrs.  C.  Cornelius,  Portland 
Reuben  S.  Gant,  Philomath 
J.  H.  McMillen,  Portland 
John  Dorris,  Halsey 
Mrs.    S.    M.    McCown,    Oregon 

J.  Wilkes,  Hillsboro 
H.  C.   Lamberson,   Scappoose 
Mrs.  A.  N.  Gilbert,  Salem 
Mrs.  Fannie  Wilcox  Archbold, 


Mrs.  E.  H.  Denny,  Portland 
Mrs.  Mary  Miller,  Salem 
Mrs.  C.  E.  Watts,  Lafayette 
Mrs.  O.  Meldrum  Moore,  Fort- 
Mrs.  C.  J.  Maple,  Portland 
W.  C.  Johnson,  Oregon  City 
Mrs.  W.  H.  Rees,  Portland 
Mrs.   G.   R.   H.   Miller,  Oregon 

Mrs.    S.   D.   M<eldrum,    Oregon 

I.  N.  Foster,  Portland 
Wm.  Barlow,  Barlow 
B.  S.  Bonney,  Woodburn 
Mrs.  Francis  Killin,  Portland 



Mrs.    C.    M.    Cartwright,    Port- 
C.   O.   Hosford,   Portland 
Benton  Killin,  Portland 
Henry  Woolsey,  Portland 
Wm.  W.  Walter,  Walla  Walla 
Mrs.  L.  J.  Bennett,  Portland 
Mrs.    A.    E.    Latourette,   Port- 
Mrs.  Emma  C.  Thing,  Portland 
Mrs.  N.  Smith,  Liafayette 
Mrs.  J.  L.  Williams,  Portland 
Francis  C.  Perry,   Mollala 
Mrs.  Mary  A.  Davis,  Portland 
Mrs.  Delphin  Whalen,  Portland 
Mrs.    Abijah    Hendricks,    Carl- 
Mrs.  M.  J.  Comstock,  Portland 

Mrs.  A.  F.  Catching,  Portland 
Mrs.   Ralph  Wilcox,   Portland 
Mrs.    Rachel    Cornelius,    Port- 
Mrs.      Sarah     J.      Henderson, 

C.  C.  Bozorth,  Portland 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  Perry,  Houlton 
J.  L.  Williams,  Portland 
Sol.  Durbin.  Salem 
J.  Cogswell,  Eugene 
Mrs.    Zerniah     Lodge,     Forest 

A.  D.  Yargain,  Butteville 
Mrs.  Mary  A.  Hurley,  Portland 
Mrs.  Lizzie  F.  Fonts,  Carlton 
A.  G.  Lloyd,  Waitsburg 


Mrs.  S.  Ford,  Sherwood 
Mrs.  M.  L.  Myrick,  Portland 
Mrs.  N.  E.  Morse  Dolman,  St. 

Mrs.   Jno.   Hughes.   Salem 
William  Phillips,  Clackamas 
James  Blakely,  Brownsville 
A.  B.  Brown,  Forest  Grove 
H.  H.  Kirk,  Halsey 
Mrs.  J.  M.  Blakesly,  Portland 
Mrs.  Olivia  Marks,  Portland 
Mrs.     Prudence     V.     Holston, 

Mrs.   Sarah  P.  Laughlin,  Carl- 
Mrs.       Marianne         Hunsaker 

D'Arcy,  Portland 
Mrs.  Ellen  E.  Hackett,  Oregon 

Mrs.     Eva    Bardenstein.     Sell- 
Wm.  H.  Smith,  Sublimity 
Wm.  Miller,  Salem 
Mrs.  C.  M.  McEwan,  Portland 
Miss  L.  D.  H.  Sellwood,  Port- 
Mrs.  Jno.  Catlin,  Portland 
Dock  Hartley,  Rockwood 
Miss  Frances  A.  Holman,  Port- 
F.  Hill,  Gaston 

Mrs.  S.  A.  Farrean,  Marshfield 
Mrs.  R.  L.  Jenkins,  Portland 
Mrs.    Edgar    Poppleton,    Port- 
Mrs.  Mary  Croisan,  Salem 
Mrs.  A.  F.  Cox,  Salem 
Mrs.  Levina  Gregg,  Dusty 



W.     R.     Dunbar,     Vancouver,  Jacob  Hunsaker,  Everett 

Wash.  Mrs.  Emily  Snelling,  Albany 

Mrs.  Martha    E.    Holman,  Mc-  Mrs.   Mary  Wing,   Portland 

Minnville  Mrs.  Mary  A.  Gllkey,  Dayton 

MVs.    L.    E.    Nejson,    McMlnn- 


Mrs.  L.  M.  Foster,  Portland 
Mrs.   Sarah  Munson,   Astoria 
Mrs.   S.  Pendleton,   Butteville 
Mrs.       Elizabeth        Hovenden. 

J.  Q.  A.  Young.  Cedar  Mills 
Mrs.  Janthe  Kruse,  Stafford 
Mrs.   Emma    R.    Slavin,  Hills- 
Mrs.  E5meret  Thorp,  Portland 
Mrs.  G.  W.  Olds,  McMinnvllle 
J.  C.  Riggs,  The  Dalles 
O.  H.  Cone,  Butteville 
L.  B.  Geer,   Salem 
R.  F.  Caufield,  Oregon  City 
Joseph   Robnett,   Portland 
R.  V.   Short,  Portland 
J.  W.  Downer,  N.  Yakima 
Mrs.  D.  S.  Stimson,  Portland 
Mrs.  Eliza  Williams,  HillsWo 
Mrs.    Phebe  Walling   McGrew, 

Mrs.  W.  R.  Wilson,  Yoncalla 
Lee  Laughlin,  North  Yamhill 
Mrs.   E.   White,   Portland 
J.  W.  Gibson,  Portland 
Miss  Susie  Cosgrove,  Portland 
Jos.  S.  Guilds,  Portland 
Geo.  Merrill,  Deer  Island 
Mrs.    N.    J.    McPherson,   Port- 

Mrs.  R.  J.  Barger,  Portland 
Mrs.  A.  J.  Megler,  Astoria 
Mrs.  Alice  Hubbard,  Lafayette 
T.  J.  Gregory,  Portland 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  Kent,  Portland 
Mrs.  Eliza  Roland,  Portland 
Mrs.  Mary  W.  Howell,  Oregon 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  Byrom,  Tualatin 
W.  M.  Blakely,  Pendleton 
Lyman   Merrill,   Portland 
L.  S.  Thomas,  Hubbard 
J.  H.  Bonser,  Sauvie's  Island 
R.  Mendenhall,  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  J.  Perry,  Portland 
Mrs.  Eliza  J.  Wooley,  Portland 
Thos.  Stephens,  Portland 
Mrs.  E.  B.  Shane,  Portland 
Mrs.  A.  J.  Fletcher,  Spokane 
Mrs.    Malinda    Tupper,     Hills- 

Mrs.     Permelia     A.     Robbins. 

Oregon  City 
Mrs.  H.  L.  Veazie,  Portland 
Mrs.     Martha     Johnson,    Port- 
Henry  Nachand,  Park  Place 
A.  B.  Finley,  Cedar  Mills 
Mrs.  Nancy  Capps,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  H.  Todd,  Portland 



Mrs.  M.  A.  Jones,  Portland 
Mrs.  A.  L.  Stinson,  Salem 
Mrs.  B.  D.  Fellow,  Medford 
Mrs.   Isaphene   Collard   Green- 
man,  Oregon  City 
Maxwell  Ramsby,  Portland 
G.  W.  Riggs,  Hood  River 
J.  B.  Dimmick,  Hubbard 
Mrs.     Anna     Farley     Webber, 

O.  H.  Lance,  Woodstock 
Mrs.  Catherine    L.    Hutton.  II- 

Mrs.  M  .E.  Walker,  Jewell 
Mrs.    J.    H.    Baughman,    Law- 
Mrs.  Irena  EJverest,  Newberg 
Mrs.  Janes  Kelty,  McCoy 
Mrs.    Elmira    Robberson,     As- 
A.  J.  Apperson,  Sitka,  Alaska 
Mrs.    N.    A.    Kesselring,  Max- 
burg,  Or. 
M.  J.  Kinney,  Astoria 
Newton  Hembree.  Portland 


Mrs.  R.  Fisher,  Fisher's  Land- 
ing, Wash. 
F.  A.  Bauer,  McKee 
Mrs.  N.  L.  Croxton,  Portland 
Mrs.   Clara  Morton,   Portland 
Mrs.  Cordellia  Bartlett,  La  Cen- 
ter, Wash. 
Mrs.  M.  C.  Wehrung,  Hillsboro 
Mrs.  B.  A.  Slocum,  Vancouver 
Jno.  Catlin,  Portland 
Plympton  Kelly,  Palestine 
Mrs.    Amanda    Bowman    Kel 

logg,  Portland 
Mrs.  Troy  Shelley,  Hood  River 
Mrs.    Benton    Kill^n,    Portland 
Mrs.  Susan  Laughlin,  Portland 
Mrs.  L.  A.  Reynard,  Portland 
Mrs.      Levi      Ankeny,      Walla 

Orin  Kellogg,  Portland 
W.  L.  Holcomb,  Oregon  City 
Mrs.     Catherine     S.     Baskett, 

Mrs.  J.  F.  Johnson,  N.  Yamhill 

Mrs.  Mary  A.  Gray,  Halsey 
Mrs.  H.  C.  Powell,  Portland 
Mrs.    E.    A.    Bousquet,  Wood- 
Mrs.  H.  B.  Morgan,  Portland 
Mrs.  Roxana    White,  McMinn- 

Ahio  S.  Watt,  Portland 
Mrs.  Mary  J.  Hanna,  Portland 
S.  E.  Starr,  The  Dalles 
Jason  Kellogg,  Portland 
Mfs.^M.  A.  Chance,  Portland 
Mrs.  Aurora    Watts    Bowman, 

John  W.   Minto,   Portland 
Warren  Merchant,  Portland 
A.  Catlin,  Portland 
Joseph  Kellogg,  Portland 
Edwin  Merrill,  Portland 
Mrs.   L.   Shute,   Hillsboro 
Mrs.   S.  M.  Kern,  Portland 
Mrs.    Elizabeth    Miller,    Pales- 




Mrs.  N.  P.  Crissen,  WllsonvlUe 

Mrs.  O.  R.  Welch,  Astoria 

E.  A.  Dean,  Portland 

H.  E.  Hays,  Portland 

Mrs.    R.    F.    Caufleld,  Oregon 

Jno.  H.  Timmen,  Ilwaco,  Wash. 
Jacob  Kamm,  Portland 
H.   S.  Gile,  Portland 
P.   F.   Castleman,   Portland 
M.  McCormick,  Woodbum 
Mrs.  M.  B.  Quivey.  Portland 
Wm.  M.  Powers,  Albany 
Mrs.   Mary  L.   EMwards,   Port- 
Mrs.  Alice  T.  Bird,  Portland 
John  W.  Moore,  The  Dalles 
Mrs.  E.  M.  Wait,  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  M.  Roberts,  Portland 
R.  Weeks,  Portland 

Mrs.  Margaret  E.  Freeman, 

Mrs.  H.  F.  Fisher,  Svensen 

Mrs.  Hector  Campbell,  Port- 

Mrs.  Nancy  Caples,  St.  Johns 

J.  S.  Backenstos 

Jno.  Thompson,  Russellville 

B.  H.  Robberson,   Astoria 

C.  A.  Reed,  Portland 

Mrs.  Letitia  H.  Connell.  Hills- 

J.  H.  Baker,  Portland 
Robt.  Pattison,  Eugene 
Colbum  Barren,  Portland 
C.  Pattison,  Oakville 
Mrs.     Martha     A.       Sergeant, 

Joseph   Webber,   Portland 


Mrs.  L.  C.  Weatherford,  Port- 
Mrs.  Ruth  Brown,  Woodbum 
Rev.  J.  W.  Miller,  Portland 
G.  F.  McClane,  Portland 
Mrs.  E.  M.  Brainerd.  Mt.  tabor 
Mrs.  C.  W.  Green,  Tualatin 
Mrs.  E.  A.  Hunt,   Portland 
L.  N.  Norcross,  Portland 
J.  A.   Slavin,  Hillsdale 
Mrs.  Wm.  Grooms,  Portland 
B.  X.  Griffith,  Laurel,  Wash. 
J.  J.  Hoskins,  Oregon  City 
D.  S.  Dunmore,  Fairview 
J.  M.  Belcher,  Lafayette 

James   Slater^   Portland 
W.  H.  Musgrove,  Portland 
Mrs.  D.  EHlerson,  Portland 
Mrs.    Martha    Plummer,   Port- 
Mrs.  John  Walling.  Lincoln 
Mrs.    M.    C.    Graham-Howard, 

Mrs.    S.   E.    Lamberson,    Scap- 

Samuel   Walker,   Grays   River, 

John  Welch,  Portland 
[.  H.  Cone,  Silverton 
R.  P.  Boise,  Salem 



Henry  Holtgrleve,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  W.  Sheppard,  Barlow 
Mrs.  Mary  E.  Peterson,  Port- 
H.  C.  Thomson,  Woodlawn 
Mrs.    Richard    Williams,  Port- 
Capt.  Geo.  A.  Pease,  Portland 
J.  H.  Lambert,  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  J.  Lucas,  Portland 
Solomon  Beary,  Portland 
I.  G.  Davidson,  Portland 
S.  Gatton,  Woodland,  Wash. 
H.  R.  Long,  Portland 
C.  S.  Silvers,  Portland 
Mrs.  R.  F.  Henness,  Mt.  Tabor 
Theo.  Wygant,  Portland 
S.  A.  Miles,  St.  Helens 
John  Lake^  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  J.  Hoopengarner,  Port- 
Mrs.     J.     A.     Buck,     Kalama, 

Mrs.  Jane  Ferguson,  Woodlawn 
Rev.    John    Flinn,    Vancouver, 

R  .R.  Thomas,  Molalla 
Mrs.  A.  M.  Worth,  Portland 
Mrs.  Jane  G.  Thomas,  Portland 

Mrs.   Sultana  Ramsey,    Lafay- 
Jas.  S.  McCord,  Oregon  City 
Joseph  Howell,  Arthur 
Wm.  Hanna,  Fairdale 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  Ek^kerson,  Port- 
Mrs.  Harriet  M.  Marden,   The 

Mrs.  H.  C.  Exon,  Portland 
M.  J.  Gleason,  Portland 
Mrs.  R.  J.  Ladd,  Portland 
Mrs.   Julia   Arthur   Gault,    Mc- 

Wm.  Kane,  Forest  Grove 
R.  R.  Thomas,  Molalla 
Mrs.  C.  Oulmette,  Butteville 
Mrs.  Sarah  E.  Story,  Portland 
Mrs.  Geo.  L.  Story,  Portland 
T.  J.  Hayter,  Dallas 
W.  W.  Baker,  Portland 
Mrs.   S.  J.  Epler,  Wilsonville 
Mrs.   Julia    Reed    Ham,   Port- 
Mrs.  J.  G.  Pillsbury,  Portland 
Mrs.   S.    C.    Gillihan,   Sauvie's 

Mrs.      Charles      O.      Boynton. 


Mrs.  M.  E.  Shane,  Portland 
Wm.   M.   Colvig,   Jacksonville 
Mrs.  Averilla  Thompson,  Port- 
Mrs.  J.  E.  Burbank,  Portland 
D.  B.  Gray,  Portland 
A.  B.  Gleason,  Hubbard 
T.  T.  Geer,  Salem 

J.  P.  O.  Lownsdale,  Portland 
Job   Fisher,   Fisher's   Landing 
J.  H.  Johnson,  Portland 
Mrs.  C.  J.  Smith,  Portland 
Mrs.  A.  H.  Breyman,  Portland 
Mrs.  E.  L.  Comer,  Sellwood 
F.  R.   Strong,  Portland 
Edward   Byrom,   Tualatin 



W.  W.  Parrish,  Portland 
J.  H.  Olds,  Lafayette 
M.  C.  George,  Portland 
H.  W.  Corbett,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  E.  Frazei:,  Portland 
Mrs.  A.  J.  Killin,  Greenville 
Mrs.   Warren   Merchant,   Port- 
C.  H.  Mattoon,  Portland 
Mrs.     Harriet     K.     McArthur, 

E.  C.  Hackett.  Oregon  City 
J.  R.  K.  Irvin.  Portland 
Mrs.  Sophia  Chance,  Portland 
Mrs.  H.  H.  Smith,  Portland 
Mrs.     Margaret     Jane .  Smith. 

Mrs.      Martha     A.     Merchant, 

Geo.   Williams,  Portland 
Mrs.    Mary    E.    Parrish,    Soda- 

G.  W.  Olds,  McMinnville 
Mrs.  W.  S.  Failing.  Mt.  Tabor 
Mrs.     Rosalinda    Q.    Mathews, 

H.  D.  Mount,  Silverton 
Mrs.  John  F.  Miller,  Salem 
Mrs.    Louisa    Litchfield,    Port- 
Mrs.  J.  H.  McMillen,  Portland 
Frederick  Bunn,  N.  Yamhill 
Geo.  L.  Story,  Portland 
Mrs.  Helen  L.   Stratton,  Port- 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  M.  Wilson,  The 

Mrs.   M.   E.    Shaver,   Portland 
Mrs.    Mary    A.     Rauch,     Park 

Mrs.  Emma  K.  Crawford,  Day- 


Mrs.   Ruth    Scott,    Portland 
Mrs.  E.  J.  Hara,  Mt.  Zion 
J.  D.  Jordan,  Molalla 
John  Lewellen,  Oregon  City 
W.  M.  Kline,  Mt.  Angel 
S.  B.  Johnson,  Damascus 
Mrs.  E.  D.  Powell,  Portland 
E.  W.  Conyers,  Clatskanie 
Amer  Wood,  Woodburn 
T.  J.  Singleton,  Roseburg 
John  Burke,  Portland 
Mrs.  J.  B.  Kellogg,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  E.  May,  Portland 
Mrs.  A.  M.  Crane,  Portland 
Mrs.  L.  C.  Scholl,  Portland 

Mrs.  Catherine  Spray,  Mt.  To- 

James  A.  Kays,  Ely 
W.  B.  Partlow,  Oregon  City 
Mrs.  R.  M.  Hess,  Sherwood 
W.  C.  Wilson,  Portland 
Fred  V.  Holman,  Portland 
Mrs.  Nancy  P.  Blum,  Newberg 
Dr.  J.  R.  Cardwell,  Portland 
Geo.  Deardorff,  Damascus 
Wm.  Galloway,  Oregon  City 
B.  F.  Saylor,  Portland 
Mrs.  Malissa  Smith,  Progress^ 

Mrs.  H.  K.  McCully,  Portland 



Mrs.   H.   L.   Palmer,   Portland 
P.  W.  Gillette,  Portland 
Mrs.   Julia  Babbidge,   Astoria 

D.  W.  Crandall,  Portland 
Mrs.  L.  Holcomb,  Portland 
Mrs.    Rebecca  Rindlaub,   Port- 

J.  W.  Stenard,  Brownsville 
W.  H.  Harris,  Portland 
Thos.  Connell,  Portland 
H.  G.  Morgan,  Portland 
W.  E.  Brainerd,  Mt.  Tabor 
Mrs.     M.     Weatherford,     Port- 
J.  S.  Vaughn,  Butteville 
Mrs.  Jno.  Lake,  Portland 

E.  G.  Wright,  Amity 

Mrs.  J.  Greenwell,  Damascus 
Mrs.   Martha   Patton,   Portland 
Mrs.  B.  F.  Smith.  Sellwood 
Mrs.  Ham 

Mrs.  C.  J.  Greer,  Dundee 
Mrs.  M.  J.  Cone,  Butteville 
Mrs.  L.  A.  Bozorth,  Vancouver 
Mrs.  E.  M.  Watts,  Scappoose 
Mrs.    Tyler    Woodward,    Port- 
Miss    Rosetta    Barker,    Rock 

Mrs.  H.  L.  Kelly,  Oregon  City 
Mrs.   B.   A.    Chambreau,    Port- 
H.  Wehrung,  Hillsboro 
Mrs.  M.  Wiley,  Portland 
John  Hughes,  Salem 
David   Bby,   Harrisburg 
V.  H.  Caldwell,  Albany 
Jno.  Foley,  Portland 
S.  A.  John,  Fairview 

Mrs.  M.  C.  Lockwood,  La  Cen- 
Mrs.  S.  C.  Matlock,  Portland 
Mrs.   Rachel  McKay,  Raleigh 
W.  H.  Odell^  Salem 
L.    C.   Weatherford,    Portland 
Mrs.    J.    Q.    A.    Young,  Cedar 

Mrs.   S.   Gaither,   Portland 
A.  Black,  Portland 
Mrs.   Louise   Smith,    Portland 
Mrs.    W.    H.    Musgrove,  Port- 
D.  S.  Holton,  Grants  Pass 
Joseph  Buchtel,  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  F.  Kirker,  Portland 
Mrs.  F.  E.  Chaney,  Portland 
Mrs.  Lucy  Mercer,  Portland 
Mrs.  A.  S.  Duniway,  Portland 
Mrs.  B.  P.  Card  well,  Portland 
W.  T.  Thurman,  Amity 
Mrs.  Julia  Young,  Milwaukie 
Mrs.    M.    E.    Meyers-Stillwell, 

Mrs.  C.  T.  Donnell,  The  Dalles 
Geo.  W.  Greer,  Dundee 
Mrs.  Nancy  A.  Ball,  Tualatin 
Mrs.  O.  I.  John,  Fairview 
Mrs.   Nancy  A.   Tong,   Damas- 
Mrs.  A.  Shobert,  Portland 
Sidney  Wood,  Newberg 
Mrs.  Susan  Barker,  Rockwood 
Mrs.  J.  M.  Shelley,  Newberg 
A.  F.  Carroll,  Portland 
Wm.  Gatton,  St.  Johns 
Mrs.    L.    C.    Dickman,    Cedar 

H.  F.  Bedwell,  N.  Yamhill 



J.  M.  Tong,  Damascus 

Mrs.    Mary    Humphreys,    Hills- 

W.  H.  Livermore,  Portland 
Geo.  P.  Lent,  Portland 
Mrs.   Sarah  E.   Miller,  Oregon 

Miss  Frances  Brown,  Portland 
Lieut.  John  Mitchell,  Pomeroy 
Mrs.    Martha    Ellen     Sanders, 

Mrs.  L  B.  Hathaway,  Vancou- 
ver, Wash. 
H.  W.  Scott,  Portland 
T.  A.  Wood,  Portland 
Mrs.     Jennie     Lasater,     Walla 

Gustaf  Wilson,  Portland 
Mrs.  P.  A.  Winters,  Portland 
J.  A.   Strowbridge,   Portland 
Mrs.    Sarah   M.   Cornell,    Port- 
Peter  Taylor,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  M.  Adair,  Portland 
Mrs.    Rebecca    Mount,    Silver- 
Mrs.  Levina  N.  Rathburn,  Mt. 

Mrs.  Nancy  Hanson,  Portland 
R.  L.  Catching,  Portland 
Miss  F.  A.  Montgomery,  Port- 
Mrs.  Eiliza  Long,  Portland 
Mrs.     Elizabeth     Byars,     Port- 
D.  S.  Stimson,  Portland 
Mrs.  J.  W.  Cook,  Portland 
L.  M.  Parrish,  Portland 
Mrs.  B.  Dimmick,  Portland 

C.  W.  Noblitt.  Needy 
H.  A.  Mitchell,  Palestine 
J.  Q.  A.  Bowlby,  Astoria 
Mrs.   B.   M.   Whiteaker,   Olym- 

pia,  Wash. 
W.  H.  H.  Myers,  Forest  Grove 
W.  H.  Gates,  Spray 
C.  B.  Stewart,  Portland 
W.  A.  Wheeler,  Portland 
L.  Meeker,  Houlton 
A.  J.  Laws,  Pomeroy,  Wash. 
J.  M.  Petersen,  Portland 
Mrs.    M.    R.    Hathaway,   Van- 
couver, Wash. 
—   Hathaway,   Vancouver, 

Mrs.  C.  A.  Coburn,  Portland 

A.  C.  Hall,  Sherwood 
Mrs.  B.  Kennedy,  Portland 
Mrs.   Evaline  Dodge,   Portland 
Mrs.    Mattie    Gilbert    Palmer, 

Mrs.   Matilda   Tuttle,   Portland 
Mrs.  Julia  Phelps,  The  Dalles 
Mrs.    Mary    B.    Robnett,  Port- 
Mrs.  W.  H.  Adair,  Oregon  City 
Mrs.  T.  B.  Killin,  Hubbard 
Lewis  McMorris,  Walla  Walla 
Mrs.  Francis  Rowe,  Portland 
Mrs.  D.  E.  Newell,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  C.  Smith,  Portland 

B.  Vlckers,  Portland 

Mrs.  James   Strang,  Portland 
Mrs.  Susie  Gill  Whitwell,  Port- 
Mrs.  Parthenia  Starr,  Portland 
Mrs.  L.  M.  Parrish,  Portland 
S.  K.  Hudson,  Hudson 



Mrs.   S.   Durbin,  Salem 

Mrs.   Ethelinda    Ennes,    Hills- 

Mrs.  Wm.  Masters,  Portland 
Mrs.   M.   Worrick,  Portland 
Mrs.  Margaret  F.  Kelly,  Port- 
Mrs.  S.  A.  Robinson,  Portland 
Mrs.    Elizabeth    Watts,    Scap- 

Mrs.  Flora  Olney  Mason,  Port- 
Mrs.  S.  J.  Finley,  Cedar  Mills 
Peter  C.  Williams,   Troutdale 
B.  Broekway,  Roseburg 
Mrs.  S.  A.  Ripperton,  Portland 
Mrs.  Mary  Jane  Magers,  Salem 
John   Mock,   University   Park 
Dr.  David  Raffety,   Portland 
Mrs.    Alice   J.    Whipple,    Port- 
Silas  Osborn,   Portland 
W.  T.  Wright,  Union 
F.  M.  TlDoets,  Portland 
J.  A.  Ripperton,  Portland 
J.  E.  Magers,  Portland 
W.  P.  Burns,  Portland 
Mrs.  Anna  McCoy,  Portland 
J.  H.  Jones,  Portland 
H.  B.  Parker,  Astoria 
Mrs.     Sarah     Hovenden,    Hub- 
Mrs.  M.  Kline,  Portland 
Mrs.  Mary  J.  Creighton,  Salem 
Elizabeth  R.   Smith,   Portland 
Mrs.  S.  J.  Vaughn,  Butteville 
Mrs.   J.   S.   Royal,   Portland 
Mrs.  N.  E.  Stott,  N.  Yamhill 

Mrs.  Wm.  M.  Powers,  Albany 
Mrs.  J.  D.  Biles,  Portland 
Mrs.  L.  S.  Taylor,  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  J.  Brown,  Hlllsboro 
Mrs.     Ellen .   Clymer    Walker 


Mrs.  Sarah  Owens,  Portland 
Mrs.    Sarah    T.    Ewell,   North 

Mrs.  W.  D.  Carter,  Portland 
Joseph  Gragg,  .Dusty 
Nathaniel  L.  Robbins,  Or.  City 
John  W.  Pugh,  Delena 
David  McCully,  Salem 
Samuel  Matheny,  Gaston 
Mrs.  W.  R.  Sewall,  Portland 
Edward  N.  Beach,  Palouse 
William  G.  Beck,  Portland 
Mitchell  Devol,  Portland 
J.  Fleischner,  Portland 
L.   A.   Loomis,   Ilwaco,   Wash. 
John  P.  Walker,  Portland 
William     Bagjey,      University 

Alex.  L.  Coffey,  Pendleton 
J.  C.  Moreland,  Portland 
C.  T.  Belcher,  Portland 
Richard    G.     Palmateer,     Cur- 

F.  M.  DeWitt,  Portland 
Mrs.  W.  P.  Burns,  Portland 
Mrs.  Ella  E.  Bybee,  Portland 
Dr.  C.  B.  Charlton,  Portland 
Mrs.  Jennie  Belcher,  Portland 
Mrs.  H.  B.  Nicholas,  Portland 
Mrs.  Z.  F.  Moody,  The  Dalles 
Mrs.  E.  Scheurer,  Portland 
Mrs.  Mary  Taylor,  Portland 



Mrs.  Martha  E.  Sanders,  Wil- 
Mrs.     John     Dolan,     Pleasant 

Mrs.  Mary  A.   Test,  Portland 
Mrs.    Mary   E.    Reeves,    Cedar 

Mrs.  Sarah  A.  Houghton,  Port- 
Mrs.    Cerinda    Preston,     Port- 
Mrs.  S.  B.  Johnson,  Damascus 
Mrs.   Mary    E.    Holman,   Port- 
Mrs.  J.   B.   Merrick,   Portland 
Mrs.       Elizabeth      Holtgrieve, 

Mrs.  O.  Olson,  Catlin,  Wash. 
Mrs.  C.  S.  Roberts,  Portland 
G.  H.  Byland,  Vale,  Or. 
Mrs.  M.  B.  Millard,  Portland 
Mrs.  O.  H.  Lance,  Woodstock 
Mrs.  Jane  Ewry,  Woodstock 
Mrs.  H.   L.   Pittock,   Portland 
J.  W.  Miller,  Portland 
V.  G.  Olds,  Portland 

Mrs.    Mary    LaPorest,   Oregon 

Mrs.    Henrietta    Pomeroy.    Ce- 
dar Mills 
Mrs.  Ellen  L.  Gerow,  Chinook 
Mrs.  Amanda  J.  Colvin,  Walla 

Mrs.  N.  J.  Beattie,  Oregon  City 
Capt.  S.  E.  Miller,  Oregon  City 
Mrs.   Mary   Meeker,   Houlton 
Miss  Frances  Brown,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  A.  Lent,  Portland 
Mrs.  Olive  V.  McCord,  Oregon 

Mrs.  A.  E.  Powell,  Portland 
Mrs.  R.  T.  DeLashmutt.  Port- 
Mrs.     Janette     Elvans,     Wood- 
Mrs.   Nancy  Milster,   Silverton 
Mrs.  C.  E.  Kesling,  Portland 
Mrs.    Geo.    S.    Smith,    Oregon 

Frank  M.  Olds,  Portland 


Mrs.  Mary  L.  Abbott,  Fisher, 

Mrs.  J.  F.  Griswold,  Portland 

Mrs.  Lillie  A.  James,  Forest 

Mrs.  Eliza  Titus,  LaCenter 

Mrs.  ESmily  Warriner,  Port- 

J.  L.  Reeder,  Sauvie's  Island 

B.  F.  Smith,  Portland 

Mrs.  Gertrude  DeLin,  Portland 

Mrs.  Ella  Watt  Jackson,  Port- 
Mrs.  Rosa  F.  Burrell,  Portland 
Mrs.  Ann  B.  Bills,  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  C.  Johns,  Portland 
John   McKernan,   Portland 
Mrs.     Elmma     Southwell,     The 

J.  W.  Wilson,  Portland 
Mrs.  E.  D.  Shattuck,  Portland 
Mrs.  Mary  F.  Prince,  Portland 



Mrs.  Phoebe  Kindt,  Kinton 
W.  H.  Bond,  Poweirs  Valley 
C.  C.  Masiker,  Hood  River 
Mrs.  M.  A.  Baker,  Portland 
Mrs.  R.  A.  Hart,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  A.  Ayres,  Seattle 
Mrs.  Alice^E.  Poster,  Portland 
Mrs.    Robert     Potter,    Oregon 

Mrs.  Ellen  Tout,  Portland 
Mrs.  Hannah  Tlmmen,  Ilwaco 
Mrs.  John  Robbin,  Castle  Rock 
Mrs.     W.     M.     Killingsworth, 

I.  V.  Mossman,  Portland 
A.  H.  Long,  Portland 
Mrs.    Octavia    Lovelock,  Port- 
Mrs.  L.  W.  LaRu,  Portland 
C.  P.  Hogue,  Portland 
Mrs.  Stella  Johnson,  Portland 
Thos.  N.  Strong,  Portland 
Dr.  Edgar  Poppleton,  Portland 
Mrs.  Alice  E.  Cummings,  Port- 
Mrs.  Mary  Dailey,  Hillsboro 
Mrs.     Helen     Ann    Carothers, 

(Oregon  City 
Geo.  H.  Williams,  Portland 
Mrs.  Anna  Tucker,  Portland 
Mrs.    C.    M.    Cummings,  Port- 
W.  K.  Smith,  Portland 
Wm.  H.  Pope,  Portland 
Thos.  B.  Mulkey,   Portland 
Andrew  J.  Culbertson,  La  Cen- 
ter, Wash. 
Mrs.  W.  G.  Beck,  Portland 
Levi  Armsworthy,  Wasco 

Mrs.  Johnston  McCormac,  As- 
Geo.  R.  Snipes,  The  Dalles 
Mrs.   H.   Carson,   Portland 
Mrs.    James    Michell,    Steven 

Mrs.  A.  E.  Starr,  Portland 
Norman  Darling,  Portland 
Mrs.  E.  I.  Morton,  Goble 
Mrs.  A.  F.  Miller,  Sellwood 
Dr.  C.  E.  Gieger,  Forest  Grove 
Peter  De  Moss,  Moro 
A.  J.  Nickum,  Oswego 
L.     C.      Whitaker,      Olympia, 

H.  L.  Pittock,  Portland 
Frank  Ford,  Portland 
Mrs.  Sarah  Miller,  Portland 
Mrs.   S.   S.   Taylor,   Portland 
James  F.  Failing,  Portland 
Mrs.   Priscilla   M.   Daly.   Port- 
Mrs.  M.  W.  Trevett,  Portland 
Mrs.     Susan    McDuffee,    Port- 
J.   P.  Eckler,   Portland 
Mrs.    M.    E.    Johnson,   Wood 

Geo.  H.  Himes,  Portland 
D.  H.  Hendee,  Portland 
M.   S   .Dailey,   Hillsboro 
A.  H.  M-atthews,  Houlton 
Seth  L.  Pope,  Portland 
Mrs.  Thos.  Moffett,  Portland 
Wm.  J.  Ranch,   Gladstone 
F.   M.   Lichtenthaler,   Portland 
J.  W.  Stevenson,    Cape    Horn, 



Mrs.  Mary  A.  Rohr,  Portland 
Mr&   Josephine   Devore   John- 
son, Oregon  City 
Mrs.  Nora  S.  Bumey,  Portland 
Mrs.  C.  Gibbons,  Oregon  City 
Mrs.  Jennie  B.   Harding,   Ore- 
gon City 
Mrs.  Barbara  Bailey,  Portland 
Mrs.  James  Jamison,   Vancou- 
Mrs.  F.  E.  Arnold,  Portland 
Mrs.  E.  J.  Kubli,  Jacksonville 
Mrs.  F.  A.  Knapp,  Portland 
Daniel  Gaby,  Eugene 
Mrs.  J.  J.  Murphy,  Salem 
Chas.    G.    Ackerman,  TIgards- 

C.  W.  Bryant,  Portland 
C.  N.  Greenman,  Oregon  City 


Mrs.  Maria  Bagan,  Portland 
Mrs.  Abbie  B.  Moreland,  Port- 
Mrs.  J.  W.  Going,  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  M.  Phillips,  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  A.  Chase,  Oregon  City 
Mrs.  R.  A.  Wills,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  E.  Flinn,  Vancouver 
Mrs.  B.  M.  Freeman,  Portland 
Mrs.  Betsy  Miller,  Woodstock 
Jonathan   T.    Gerow,    Chinook, 

A.  S.  Cummings,  Portland 
John  Epperly,  Portland 
Miss  M.  S.  Barlow,  Barlow,  Or. 
G.  M.  Perkins.  Lafayette 
J.  W.  Woodward,  Portland 
Clark  Hay,  Portland 

Mrs.  L.  M.  Croasman,  Portland 
Mrs.  John  McKemon,  Portland 
Mrs.   Amelia  Milen,   Portland 
Mrs.  Ella  Steel,  Portland 
Mrs.  N.  A.  Roberts,  Portland 
Mrs.   Viola  Pierce,  Carlton 
Mrs.  J.  C.  Bell,  Portland 
Robert  A.  Miller,  Oregon  City 
P.  H.  Roork,  Orient 
James    H.    Snodgrass,    Canyon 

Mrs.  Anna  R.  Middleton,  Port- 
Mrs.  Kate  W.  Burkhart,  Port- 
Mrs.  E.  E.  Morgan,  Portland 
Chas.   McGinn,   Portland 
Mrs.   Catherine   Stewart,   Port- 

Mrs.  Mary  E.  Spaulding,  Port- 
Mrs.  Jessie  Copely,  Hillsboro 
R.  B.  Hood,  The  Dalles 
Mrs.    Frances   E.    Cornell,    Sa 

J.  S.  Otis,  Pleasant  Home 
Dean  Blanchard,  Rainier 
A.   L.    Matteson,   Portland 
Mrs.       Hanna       Schulderman, 

Miss   Nannie  E.   Taylor,   Port- 
E.   W.   Cornell,   Portland 
Miss  Enizabeth  T.  Boise,  Port- 
Geo.  Hartness,  Portland 
James  W.  Cook,  Portland 
J.  W.  Elliott,  Portland 



Mrs.  E.  J.  Morris,  Portland 
T.  W.  Thompson,  Portland 
Mrs.  I.  Lawler,  Portland 
Mrs.  Sarah  H.  Moffit,  Damas- 
Mrs.  M.  L.  Packard,  Portland 
W.  R.  Scheurer,  Butteville 
Major  Dubeck,  Washougal 
Mrs.  E.  B.  Thomas,  Molalla 
Mrs.  Maj.  Dubeck,  Washougal 
Mrs.  K.  C.  Chambers,  Portland 
Mrs.   H.  B.  Johnson,  Portland 

Mrs.    Penumbra    Kelly,    Port- 
MI'S.   Mary  E.   McCarver,  Ore- 
gon City 
Mrs.  A.  C.  Gibbs,  Portland 
Mrs.  Lois  H.  Floyd,  Waitsburg 
Mrs.  Wm.  Mackenzie,  Portland 
Mrs.    Clema    Martin,     Oregon 

Mrs.  Mary  A.  Boyd,  Portland 
D.  W.  Wakefield,  Portland 


Mrs.    D.   Darback,   Vancouver 
Mrs.  C.  W.  Weeks,  Portland 
W.  E.  Robertson,  Portland 
Mrs.  R.  D.  Sales,  Tillamook 
A.  H.  Breyman,  Portland 
Mrs.  James    F.    Failinj?,   Port- 
Edward  Mendenhall,  Portland 
Miss  C.  M.  Elwert,  Portland 
Mrs.   Harriot    Clarke    Looney, 

Mrs.  J.  E.  Simmons,  Portland 
Geo.  Herren,  Portland 

Mrs.  L.  A.  Bailey,  Vancouver 
Jacob  Dubach,  Vancouver 
Mrs.    Lillie   E.    Gilham,    Hills- 
dale, Or. 
Rev.  J.  McCormac,  Astoria 
G.  R.  H.  Miller,  Oregon  City 
Mrs.  Emma  Darling,  Portland 
Mrs.  A.  E.  Stewart,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  E.  Roberts,  Portland 
Mrs.  S.  C.  Linn,  Oregon  City 
Mrs.  Laura  A.    Warner,   Port- 
F.   P.   Mays,   Portland     ..      .. 


Mrs.  Nellie  P.   McClane,  Port- 
Mrs.  Ella  Turner,  Portland 
Edwin   Gillihan,   Arthur 
Mrs.  Sarah  C.  Van  Horn,  Port- 
W.  S.  Duniway,  Portland 
Mrs.    Mary    E.    Olson,   Olson, 

Mrs.  Ada  Schmidt,  Seattle 

Mrs.  M.  M.  Gearin,  Portland 

F.  L.  Lent,  Lent 

Mrs.  Harriet  E.  Jolly,  Port- 

Mrs.  Anna  Nelson  Hendersoa 

Mrs.  Jennie  Hembree,  Port- 



Mrs.    Sophie    Holman    Ogilbe, 

I.  Kaufman.  Portland 

Mrs.  Mary  J.  Catlin,  Portland 
Chas.  S.  Hulin,  McMinnyiUe 


Mrs.  M.  A.  Magness,  Portland 
Mrs.    Elizabeth    Ha^es.    Port- 
J.  F.  Booth,  Portland 
Mrs.  P.  E.  Gage.  Portland 
Mrs.  L.  Mutch,  Portland 
Frank   Hornstrom.   Portland 
Mrs.  Hary  E.  Henkle,  Portland 
Mrs.  O.  N.  Denny.  Portland 
Geo.  A.  Harding.  Oregon  City 

Mrs.  J.  W.  Noble.  Oregon  City 
Mrs.  Luella  Ruth.  lUahe,  Or. 
F.  W.  Hanson.  Portland 
Mrs.   I.  Smith,   Lenox 
Miss  Pauline  Looney,  Jeiferson 
Mrs.  J.  H.  Stickler,  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  J.  Landess.  Portland 
Joseph  Bergmann,  Portland 
John  Jagger,  Vancouver 


James  Gleason,  Portland 
Mrs.  D.  B.  Gray.  Portland 
McKinley  Mitchell.  Portland 
Mrs.  Edward  Fleury,  Portland 
Julius  Kraemer,  Portland 
Mrs.  W.  S.  Caldwell,  Portland 
Mrs.   Minnie  Howell,   Portland 
D.   Henshaw,   Houlton 
Mrs.  O.  Dealy,  Baker  City 
J.  A.  Stowell,  Portland 

Andrew  J.  McDaniel,  Portland 
Mrs.  Anna  F.  Himes 
Mrs.  S.  F.  Jones.  Portland 
Mrs.    Ellen    Hornstrom,    Port- 
Mrs.  Emma  C.  Wilson,  LaCen- 

Miss    Marrissa    Bonser,    Port- 


Mrs.  J.  D.  McCully,  Joseph 
Mrs.  L.  B.  Geer.  Salem 
Miss  Tillie  Cornelius,  Portland 
Mrs.   Laura  Dittmar,   Portland 
Mrs.  Mary  Jagger,  Portland 
Mrs.  F.  M.  Tlbbetts,  Portland 
Mrs.  W.  D.  Fenton,  Portland 
G.  C.  Love.  Portland 

Mrs.   Clara    A.    Keenan,   Port- 
Henry  E.  McGinn.  Portland 
Mrs.  M.  A.  Ikerd.  Portland 
R.  B.  Knapp,  Portland 
Geo.  T.  My^rs,  Portland 
Frank  D.  McCully,  Salem 
S.  G.  Bunting,  Portland 


A.  C.  OarriBon,  Portland  Frank  Hacheney,  Portland 

Mrs.  Mary  Frazer,  Portland  Mrs.  H.  M.  McCoy,  N.  Yamhill 

Chas.  M.  Cox.  Portland  Mrs.  Delia  McCarver.  Portland 

Showing  Number  Present  for  Each  Year. 

1838   1      1850 70 

1839   2      1851   46 

1840 4      1852   260 

1841   3      1853   109 

1842 2      1854   48 

1843   15      1855  22 

1844   21      1856   16 

1845   54      1857 19 

1846   36      1858   16 

1847   72      1859   21 

1848   38  

1849   33  Total  908 


By  Hon.  George  H.  Williams.  1853,  Mayor  of  Portland. 

Pioneers  of  Oregon:  I  have  the  honor,  and  it  affords  me 
great  pleasure,  to  extend  to  you  the  hospitalities  of  the  City  of 
Portland.  Societies  from  abroad  are  welcomed  to  this  city  as 
a  matter  of  comity,  and  you  have  a  right  by  the  services  you 
have  rendered  to  our  State  and  city  to  the  best  that  we  can  give 
in  the  nature  of  a  welcome.  These  annual  meetings  of  the  Pio- 
neers are  instructive,  interesting  and  useful.  They  bring  before 
our  minds  the  history  of  the  growth  and  development  of  our 
State.  They  remind  us  of  the  struggles  and  sacrifices  of  the 
men  and  women  who  redeemed  Oregon  from  the  wilderness  and 
made  it  to  blossom  like  the  rose.  They  reunite  the  old  people 
who  are  separated  from  each  other  in  their  homes  and  sweeten 
their  declining  years  with  the  pleasures  of  social  intercourse. 
Tou  are  surrounded  by  many  things  that  ought  to  give  you 
comfort  as  you  go  down  the  declivity  of  life.  The  fruits  of  your 
labors  are  widespread  and  abundant.  They  are  seen  in  the  com- 
fortable homes,  the  cultivated  fieldji.  the  orchards  and  gardens, 
and  in  all  that  conduces  to  the  prosperity  and  wealth  of  the 
State.  You  have  a  right  to  be  proud  and  happy  over  these 
things.  They  will  remain  as  monuments  to  your  praise  when 
you  are  gone.  Our  lives  are  in  the  "sear  and  yellow  leaf,''  but 
the  beauties  of  the  glorious  Spring  are  round  about  us.  This 
is  the  time  of  the  singing  of  birds  and  the  blooming  of  flowers. 
These  are  for  the  old  as  well  as  the  young,  and  Nature  is  no 
respecter  of  persons.  Our  gratitude  is  due  to  the  Giver  of  all 
good  for  the  length  of  days  and  the  blesaings  we  enjoy.  I  hope 
you  may  have  a  pleasant  meeting  upon  this  occasion,  and  that 
you  may  live  to  meet  and  greet  each  other  in  many  future  meet- 
ings of  the  Pioneers  of  Oregon. 


By.  Judge  T.  A.  McBrlde,  Oregon  City,  1847. 

Pioneers  of  Oregon,  Ladies  and  Gentlemen:  He  who  under- 
takes the  task  which  has  been  assigned  to  me  on  this  occasion 
must  necessarily  find  one  of  his  principal  embarrassments  in  the 
choice  of  material.  An  address  that  should  do  full  justice  to 
pioneer  effort  in  the  great  Northwest,  that  should  trace  the  foot- 
steps of  the  pioneer  from  the  first  discovery  of  what  used  to 
be  called  the  Oregon  Country  up  to  the  time  when  the  founda- 
tions of  our  State  had-  been  fully  laid  and  the  true  work  of  the 
explorer  and  pioneer  completed,  would  expand  itself  into  such 
a  voluminous  history  of  our  country  as  has  not  yet  been  written. 

When  we  seek  for  the  first  name  to  inscribe  on  the  roll  of 
those  adventurous  spirits  who  challenged  the  obstacles  that, 
like  the  fiaming  sword  that  guarded  the  gates  of  Eden,  stood 
between  the  hardy  explorer  and  the  land  that  we  now  occupy, 
we  encounter  doubts.  The  first  name  we  meet  with  that  seems 
to  have  the  support  of  anything  like  authentic  history  is  the 
somewhat  jaw-breaking  one  of  Monocacht  Ape,  and  the  owner 
of  it  was  a  Yazoo  Indian.  He  materializes  in  the  pages  of  a 
history  of  Louisiana  published  by  Le  Page  du  Praz  in  1758.  Du 
Praz,  whose  history  is  generally  truthful,  asserts  his  full  belief 
in  the  story  of  this  humble  copper-colored  explorer  and  gives 
a  detailed  account  of  his  adventures,  from  which  it  appears  that 
Monocacht,  desirous  of  seeing  all  that  the  world  had  to  offer, 
ascended  the  Missouri  River  to  its  source,  then  crossed  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  which  were  high  and  difficult,  and  stopped 
with  a  tribe  which  he  called  the  Otters,  at  the  head  of  a  great, 
beautiful  river,  which  flowed  into  the  ocean.  Indian  like,  he 
tarried  with  the  various  tribes  along  the  way,  learning  something 
of  their  language  and  informing  himself  as  to  the  road  ahead 


of  him.  and  among  the  Otter  tribe  he  succeeded  in  inducing  a 
man  and  woman  to  guide  him  on  his  way  down  the  great  river 
of  the  West  and  finally  reached  the  Pacific  Ocean.  His  artless 
account  of  his  first  view  of  the  Pacific  Ocean,  as  given  by  Du 
Praz.  is  as  follows:  "I  could  not  speak,  my  eyes  were  too  small 
for  my  soul's  ease;  the  wind  so  disturbed  the  great  water  that 
I  thought  the  blows  it  gave  would  beat  the  land  in  pieces."  The 
route,  taking  the  course  of  the  rivers,  is  said  to  be  so  nearly 
correct  that  it  seems  almost  impossible  that  the  whole  story 
could  have  been  a  fabrication,  as  no  other  person  at  that  time 
professed  to  have  crossed  the  Rocky  Mountains,  or  to  have 
known  what  was  beyond  them,  and  I  believe  that  here  is  the 
beginning  of  Oregon  exploration.  All  honor  to  Monocacht  Ape. 
The  bazoo  of  the  Yazoo  no  longer  sounds  in  the  land;  the  very 
name  of  his  tribe  would  have  been  long  forgotten  had  it  not 
attached  itself  to  a  river  which  still  bears  it.  But  when  our 
great  Lewis  and  Clark  Exposition  shall  take  place  in  1905,  I 
bespeak  for  the  earliest  explorer  at  least  an  ideal  statue  some- 
where within  its  precincts. 

There  is  no  mist  hanging  around  the  exploits  of  our  next 
pioneer,  Captain  Robert  Gray,  the  discoverer  of  the  Columbia 
River,  the  first  white  man  to  vex  its  waters  with  the  keel  of 
commerce,  the  intrepid  sailor  to  whose  daring  we  owe  the  fact 
that  Oregon  today  is  not  a  British  province.  Gray  had,  in  fact, 
anchored  in  Oregon  waters  for  four  years  before  he  discovered 
the  Columbia.  Early  in  August,  1788,  while  captain  of  the  sloop 
Washington,  he  had  entered  Tillamook  Bay  and  anchored  for 
the  purpose  of  trade,  but  the  Indians  being  hostile,  he  was 
compelled  to  put  to  sea  again.  Thus  Gray  was  twice  the  first 
white  man  to  enter  Oregon,  and  Tillamook,  that  land  abounding 
in  milk  and  honey  and  fresh  butter,  and  so  many  other  good 
gifts,  should  do  him  proper  reverence.  Gray's  discovery  of  the 
Columbia  had  in  it  something  of  the  heroic.  For  nine  days  he 
hung  about  the  mouth  of  the  river,  baffled  by  adverse  winds 
and  currents,  then  he  sailed  away,  passed  Vancouver  on  his 
exploring  expedition,  told  him  of  his  discovery  and  expressed 
his  intention  of  returning  and  making  another  attempt.  On  May 
11,  1792,  he  returned,  ran  his  ship  in  between  the  breakers  and 
discovered,  named  and  rudely  charted  the  Columbia  River.  Take 


away  the  lights  and  buoys  at  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  today 
and  even  a  steamboat  would  hesitate  to  enter  as  Captain  Gray 
did.  And,  with  all  the  lights  and  buoys  and  jetties  there,  the 
master  of  a  sailing  vessel  would  wait  outside  for  a  tug  for  a 
month  rather  than  venture  to  sail  in.  ''There  were  giants  in 
those  days." 

The  next  exploration,  and  the  one  that  attracted  the  most 
attention  to  Oregon,  was  the  expedition  of  Lewis  and  Clark.  It 
was  the  first  expedition  that  had  for  its  object  exploration  pure 
and  simple,  and  it  originated  in  the  brain  of  that  great  states- 
man, Thomas  Jeff€rson.  A  great  writer  of  our  day  has  shown 
the  value  of  a  scientific  use  of  the  imagination.  Jefferson  was 
a  dreamer  and  a  bold  theorizer,  but  his  exuberant  imagination 
and  fertile  fancy  were  reinforced  by  a  practical  common  sense 
and  sound  judgment  that  corrected  his  fancies  and  directed  his 
imagination  into  channels  where  sober  thought  could  always 
follow.  With  him  in  theory  our  country  was  without  constitu- 
tional power  to  acquire  a  foot  of  additional  territory,  but  his 
imagination  was  fired  by  pictures  of  a  vast  empire  lying  waste 
and  waiting  for  its  occupants.  He  foresaw,  as  none  about  him 
foresaw,  the  greatness  of  our  Nation  if  we  could  possess  our- 
selves of  the  Louisiana  country  on  the  one  side,  with  the  Missis- 
sippi River  and  the  Missouri  all  ours,  and  an  equal  holding  on 
the  other  side  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  with  the  great  unexplored 
river  of  the  West  to  bear  its  commerce  to  the  Pacific,  and  the 
practical  side  of  the  man  said:  "This  great  empire  that  would 
expand  my  country  from  ocean  to  ocean  shall  not  be  allowed  to 
fall  into  or  remain  in  alien  hands  for  a  mere  constitutional 
quibble.  Louisiana,  the  Floridas,  and  everything  drained  by  the 
Mississippi  and  its  tributaries,  must  be  acquired,  and  our  title, 
by  discovery,  to  the  Oregon  Country  must  be  kept  alive.'*  And 
so  this  theoretical,  strict  constructionist  proceeded  to  purchase 
the  Louisiana  country,  and  before  the  purchase  even  he  had  con- 
ceived what  was  afterward  known  as  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expe- 
dition, whose  design  and  scope,  as  Jefferson  expressed  it,  was 
"to  explore  in  detail  the  country  from  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri 
to  the  Pacific  Ocean,  to  follow  the  Missouri  to  its  source,  to 
cross  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  explore  the  country  west  of 
them;   to  observe  the  course  of  the  streams  and  the  contour 


of  the  land  and  Its  capabilities,  to  observe  the  suitability  of  the 
streams  to  the  purposes  of  commerce;  to  note  suitable  streams 
for  the  purposes  of  fortification,  and  for  trading  posts,"  and  its 
leaders  were  expected,  in  general,  to  act  as  geographers,  scien- 
tists, agriculturists  and  diplomats.  The  estimated  expense,  made 
by  Captain  Lewis  himself,  of  this  expedition,  that  was  to  explore 
and  mark  out  a  path  through  a  wilderness  for  nearly  4.000  miles, 
was  the  munificent  sum  of  (2,500,  but,  in  addition  to  this,  the 
parties  were  given  letters  of  credit  on  American  Consuls  at 
the  Island  of  Java  and  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  which  it  was 
thought  might  prove  available  in  case  they  should  meet  traders 
or  explorers  on  the  Pacific.  The  expedition  was  one  that  ap- 
pealed strongly  to  the  imaginative  side  of  Jefferson's  character. 
The  whole  country  drained  by  the  Missouri  was  practically 
unexplored,  and  prodigious  tales  were  told  of  the  character  of 
the  inhabitants.  There  were  stories  of  gigantic  Indians  exceed- 
ing all  ordinary  stature;  of  rich  prairies  that  produced  almost 
spontaneously  everything  the  agriculturist  could  desire;  of 
millions  of  buffalo  and  fur-bearing  animals,  and  valuable  min- 
erals, and  among  the  papers  laid  before  Congress,  in  connection 
with  the  Louisiana  purchase,  was  a  solemn  account — no  doubt 
received  and  credited  by  the  President — of  a  mountain  range 
of  rock  salt,  situated  near  the  head  of  the  Missouri.  The  range 
was  said  to  be  more  than  one  hundred  miles  long  and  forty 
miles  broad,  and  to  stand  bright  and  glittering  in  the  sun,  with- 
out tree  or  shrub,  a  mountain  of  pure  salt.  It  was  said  that 
many  bushels  of  this  salt  were  to  be  seen  at  St.  Louis,  and 
chunks  alleged  to  have  been  taken  from  it  were  sent  to  the 
President,  and  others  were  to  be  seen  on  exhibition  in  various 
cities.  This  fairy  land  was  now  to  be  explored,  and  the  truth 
in  regard  to  it  to  be  made  the  property  of  the  world.  But  the 
doubters  were  abroad  in  the  land.  The  President  was  condemned 
by  the  Federalist  papers  for  risking  the  lives  of  valuable  citizens 
and  wasting  the  public  money  in  this  hair-brained  expedition. 
The  ridiculous  story  of  the  mountain  of  salt,  which  the  President 
had  inadvertently  helped  to  circulate,  gave  Federalist  wits  an 
abundant  opportunity  to  be  funny  at  his  expense.  One  journal 
suggested  that  the  mountain  might  be  the  sad  remains  of  Lot's 
Wife;    another  suggested   perhaps  all   the  good   things  had   not 


been  disclosed  by  the  President,  and  that  trees  laden  with  plum 
puddings  and  lakes  of  good  whisky  would  probably  be  found  by 
explorers  in  the  same  region.  But,  in  spite  of  ridicule,  the 
expedition  set  forth  on  its  perilous  venture  into  the  unknown. 
The  only  map  they  had  of  the  country  placed  the  imaginary 
head  of  the  Missouri  somewhere  about  the  eastern  boundary 
of  California,  instead  of  where  Du  Praz's  Indian  account  had 
more  correctly  placed  it.  But  they  had  the  river  itself  for  a 
pathway,  and  when  that  became  impracticable  they  had  indom- 
itable American  courage  and  common  sense  to  rely  upon.  It 
is  not  within  the  limits  of  this  address  to  follow  the  intrepid 
wanderers  in  detail.  We  hear  no  complaint  from  them  of  the 
insufficiency  of  their  provisions;  when  bread  was  exhausted  they 
substituted  roots.  When  elk,  deer  and  buffalo  failed,  then  they 
cheerfully  ate  horse  meat,  and  when  that  failed  roast  dog  was 
devoured  with  thankfulness,  and  when,  as  at  Fort  Clatsop,  the 
dog  supply  failed,  they  were  glad  to  make  a  meal  on  whale 
blubber  obtained  from  a  carcass  washed  upon  the  beach  near 
Tillamook  Head.  Clark,  in  his  journal,  thanks  Providence  for 
sending  the  whale,  and  remarks  that  Heaven  was  much  more 
kind  to  them  than  it  had  been  to  Jonah,  for,  whereas  the 
whale  swallowed  up  Jonah,  in  this  instance  he  and  his  com- 
panions were  graciously  permitted  to  swallow  the  whale.  I 
would  like,  if  time  permitted,  to  dwell  on  the  heroic  work  of 
these  two  young  men  and  their  followers.  Whether  we  regard 
the  difficulties  they  had  to  overcome,  or  the  results  of  their 
journey,  it  is,  beyond  doubt,  the  greatest  exploring  expedition 
that  the  world  has  ever  known.  It  took  the  great  stretch  of 
country  between  St.  Louis  and  the  Pacific,  from  the  domain  of 
the  fabulous  into  that  of  common  sense.  It  demonstrated  the 
fact  that  a  practical  way  was  to  be  found  across  the  continent 
to  the  Pacific,  and  that  a  country  rich  in  natural  resources  lay 
at  the  western  end  of  the  route;  and  while  it  found  no  mountains 
of  salt,  no  giant  red  men,  no  monstrosities  of  any  kind,  it  showed 
that  we  had  a  land  here  worth  winning  and  keeping,  and  there 
is  no  historical  authority  for  saying  that  at  any  time  thereafter 
there  was  manifested  the  slightest  disposition  on  the  part  of  our 
Government  to  give  up  the  Oregon  Country  or  to  relinquish  our 
rights  here.     Pages  have  been  written,  asserting  that  Webster 


was  about  to  give  up  Oregon  in  exchange  for  some  fishing  rights 
on  the  banks  of  Newfoundland,  and  that  Just  before  this 
egregious  folly  was  perpetrated,,  Dr,  Whitman  arrived  at  Wash- 
ington and  prevented  the  insertion  of  this  provision  in  the 
Webster-Ashburton  treaty.  Whitman  left  his  home  for  the  East 
Qlctober  8,  1842;  the  Webster- Ashburton  treaty  was  signed 
August  9,  1842,  two  months  before  Whitman  left  Oregon.  The 
fame  of  this  good  man  rests  upon  too  enduring  a  basis  of  truth 
to  justify  any  attempt  to  add  to  it  by  an  unfounded  claim  that  . 
he  saved  Oregon.  Oregon  never  needed  saving  from  the  day 
of  Lewis  and  Clark's  return.  And  from  that  date  until  the  final 
treaty  of  June  15,  1846,  the  United  States  never  wavered  in  its 
claim  to  Oregon,  and  never  offered  to  accept  less  territory  than 
was  given  by  the  treaty.  Benton,  in  an  argument  in  favor  of 
the  ratification  of  the  treaty,  recalled  the  fact  that  the  49th 
parallel  was  the  line  offered  Great  Britain  by  Jefferson  in  1807, 
by  Mionroe  in  1818,  by  Adams  in  1826,  by  Taylor  in  1842,  and 
by  Polk  in  1845.  Webster's  own  statement  was,  "The  United 
States  never  offered  any  line  south  of  49,  and  It  never  will." 
Let  it  be  remembered,  then,  that  the  claim  to  Oregon,  Old 
Oregon,  as  Mrs.  Dye  aptly  calls  it,  including  everything  south 
of  the  49th  parallel,  was  formulated  by  Jefferson  in  1807,  after 
th«  return  of  Lewis  and  Clark.  They  had  demonstrated  the 
value  of  the  country,  and  Jefferson  was  determined  to  have  it, 
and  if  we  search  the  pages  of  history  for  the  names  of  the  men 
who  saved  Oregon,  let  us  place  first  upon  the  roll  the  names  of 
Thomas  Jefferson,  Meriwether  Lewis  and  William  Clark.  And 
when,  in  1905,  the  country,  whose  value  their  heroic  endeavor 
and  intelligent  zeal  made  known  to  the  world,  shall  honor  in 
some  fitting  way  the  memory  of  America's  greatest  explorers, 
let  every  pioneer  make  it  a  pious  duty  to  assist  in  some  way 
in  making  the  occasion  worthy  of  the  great  men  whose  achieve- 
ments it  is  intended  to  commemorate. 

The  early  settlement  of  any  country  in  America  has  usually 
followed  the  same  sequence:  First  comes  the  explorer;  second, 
the  trader  and  trapper;  third,  the  missionary,  and  fourth,  the 
settler.  After  Lewis  and  Clark  came  Astor;  after  Astor  the 
long  list  of  other  traders,  trappers  and  mountain  men  who 
afterwards  became  more  or  less  incorporated  into  our  general 


population.  In  the  case  of  Oregon,  the  missionary  and  the  settler 
came  practically  together.  Lee,  Leslie  and  Whitman  and  their 
associates  came  with  a  Bible  in  one  hand  and  a  hoe  in  the  other. 
They  dimly  realized  that  civilization  must  accompany.  If  not 
precede,  Christianlzation,  and  that  purification  of  the  moral  na- 
ture by  religious  truth  must  be  accompanied  by  purification  of 
the  physical  man  with  soap  and  water,  and  while  their  efforts 
at  converting  Indians  cannot  be  called  a  great  success,  yet  each 
missionary  settlement  with  its  farm  and  gardens  proved  to  be 
in  time  the  nucleus  of  a  farming  community  and  a  center  from 
which  radiated  a  patriotic  American  sentiment. 

It  seems  almost  astonishing,  when  we  think  of  it,  that  the 
settlement  of  this  State  was  made,  not  by  gradual  accretion  of 
settlements  extending  from  East  to  West,  nor  by  migration  from 
one  over-crowded  fertile  region  to  another  fertile  region,  across 
an  intervening  waste.  Why  did  not  these  homeseekers  stop  at 
some  of  the  intervening  and  unsettled  valleys  and  prairies  now 
the  habitation  of  great  and  prosperous  communities?  Why  pass 
indifferently  over  fertile  valleys  near  home,  endure  the  hardships 
of  a  3,000-mile  journey,  when  choice  land,  well  watered  and  pro- 
ductive, lay  unmarked  except  by  the  track  of  the  emigrant 
wagon?  Why  should  the  missionary  pass  through  a  hundred 
tribes  of  Indians  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  all  quite  as  much 
in  need  of  his  services  as  those  west  of  them,  to  labor  in  the 
distant  field  of  Oregon?  Is  it  not  a  curious  moral  phenomenon? 
I  believe  a  general  patriotism,  a  love  for  our  country  and  a 
pride  in  extending  Its  institutions  was  one  of  the  controlling- 
motives  that  induced  the  early  emigrants  to  prolong  their 
journey  to  the  farthest  West.  Great  Britain  was  claiming  this 
land,  and  their  traders  and  trappers  were  making  that  claim 
good  by  actual  occupancy.  The  scars  left  by  the  war  of  1812 
were  yet  red,  and  the  anti-British  feeling  still  strong.  And  so 
the  missionary  thought,  "I  will  go  forth  and  do  good  to  the 
Indians,  and  at  the  same  time  assist  in  planting  the  seeds  of 
free  government."  And  so,  with  his  Bible,  he  brought  the 
Declaration  of  Independence  and  the  Constitution  of  the  United 
States.  The  homeseeker  said:  "It  is  a  goodly  land,  and  homes 
are  to  be  had  free,  and,  besides  that,  Great  Britain,  who  has 
ravaged  our  coasts,  impressed  our  citizens  and  burnt  our  capital, 


is  claiming  it  I  can  find  a  home  out  there,  and  at  the  same  time 
help  hold  that  region  for  my  country,  and,  if  need  be.  fight  for 
it."  I  know  that  this  patriotic  sentiment  was  strong  and  aggres- 
sive; sometimes  so  aggrressive  as  to  do  injustice  even  to  so  good 
a  man  as  Dr.  McLoughlin.  the  father,  almost,  of  the  early  immi- 
grant When  the  land  laws  were  passed,  his  rights  were  ignored 
and  trampled  upon,  and  the  benevolence  that  cheered  and  sup- 
ported so  many  a  suffering  American  was  forgotten  by  many 
in  the  Anglophobic  outburst.  Good  old  man.  I  remember  him 
as  I  saw  him  once,  when  a  small  boy.  with  his  tall  form  and 
white  head,  towering  above  his  fellows  as  Mount  Hood  towers 
above  the  mountains.  It  was  pure  patriotic  sentiment,  no  doubt, 
that  led  Whitman  to  take  his  memorable  journey  across  the 
continent  The  immigration  of  1842  came  filled  with  the  idea, 
got  from  partisan  newspapers  and  stump  speakers,  that  Webster 
was  about  to  sacrifice  Oregon,  and  Whitman,  the  Christian,  the? 
martyr,  the  patriot,  lost  no  time  in  starting  on  his  journey,  to 
throw  the  weight  of  his  infiuence,  experience  and  knowledge  of 
this  country  against  such  an  act.  That  no  such  an  act  had  ever 
been  contemplated,  that  the  treaty  had  been  signed  and  ratified 
before  he  started,  do  not  detract  from  the  high  and  pariotic 
motives  that  prompted  the  journey.  All  honor  to  his  noble  life, 
crowned  at  Its  tragic  close  with  a  martyr's  wreath. 

Another  characteristic  of  the  early  Pioneers  was  their  dib 
tinctly  religious  tendency.  So  much  of  the  emigration  had  been 
induced  by  the  efforts  of  the  early  missionary  that  this  was 
probably  natural;  but  even  among  those  who  came  as  trappers 
and  hunters  there  existed  a  general  respect  for  the  forms  of 
religion  that  was  very  marked.  But  in  religion  the  average 
frontiersman  demanded  the  clean  thing;  they  were  quick  to 
discern  the  hypocrite  and  prompt  in  showing  their  contempt  for 
him.  I  remember  once  that  my  good  father,  whose  business  on 
week  days  was  to  practice  medicine,  and  on  Sunday,  as  an 
Elder  in  the  Christian  Church,  to  preach  to  his  neighbors,  was. 
on  one  occasion,  baptizing,  by  immersion,  a  particularly  hardened 
and  notorious  sinner.  An  honest  backwoodsman,  who  doubted 
the  genuineness  of  the  convert's  repentance,  bawled  out  just 
as  the  subject  was  raised  from  the  water,  "Duck  him  again. 
Doc;  he  needs  it."    I  am  glad  to  say  that  the  interrupter's  doubts 


proved  groundless,  and  that  he  himself  is  now  passing  the  sun- 
set of  his  life  as  a  member  of  the  Presbyterian  Church.  But 
while  the  prevailing  tone  of  society  was  religious,  we  had  among 
us  a  few  decided  agnostics.  James  Thomas,  George  W.  Lawson, 
William  Chance  and  a  few  others  were  ready  at  all  times  to 
take  up  the  gauntlet  for  liberalism,  and  while  they  had  to 
endure  a  good  deal  of  criticism,  their  upright  lives  compelled 
the  respect  of  their  severest  critics. 

Integrity  in  public  and  private  affairs  distinguished  our  early 
Pioneers.  Law  suits  were  not  common,  and  seldom  involved 
questions  of  veracity.  Public  office  was  deemed  a  public  trust 
and  was  not  used  as  a  means  of  inordinate  private  gain.  Asahel 
Bush  was  Territorial  and  State  Printer  from  1851  to  1864,  and 
though  he  had  Adams,  of  the  Oregon  City  Argus,  and  Dryer, 
of  The  Oregonian,  waging  perpetual  warfare  against  him,  I  do 
not  recall  that  they  ever  accused  him  of  any  unlawful  attempt 
to  get  public  funds,  or  ever  intimated  that  he  was  in  any  way 
obtaining  more  than  a  fair  compensation  for  honest  work.  He 
quit  office-holding  in  moderate  circumstances  and  most  of  his 
wealth  was  acquired  subsequently  from  other  business,  and  it 
was  the  same  with  other  officers.  In  1849  coin  was  so  scarce 
that  Abernethy,  Kilbourne,  Rector  and  others  procured  dies  and 
began  mlnCing  what  were  known  as  Beaver  coins — being  gold 
(5  and  >10  pieces.  When,  in  after  years,  these  were  recoined 
at  the  Government  mints,  the  |10  pieces  were  found  to  contain 
♦11  worth  of  pure  gold,  and  the  $5  pieces  $5.50  worth.  A 
50-cent  dollar  or  an  irredeemable  greenback  would  not  have 
found  favor  with  the  men  of  *49. 

In  a  literary  way,  the  Pioneers  averaged  fairly  well  with  the 
balance  of  the  Nation.  In  fact,  the  average  was  rather  above 
that  of  the  States  from  which  the  emigration  came.  As  early 
as  1842,  a  plan  was  put  forth  for  an  Academy  to  be  known  as 
the  Oregon  Institute,  and  in  1843  the  building  was  constructed 
and  the  institution  entered  upon  its  career  of  usefulness,  and 
never  was  there  a  time  after  that  when  it  was  not  possible  for 
the  children  of  the  Pioneer  to  acquire  at  least  the  rudiments 
of  an  education.  In  newspapers,  the  Spectator  was  the  begin- 
ning; not  by  any  means  a  "rustler  for  news,"  but  giving  some 
news  and  more  matter   of  a   purely   literary  character.     The 


Western  Stor.  publlshcMl  at  Milwaukie.  was  the  next  venture,  its 
principal  aim  being  to  set  forth  the  claims  of  the  place  to  be 
the  metropolis  of  the  Northwest.  It's  light  was  soon  obscured, 
and  Milwaukle's  claim  to  fame  must  rest  upon  the  undoubted 
fact  that  it  was  the  birthplace  of  the  famous  and  luscious  big 
red  apples  of  Oregon,  a  fame  that  will  fill  the  public  mouth  when 
all  our  earliest  newspapers  have  been  forgotten.  The  Oregonian 
was  the  next  venture  in  the  field  and  was  the  first  genuine, 
all-around  political  newspaper  in  Oregon.  The  contrast  between 
the  office  of  this  paper,  as  I  first  remember  it.  a  cheap  shack  ou 
Front  street,  and  the  magnificent  building  owned  and  occupied 
by  its  publishers  now,  fitly  typifies  the  growth  and  development 
of  the  State  from  the  small  beginning  of  more  than  half  a 
century  ago.  The  Statesman  followed  The  Oregonian  almost 
immediately,  and  as  Dryer,  of  The  Oregonian,  was  a  Whig,  and 
Bush,  of  The  Statesman,  a  Democrat,  these  gentlemen  were 
soon  after  each  other  hammer  and  tongs.  Dryer  was  earnest 
and  impetuous,  without  any  sense  of  humor,  and  would  not 
have  recognized  a  joke  if  he  had  met  it  in  the  road;  Bush  was 
cool,  keen  and  sarcastic,  humorous  to  a  degree  and  rather  more 
than  a  match  for  his  hot-headed  antagonist.  He  afterwards 
met  a  foeman  worthy  of  his  steel  in  Adams,  of  the  Oregon  City 
Argus,  a  master  of  Invective  and  satire.  The  warfare  between 
these  later  worthies  would  make  picturesque  reading  if  repub- 
lished, but  I  imagine  time  has  softened  their  animosities,  and 
that  if  both  were  present  today,  they  would  cheerfully  walk  arm 
in  arm  in  the  procession  of  those  who  labored  well  and  faithfully 
in  laying  the  foundations  of  our  State.  I  have  heard  it  said  of 
one  of  these  editors,  I  don't  remember  which,  that  on  one  occa 
sion  an  irate  subscriber  returned  his  paper  to  the  office  with 
the  endorsement,  "Send  this  paper  to  hell,"  whereupon  the 
editor  published  the  subscriber's  obituary  in  the  usual  death 
column,  with  the  additional  statement  that  he  had  not  received 
any  direct  news  of  Mr.  Jones'  death,  but  as  the  office  had  been 
notified  to  send  his  paper  to  hell,  he  felt  safe  in  assuming  that 
Mr.  Jones  was  no  more.  Another  characteristic  of  our  early 
Pioneers  was  their  respect  for  law.  Decry  as  we  may  the  jury 
system — and  it  has  faults — it  is  a  great  educator.  It  teaches 
respect  for  law  and  order  and  fairness;  nearly  every  American 


of  sixty  years  ago  had  at  some  time  or  another  been  called  to 
serve  as  a  juror,  and  thereby  educated  In  a  respect  for  orderly 
forms  of  procedure.  The  result  of  this  was,  that  wherever  a 
few  Americans  were  gathered  together,  no  matter  how  remote 
from  organized  government,  they  instinctively  resorted  to  the 
forms  to  which  they  had  been  accustomed  when  disputes  had 
to  be  settled  or  crimes  punished.  I  have  been  told  of  one  in- 
stance that  occurred  in  an  emigrant  train  on  the  way  to  Oregon. 
An  unprovoked  homicide  was  committed  by  one  of  the  expedi- 
tion; the  captain  halted  the  train,  assumed  the  functions  of 
judge,  impaneled  a  jury,  gave  the  murderer  a  trial,  and,  upon 
a  verdict  of  guilty,  caused  him  to  be  executed  then  and  there. 
Though  the  proceedings  were  not  sanctioned  by  any  statute,  the 
necessities  of  the  case  required  it,  and  all  the  substantial  rights 
of  the  accused  were  preserved  except  that  of  delaying  justice 
by  frivolous  technicalities. 

EJarly  Oregon  never  had  any  "vigilante"  times.  California, 
Idaho,  Montana  and  perhaps  other  early  Western  communities 
were  forced  to  resort  to  violence  and  wholesale  lynching  to 
preserve  the  community.  Our  Pioneers  were  able  to  preserve 
order,  repress  and  punish  crime  and  still  preserve  the  rights 
of  trial  to  the  accused.  And  when  the  regularly  organized  and 
authorized  courts  did  come  they  found  a  law-abiding  people, 
ready  to  submit  to  and  uphold  constituted  authorities  and 
familiar  with  forms  of  law. 

Another  characteristic  of  the  early  Pioneer  was  his  abound- 
ing hospitality.  Kindly  received  by  Whitman,  McLoughlin  and 
those  who  preceded  them,  the  early  settlers,  like  the  early 
Christians,  "had  all  things  in  common."  A  man  could  travel 
from  Vancouver  to  the  California  line  without  scrip  or  purse, 
could  eat  of  the  best  that  was  to  be  had,  have  his  horse  fed 
and  cared  for  and  no  compensation  would  be  asked  or  accepted. 
In  many  cases  the  offer  of  it  would  have  been  considered  as  a 
personal  slight.  No  newcomer  or  his  family  ever  wanted  for 
food  or  shelter,  and  many  who  were  comfortably  settled  in  the 
valley  sent  cattle  and  wagons  out  beyond  the  Cascade  Mountains 
to  assist  the  worn-out  immigrants  of  the  succeeding  year  into 
the  settlements.  My  own  parents  were  thus  met  and  aided,  and 
this  assistance  came  from  persons  not  bound  to  them  by  any 


tie  ot  blood  or  kindred.  Only  this  week  an  old  Clackamas  Pio- 
neer was  telling  me  of  an  instance  of  this  kind  of  hospitality 
in  his  case  which  is  characteristic.  He  came  in  the  late  '40s 
and  settled  near  Mr.  Klllin.  the  father  of  that  honored  Pioneer, 
Hon.  Benton  Klllin,  of  this  city.  The  old  gentleman  KiUin  was 
a  line,  hospitable  man.  but  on  occasion  he  could  assume  a 
gruff  exterior  that  would  deceive  one  not  acquainted  with  him. 
One  newcomer,  being  without  meat,  flour  or  potatoes,  and  with- 
out any  way  to  secure  them  except  on  credit,  went  to  Mr.  Killin, 
who  was  well  provided  with  everything,  and  asked  him  if  he 
could  let  him  have  a  little  flour,  meat  and  potatoes.  Killin 
looked  at  him  sternly,  and  then  asked  In  a  gruff  voice,  "Have 
you  got  any  money  to  pay  for  these  things?"  His  trembling 
applicant  replied  in  a  still,  small  voice  that  he  hadn't  a  red 
cent  "Then."  said  Mr.  Killin.  "if  you  haven't  any  money,  come 
in  and  take  all  you  need.  Don't  stint  yourself;  all  I  can't  use 
I  am  keeping  for  poor  people  who  can't  pay."  That  Pioneer, 
his  children  and  grandchildren  swear  by  the  Killins  to  this  very 

I  have  thus  crudely  sketched  in  a  desultory  way  the  promi- 
nent features  of  the  early  exploration  of  this  country  and  the 
most  prominent  characteristics  of  the  people  who  first  settled 
it.  I  feel  that  my  attempt  has  been  a  feeble  one,  and  my  apology 
for  that  will  be  found  in  the  exactions  of  other  and  pressing 
duties.  A  son  of  the  soil,  grown  up  with  Oregon  institutions,  I 
am  proud  of  our  early  Pioneers.  I  do  not  believe  that  any  State 
was  founded  by  a  grander  class  of  men  or  women.  Here  was 
found  the  faith  and  religious  fervor  of  the  early  Puritan  with- 
out their  intolerance.  Here  was  found  the  courage  and  manly 
pride  of  the  Cavaliers  without  their  arrogance.  Plain,  honest, 
tolerant,  courageous,  intelligent,  they  laid  broad  and  deep  the 
foundations  of  a  State  whose  magnificant  growth  and  develop- 
ment is  their  grandest  eulogy.  Grand  old  men  and  women!  In 
the  very  nature  of  things  your  ranks  must  thin  and  thin  with 
each  succeeding  year  until  within  a  short  period  at  best  the 
laist  of  you  must  pass  away.  Even  among  your  children  there 
are  many  like  him  who  now  addresses  you,  around  whose 
temples  appears  the  frost  that  never  melts;  but  be  assured 
that  we,    your    children,    appreciate    the    dangers    you    passed 


through,  the  toils  you  endured,  the  institutions  which  you 
founded,  and  rise  up  and  call  you  blessed.  And  in  the  future, 
which  your  foresight  and  toil  have  made  magnificent,  we  will 
claim  no  prouder  descent  than  that  of  being  the  sons  and 
daughters  of  Oregon  Pioneers. 


By   Juno   McMlllon   Ordway. 

Our  Pioneers; 

Tho*   tempest   tossed,   they   came,    like   strong,   new    ships   fuli 

With  hopes  of  men.  with  women's  sobs  and  tears. 
No  storms  could  chill  their  strong,  brave  hearts. 
Nor  e'er  their  courage  dim 
Through  all  the  many  untold  trying  years. 

Brave  Pioneers; 

Long  miles  ahead,  they  saw  the  stately  daylight  fading; 

Each  mom  new  light  shone  in  their  weary  eyes. 

For  this  new  West  they'd  left  their  loved, 

Hope's  mirage  led  them  on — 

They  heard  the  call  that  bade  them  wake  and  rise. 

Dear  Pioneers; 

How  many  of  our  loved  have  found  their  last  safe  haven! 

Like  broken  spars  adrift  and  nearing  shore, 

God  calls  them  home  so  fast,  in  ever  gaining  numbers. 

After  the  storm  the  calm — 

A  new  world's  glories  their's  for  evermore. 


By  W.  T.  Wright,  1852,  Union. 

The  year  1852  may  well  he  assumed  as  an  epoch-marker 
in  the  history  of  the  United  States,  and  especially  of  the  half 
lying  west  of  the  Mississippi  River,  as  that  year  and  its  great 
immigration  definitely  set  the  tide  of  settlement  toward  that 
half  of  the  continent  which  before  had  been  almost  literally  the 
unknown  land.  Besides  a  fringe  of  settlements  along  the  Mis- 
sissippi on  its  eastern  border,  and  the  scattered  mining  camps 
of  California  on  its  western  border,  peopled  mostly  with  people 
attracted  thither  by  the  gold  discovery  of  1848,  and  largely  made 
up  of  a  desperate  and  lawless  element,  there  was  little  in  all  that 
vast  region  to  indicate  the  wonderful  resources  locked  up  within 
its  confines  or  its  adaptability  to  civilization  and  its  ultimate 
occupancy  by  thousands  of  prosperous  and  happy  citizens.  The 
border  towns  of  the  Mississippi  served  largely  as  depots  and 
outfitting  camps  for  the  great  fur  companies,  whose  hunters  and 
trappers  annually  visited  the  wilds  of  the  great  Northwest  in 
pursuit  of  their  half-savage  adventurous  and  unrestrained  occu- 
pation. They  were  a  nondescript  set,  composed  mostly  of  half- 
breeds,  a  mixture  of  native  Indian  blood  on  one  side  and  a  pro- 
miscuous assortment  of  ancestry  upon  the  other.  Associated 
with  them  was  a  liberal  number  of  pure-bloods,  both  native  and 
white.  They  were  led  and  captained  by  a  few  daring  and  more 
intelligent  spirits  bom  to  command,  and  all  dominated  and  con- 
trolled by  the  two  rich  and  powerful  organized  companies,  the 
Hudson's  Bay  Company  and  the  great  American  Fur  Company, 
who  had  adjusted  their  conflicting  interests  so  as  to  partition 
out  and  exerclfta  almost  exclusive  ownership  over  the  vast  do- 
main. These  were  hardy,  desperate,  care-free  creatures,  of  a 
grade  of    civilization  and  intelligence    above    the    wild    native 


Indian,  but  vastly  Inferior  to  the  civilized  American  citizen. 
They  were  content  to  lose  themselves  annually  amid  the  moun- 
tain solitudes  for  months  at  a  stretch,  at  a  time  when  the 
climate  was  the  most  rigorous,  endure  hunger  and  privations 
of  every  kind,  contend  with  the  dangers  of  forests  and  moun- 
tains peopled  with  wild  beasts  and  savage  red  men,  make  long 
and  toilsome  Journeys  by  trails  of  their  own  marking  and  in 
canoes  upon  streams  familiar  only  to  their  own  and  the  Indians' 
paddles— all  for  a  few  weeks'  association  with  their  kind  at  the 
trading  post  at  the  end  of  the  season.  These  few  weeks  gen- 
erally were  sufficient  to  dissipate  all  the  earnings  of  the  year, 
and  were  devoted  to  the  display  of  finery,  the  wearing  of  gaudy- 
colored  clothes,  merry-making,  gambling  (for  which  they  had 
an  uncontrollable  passion) — and  generally  wound  up  with  a  wild 
revelry  and  debauch,  frequently  accompanied  by  deeds  of  vio- 
lence. Then,  again,  the  annual  dispersion  for  another  year, 
whose  routine  made  up  the  trapper's  life.  The  hundreds  of 
trails  made  by  trappers  diverging  from  the  several  important 
trading  posts  stretched  out  in  every  direction  and  penetrated 
everywhere,  or,  as  it  possibly  may  be  more  correctly  stated, 
went  everywhere  and  stopped  nowhere.  For  other  purposes 
than  their  own  they  were  useless  and  confusing.  They  pene- 
trated to  the  haunts  of  the  beaver  ai\d  the  otter,  but  failed  to 
point  out  a  direct  and  available  highway  for  the  use  of  others. 
Although  the  famous  explorers,  Lewis  and  Clark,  had  made  their 
memorable  trips  through  and  across  the  great  region,  crossed  its 
mountains  and  traced  the  mighty  river  of  the  West,  yet  this 
was  long  years  before.  The  same  was  true  of  the  celebrated 
Astor  expedition,  enshrined  in  history  by  the  facile  pen  of 
Washington  Irving,  and  people  were  little  familiar  with  the 
exploits  of  these  famous  men,  and  probably  regarded  much  of 
what  they  had  heard  as  too  romantic  to  be  true. 

There  was  vastly  more  country  than  peopie,  and  at  that 
time  Ohio  and  Kentucky  were  away  out  West,  Illinois  and  Mis- 
souri only  pioneer  settlements,  while  the  facilities  for  distrib- 
uting news  and  general  information  were  very  much  restricted. 
Newspapers  were  few  and  of  a  limited  circulation,  and  the  postal 
system  in  embryo,  and  it  required  time  to  circulate  knowledge 
of  current  events  beyond  their  immediate  neighborhood  among 


the  people,  and  to  arouse  interest  concerning  other  parts,  more 
especially  the  unknown,  unexplored  regions  stretching  away 
beyond  them.  A  few  wealthy  and  prominent  men  of  the  East 
and  at  the  National  Capital  believed  in  the  Pacific  Northwest, 
and  had  lent  their  infiuence  and  contributed  of  their  means 
toward  discovering  and  opening  up  a  highway.  Earliest  among 
them  was  Thomas  H.  Benton,  who  by  his  persistent  labor  in 
the  National  Congress  and  his  untiring  zeal  in  behalf  of  Western 
interests  secured  the  enactment  of  the  most  liberal  settlers' 
land  laws  the  world  has  ever  known,  and  first  advocated  the 
idea  which  later  culminated  in  the  building  of  the  first  trans- 
continental railroad.  He  devised  the  plans  and  secured  their 
adoption  for  the  explorations  made  with  John  C.  Fremont  at 
the  head,  and  created  the  opportunity  that  made  him  famous 
as  the  "Pathfinder,"  and  later  made  him  a  prominent  candidate 
before  the  people  for  President.  Benton  did  a  great  work  for 
the  West,  and  accomplished  more  than  any  other  one  man  in 
his  time  in  directing  the  attention  of  the  people  that  way,  and 
incidentally  won  for  himself  an  honored  name  by  championing 
the  cause. 

Political  conditions  in  the  East  were  becoming  more  or  less 
turbulent,  and  contributed  largely  in  directing  attention  west- 
ward. The  "irrepressible  confiict"  was  on,  was  gathering  force, 
intensifying,  and  the  serious  students  of  the  situation  read  in 
the  signs  of  the  times  prophecies  of  troublous  times  to  come. 
Clashing  interests  had  already  aroused  sectional  animosities,  a 
feeling  of  uncertainty  and  dread  as  to  coming  events  no  doubt 
prompted  many  peace-loving,  thoughtful  citizens  to  look  for 
other  places  more  remote  and  more  secure  from  the  disasters 
that  must  and  did  finally  involve  the  North  and  South. 

Probably  one  of  the  most  potent,  though  silent,  factors  in 
attracting  people  to  and  in  building  up  the  Pacific  Northwest 
was  the  early  missionary  movement  of  the  Protestant  Churches 
of  the  East,  most  prominent  of  whom  were  the  missionaries  of 
the  Methodist  Episcopal  Church.  To  these  grand  and  noble 
men  have  heretofore  been  accorded  but  very  scanty  meed  of 
honor,  in  view  of  the  unrecompensed,  self-sacrificing  services 
rendered,  to  which  many  of  them  devoted  their  whole  lives. 

Those  of  you   who   attended   the  schools  of  forty  or  fifty 


years  ago  will  remember  the  old  Mitcheirs  geography  and  atlas 
we  studied  in  those  days;  how  the  States  were  grouped  into 
New  England,  Middle,  Southern  and  Western,  and  that  we 
learned  these  groups  by  heart  and  stood  up  in  line  to  recite 
them  off  very  much  as  we  did  the  multiplication  table.  The 
map  of  the  United  SUtes  showed  a  kaleidoscopic  line  along  the 
Mississippi  River,  then  west  of  that  a  large  space,  all  covered 
with  fine  dots,  and  labeled  *'Great  American  Desert,"  and  then 
another  large  space  in  the  Northwest  comer,  printed  in  red  and 
labeled  "Oregon  Territory/'  The  latter  was  Old  Oregon,  em- 
bracing an  area  out  of  which  could  be  blocked  twenty  States 
the  size  of  the  great  State  of  New  York,  and  now  comprising 
the  States  of  Oregon,  Washington,  Idaho,  a  large  part  of  Mon- 
tana and  a  piece  of  Wyoming.  All  this  vast  country  prior  to 
1852 'was  peopled  by  an  extremely  sparse  settlement  of  white 
people,  and  even  in  1853,  after  adding  to  their  numbers  the 
great  immigration  of  1852,  there  were  less  than  25,000,  while 
all  that  immense  plain  called  the  Qreat  American  Desert  was 
practically  unsettled,  and  so  remained  for  many  years.  These 
people  came  to  carve  out  of  the  wilderness  homes  and  fortunes 
'  for  themselves  and  their  children  and  to  establish  the  founda- 
tions of  the  commonwealth  which  we  are  now  enjoying  half  a 
century  later.  It  may  be,  as  has  been  said  by  some,  that  Oregon 
is  slow,  but  I  want  to  say  to  you  she  is  sure;  she  has  builded 
safe  and  strong,  and  in  spite  of  all  the  critics  may  say,  has 
made  a  wonderful  advance  in  these  fifty  years,  and  has  kept 
well  in  line  with  the  progress  of  this  wonderfully  progressive 

The  immigrant  of  1852  came  to  a  wilderness,  his  conveyance 
an  ox  team,  his  meager  equipment  very  often  reduced  to  his 
rifle  and  ax,  Bible  and  Webster's  spelling-book.  With  these 
and  his  unaided  hands  he  proceeded  to  erect  a  home,  to  educate 
his  children,  and  build  a  State.  He  was  handicapped  in  many 
ways,  and  especially  so  by  his  extreme  poverty,  the  vicissitudes 
of  his  long  journey  across  the  plains  having  in  almost  every 
instance  stripped  him  of  his  worldly  possessions.  He  was  iso- 
lated from  the  rest  of  the  world  by  immense  distances,  and  It 
required  not  only  time,  but  energy,  economy  and  perseverance 
to  accomplish  these  things.    But  time,  patience  and  perseverance 


accomplish  all  things,  and  now  may  the  Pioneer  of  fifty  years 
realize  what  great  things  he  has  aided  in  bringing  forth. 

The  Western  homeseeker  of  today  comes  not  to  a  wilder- 
ness, but  to  a  land  of  homes  already  built.  He  rides  upon  a 
railroad  and  in  three  days  makes  the  trip  across  the  plains  that 
took  you  and  I  six  months  to  cover.  He  finds  a  modem  civiliza- 
tion, modem  conveniences,  a  people  full  of  energy  and  intelli- 
gence, and  right  up  with  the  times.  In  all  probability  he  finds 
a  country  very  superior  in  many  ways  to  the  place  he  has  left, 
very  many  of  those  old  conservative  Bastem  settlements  being 
laggards  in  the  progressive  race  of  the  times.  I  can  think  of 
no  more  fitting  comparison  of  the  then — fifty  years  ago — and 
the  now  than  the  ox  wagon  of  the  immigrant  and  the  Pullman 
palace  car  of  today,  the  like  extremes  being  applicable  in  every- 

As  a  means  of  access  and  traveling  facilities  increased,  so 
proportionately  has  increased  the  accession  of  all  that  great 
section  lying  west  of  ^tiie  Mississippi,  until  in  the  last  five  or 
six  years  the  annual  addition  to  the  population  from  these 
sources  is  over  1,000,000,  and  present  indications  promise  that 
the  semi-centennial  of  the  great  immigration  of  1852  is  to  be 
celebrated  by  another  which  in  later  times  will  be  styled  the 
great  immigration  of  1902. 

I  have  heard  it  said  that  Oregon  has  made  many  rich  men — 
some  great  men;  and  the  successful  men  of  Portland  are  fre- 
quently designated  as  examples  of  what  a  new  country  may  do 
and  what  Oregon  has  done  by  way  of  making  people.  I  have 
but  little  sympathy  with  the  idea  and  prefeo  to  believe  that  the 
men  have  made  Portland,  and  the  men  Jmve  made  Oregon,  and 
did  a  good  job. 

Possibly  it  may  be  tme  of  Oregon,  as  elsewhere,  that  God 
made  the  country,  man  made  the  cities  and  the  devil  made  the 
little  towns.  Our  critics  have  made  most  of  their  observations 
in  the  little  towns. 

The  fact  is  that  fifty  years  ago  the  whole  United  States  was 
new,  and  that  the  opportunities  to  gain  wealth  and  make  fame 
have  been  greater  in  what  we  are  pleased  to  call  the  older  parts 
than  the  new.  We  have  lived  and  are  Uvlng  In  the  most  pro- 
gressive age  of  the  world,  and  more  actual,  substantial  advance- 


meat  lias  been  made  in  the  last  half  century  than  In  all  the 
preceding  1852  fears  of  the  Christian  era.  The  men  who  have 
won  success  or  notoriety  in  Oregon  belong  to  the  same  class 
who  are  winning  success  and  fame  everywhere,  and  belong  to 
no  particular  State,  City  or  County.  American  thought  and 
genius  and  enterprise  are  today  dominating  the  world,  and  levy- 
ing a  tribute  upon  the  countries  of  Europe  that  is  filling  them 
with  dismay,  an<^  would  bankrupt  them  in  about  five  years  if 
American  tourists  would  discontinue  their  E^uropean  travels  and 
rich  American  papas  would  refuse  to  invest  any  more  millions 
in  "six-bit"  titled  sons-in-law. 

The  opportunities  have  not  been  limited  to  new  ftelds,  but 
have  been  in  reac^  on  every  hand,  needing  only  the  genius  to 
recognize  and  the  ability  to  seize  and  improve  them.  Oregon 
has  possessed  her  (air  proportion  of  such  men,  and  they  would 
have  achieved  sucqess  anywhere  else  in  these  United  States. 
H.  W.  Corbett  wou)d  be  a  rich  man  if  he  had  never  left  N^w 
York.  I  do  not  doubt  he  would  be  the  peer  of  any  of  the 
financial  celebrities  ^f  the  East.  Harvey  Scott  would  be  a  great 
journalist  if  he  had  pever  seen  Oregon.  His  brains  and  talents 
would  have  forced  l^im  to  the  front  in  the  profession  he  was 
bom  to  elsewhere  tjian  in  Oregon.  So  in  every  department, 
industrial,  mechaniciil,  commercial  and  professional,  the  fittest 
are  to  the  front  in  every  place,  and  are  pushing  forward  all  the 
giant  enterprises,  which  are  so  rapidly  developing  our  resources, 
building  our  cities,  ai^d  adding  to  our  wealth  and  comfort. 

There  are  men  h^re  present  who  well  remember  the  Port- 
land of  1852,  a  strafTgling  little  village,  consisting  of  a  few 
wooden  structures,  nepirly  all  confined  to  the  limits  of  Jefferson 
and  Oak  streets,  the  river  front  and  Second  streets,  outside 
these  limits  being  a  fprest  of  immense  fir  trees,  with  numerous 
fine  specimens  still  standing  on  First  street.  There  were  but 
few  houses  outside  these  limits,  and  In  the  ambitious  young 
metropolis  not  a  brick  building,  a  paved  street  or  a  regularly 
laid  sidewalk.  The  principal  building  outside  the  limits  named 
was  the  old  Portland  Academy,  located  in  the  woods  on  the 
heights  of  Seventh  apd  Jefferson  streets.  This  was  one  of  the 
three  prominent  eduQational  institutions  founded  in  Old  Oregon 
by  the  Pioneer  Metl^odist  missionaries,  than  which  there  were 


no  more' potent  educational  factors  in  the  early  days.  PHOr  to 
the  coming  of  the  missionary  forces  all  or  nearly  all  of  their 
predecessors  had  been  either  explorers  or  adventurers.  They 
Came  as  iPioneers,  and  while  their  actual  work  for  several  years 
had  been  principally  confined  to  the  Willamette  Valley  it  was 
for  the  very  f^^eod  reason  that  the  early  settlements  were  mostly 
in  that  section.  Yet  they  kept  well  in  the  vanguard  of  extend- 
ing settlements,  and  always  to  the  front  in  Christian  educa- 
tional and  patriotic  work.  Their  ftrst  efforts  were  directed  t6 
the  upbuilding  and  education  of  a  community.  They  founded 
and  fostered  the  first  educational  institutions  of  the  Territory 
and  conducted  them  on  a  broad  and  liberal  basis.  Themselves 
trained  and  educated  in  the  best  schools  of  the  East,  their  ambi- 
tions Were  to  maintain  such  institutions  in  the  West  as  would 
successfully  compete  with  the  older  institutions  and  afford  to 
their  pupils  an  education  not  inferior  to  that  acquired  elsewhere. 
That  they  were  successful  can  be  fully  attested  by  the  pioneers 
who  benefited  by  these  institutions,  whose  students  went  out 
from  their  doors  into  the  active  affairs  of  life  and  became 
prominent  and  influential  men  and  women  who  have  marked 
their  impress  upon  all  the  affairs  of  the  Pacific  Coast.  The 
methods  inaugurated  by  the  earliest  missionaries  combined  both 
manual  and  intellectual  training  and  called  for  the  services  of 
farmers  and  mechanics,  as  well  as  capable  teachers*  Though 
the  original  mission  of  Jason  Lee  and  his  associates  in  its  incep- 
tion and  first  work  was  devoted  to  the  civilizing  and  Christian- 
izing of  the  Indian  tribes,  yet  the  work  was  later  diverted  to 
the  teaching  and  training  of  the  pioneer  youth.  The  keen  ob- 
servation of  that  remarkable  man  soon  convinced  him  that  the 
destinies  of  this  great  land  were  to  be  wrought  out  by  the 
white  man,  and  that  the  Indians'  occupancy  was  doomed.  He 
recognized  the  immense  value  and  coming  importance  of  Oregon 
to  the  United  States,  and  realized  the  irreparable  injury  the 
loss  would  be  to  the  Nation.  He  voiced  his  sentiments  in  his 
communications  to  the  people  of  the  Bast  on  this  important 
subject,  and  finally  returned  in  person  and  made  his  voice  heard 
and  infiuence  felt  in  the  cause.  When  the  history  is  finally 
written,  the  facts  fairly  recorded,  and  the  list  of  names  en- 
shrined, you  will  find  there  the  names  of  Jason  Lee,  Qustavus 


Hfnes  and  their  companions,  as  the  men  who  saved  Oregon  to 
the  United  States. 

A  few  hundreds  of  people  early  penetrated  the  forests  and 
found  their  way  to  the  borders  of  Puget  Sound,  and  probably 
an  equal  number  penetrated  and  settled  in  Southern  Oregon. 
These  people,  so  thinly  dispersed  over  this  territory,  were  Pio- 
neers, not  adventurers,  like  their  predecessors,  between  whom 
there  is  a  vast  difTerence.  the  adventurers  being  composed  largely 
of  characterless  roamers,  unfettered  of  the  restraints  of  law. 
untrammeled  of  the  domestic  ties,  regardless  of  the  require- 
ments of  morality,  with  no  respect  for  Christianity,  strangers 
to  any  particular  sentiments  of  patriotism,  and  devoid  of  any 
particular  purpose  to  give  force  and  character  to  their  lives. 
The  Pioneers  were  patriots;  they  bore  with  them  their  country's 
flag,  and  carried  in  their  hearts  a  profound  reverence  for  law 
and  order.  They  were  men  of  determined  purpose,  sound  char- 
acter and  dauntless  courage,  and  lent  their  entire  energies 
toward  breaking  up  the  wilderness  and  building  up  the  common- 

The  Methodist  missionaries  built  three  schools — great  and 
powerful  for  good  in  their  days — at  Salem,  Portland  and  in 
Southern  Oregon.  Two  of  these  schools  having  long  ago  served 
out  their  years  of  usefulness,  the  necessities  being  supplied  by 
the  grand  free-school  system  established  at  a  later  date  by  the 
State,  closed  their  doors  and  survive  only  as  memories  of  Old 
Oregon.  One  survives  and  still  occupies  an  honored  place  among 
the  educational  institutions  of  the  State — the  Willamette  Uni- 
versity at  Salem.  In  this  connection  I  am  sure  many  will  recall 
with  feelings  of  respect  and  veneration  that  grand  old  man, 
Father  J.  H.  Wilbur,  to  whose  zeal  and  energy  and  undismayed 
persistence  In  the  face  of  every  obstacle  was  almost  entirely 
due  the  successful  building  and  equipment  of  these  institutions 
of  learning,  which  In  their  time  wielded  an  Influence  which 
was  to  be  later  felt  In  the  destinies  of  the  coming  State. 

There  is  lltle  doubt  that  without  the  services  and  aid  of 
these  pioneer  missionaries  It  would  have  been  Impossible  for 
the  first  settlers  to  have  remained  in  Oregon;  and  It  Is  highly 
proba;ble  that  the  final  settlement  would  have  been  very  much 


delayed,  and  a  large  portion  of  the  domain  irrevocably  lost  to 
the  Government. 

Fortunately,  the  names  of  many  of  these  grand  men  have 
been  preserved  to  us  in  the  minutes  of  the  first  Oregon  M.  E. 
Conference,  held  at  Salem  on  the  17th  day  of  March,  1853,  and 
as  the  mention  of  these  names  cannot  fail  to  awaken  many 
kindly  memories  of  their  great  and  noble  work  iii  the  far-away 
past,  I  have  here  inserted  them:  Thomas  H.  Peame,  H.  K. 
Hines,  C.  S.  Kingsley,  William  Roberts,  John  Flynn,  P.  G.  Buck- 
hanan,  J.  W.  Miller,  N.  Doane,  Isaac  Dillon,  L.  T.  Woodward. 
C  .O.  Hosford,  T.  F.  Royal,  G.  M.  Berry,  Gustavus  Hines,  E. 
Garrison,  F.  S.  Hoyt,  J.  H.  Wilbur,  J.  O.  Raynor,  J.  S.  Smith, 
B.  Close,  W.  B.  Morse. 

Jason  Lee  had  died  in  the  East  some  years  prior  to  this  con- 
ference, and  among  others  who  were  associated  at  one  time  and 
another  with  the  noble  band  of  workers,  I  recall  those  of  David 
Leslie,  A.  F.  Waller,  Clinton  Kelly,  J.  L.  Parrish  and  J.  F.  De- 
Vore.  There  were  others  whose  names'  I  regret  that  I  cannot 
now  remember,  who  heartily  and  efficiently  aided  in  the  work. 

These  men,  together  with  the  families  associated  with  them, 
fully  justify  the  assertion  recently  made  by  one  of  their  own 
number  that  they  ''had  a  chief  agency  in  framing  and  directing 
the  moral  and  intellectual,  and  even  the  civil  and  economical 
life  up  to  the  present  time." 

Among  their  numbers  were  brilliant  men — scholars,  orators 
and  writers  fit  to  grace  any  cpilntry  and  any  age,  and  I  feel  that 
I  cannot  close  this  address  in  a  more  befitting  way  nor  pay  a 
more  acceptable  tribute  to  their  memory  than  by  quoting  from 
one  of  the  most  gifted  of  them  all — Dr.  H.  K.  Hines: 

"The  two  great  events  that  had  set  slightly  ajar  both  the 
western  and  eastern  doors  of  access  to  these  great  regions  and 
these  people  were  the  discovery  of  the  Columbia  River  in  1792 
by  Captain  Robert  Gray,  of  Boston,  and  the  tracing  of  that 
same  river's  course  by  Lewis  and  Clark  in  1805  from  the  moun- 
tain springs  on  the  summit  of  the  American  Continent  to  where 
the  crystal  drops  that  burst  from  beneath  the  ever-wasting  yet 
never-dissolving  glaciers,  nearly  2,000  miles  away  mingled  with 
the  briny  tide  that  on  that  special  day  bore  the  keel  of  Gray's 
good  ship  Columbia.    The  American  flag  thus  floated  in  by  sea. 


and  thus  marched  down  by  land,  consecrated  every  league  of 
the  mighty  river's  flood  to  an  Anglo-American  civilization  of 
which  they  were  the  providential  prophets  and  forerunners. 
Strangely  enough,  the  eyes  of  the  Spaniard  and  the  Briton,  as 
they  sailed  by  the  mouth  of  the  'Great  River  of  the  West,'  were 
holden  and  they  could  not  see  it.  Strangely  enough,  the  Briton 
and  the  Russian  and  even  the  Frenchman  were  turned  aside 
from  the  springs  that  fountain  the  mighty  river,  and  led  down 
roartng  torrents  through  cloven  mountains  to  inhospitable 
coasts.  Strangely  enough,  some  propitious  angel  touched  the 
eyes  of  the  Americans,  Gray,  and  Clark  and  Lewis,  and  they 
saw  and  entered  In.  Still  there  was  an  interregnum  in  unified, 
concentrated,  decisive  action.  Moving  figures,  half  mythical, 
half  real,  cHmbed  the  mountains  or  trailed  through  forests,  or 
shot  down  the  rivers  in  flashing  canoes.  Slowly,  almost  im- 
perceptibly, the  movement  thickens,  quickens,  and  finally  the 
mightiest  forces  God  has  set  in  the  soul  for  all  that  is  thrilling 
and  beneficent  in  human  progress  In  every  line  of  that  progress, 
are  set  to  a  work  that  had  no  limit  of  purpose  but  the  limit  of 
man's  possibility  of  moral,  social,  intellectual  and  spiritual  ele- 

TH  ANsrACVru  )Nr^ 


Oregon  Pioneer  Association 

1  80S 

0<>XT.\IMX<;    TIIK 


AND    rnK 




McKay  Building,  248' i  Stark  Street 




Oregon  Pioneer  Association 







McKay  Building,  248J4  Stark  Street 



Portland,  Oregon,  | 

Wednesday,  April  24,  1895.    3 

The  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Oregon  Pioneer  Associa- 
tion met  pursuant  to  call  at  the  First  National  Bank  to-day 
at  10:30  A.  M.,  to  make  the  necessary  arrangements  for  the 
Twenty -third  Annual  Reunion. 

Present:  President — H.  W.  Corbett,  1851,  iiiiiitnomah 
county;  Vice-President,  William  Galloway,  iSs^,'' Yamhill 
county;  Secretary,  George  H.  Himes,  1853,  jifultnomah 
county;  Corresponding  Secretary,  Dr.  Curtis  C.  Strong, 
1849,  Multnomah  county;  Treasurer,  Henry  Failing,  1851, 
Multnomah  county;  Capt.  J.  T.  Apperson,  1847,  Clackamas 

The  first  order  of  business  was  to  decide  upon  the  place 
of  holding  the  next  Reunion.  No  invitation  having  been 
received  from  any  place  out  of  Portland,  that  city  was 

The  date  was  fixed  for  Friday,  June  14,  as  the  15th 
comes  on  Saturday,  making  it  difficult  for  those  who  come 
from  abroad  to  return  to  their  homes  without  traveling  on 
Sunday.  Another  reason  for  fixing  the  time  of  meeting 
on  the  day  preceding  the  regular  day  rather  on  the  Tues- 
day  following,  according  to  the  prevalent  custom,  was  to 


avoid  any  conflict   with  the  annual  meeting  of  the  G.  A. 
R.,  "which  is  appointed  for  the  17th  at  Oregon  City. 

Hon.  William  Galloway,  of  McMinnville,  Yamhill 
county,  was  selected  to  deliver  the  Annual  Address,  and 
Hon.  T.  T.  Geer,  of  Macleay,  Marion  county,  the  Occasional 

The  Secretary  stated  that  he  had  had  an  interview 
with  Mrs.  Robert  A.  Miller,  of  Oregon  City,  a  daughter  of 
a  pioneer  family,  wherein  she  expressed  a  great  interest 
in  the  efforts  of  the  Association  to  preserve  as  much  of  the 
early  history  of  the  State  as  possible,  and  expressed  a  will- 
ingness to  prepare  a  paper  bearing  upon  some  of  the  ex- 
periences of  pioneer  women  if  it  was  desirable.  The  mat- 
ter was  favorably  considered  and  the  Secretary  instructed 
to  invite  Mrs.  Miller  to  prepare  such  a  paper  for  delivery 
at  the  evening  meeting. 

For  Grand  Marshal,  Gen.  William  Kapus,  1853,  was 
chosen,  and  Rev.  David  B.  Gray,  1852,  was  selected  to  act 
as  Grand  Chaplain. 

A  local  committee  of  arrangements  was  selected  as  fol- 
lows from  the  sons  of  pioneers:  William  M.  I<add,  R.  L. 
Durham,  Whitney  L.  Boise,  John  C.  Lewis,  C.  C.  Beekman, 
Edward  A.  King  and  J.  Couch  Flanders. 

Col.  Frederick  V.  Holman  and  Joseph  N.  Teal  were 
appointed  a  local  committee  on  finance. 

The  matter  of  music  and  transportation  was  left  in  the 
hands  of  the  Secretary,  as  a  committee  of  one. 

A  Ladies*  Auxiliary  Committee  were  appointed  as  fol- 


lows,  with  power  to  add  as  many  others  to  the  committee 
as  they  deemed  best:  Mrs.  D.  P.  Thompson,  Mrs.  M.  C. 
George,  Mrs.  Frances  M.  Harvey,  Mrs.  Benton  Killin,  Mrs. 
C.  M.  Cartwright,  Mrs.  L.  W.  Sitton,  Mrs.  C.  B.  Bellinger. 
Mrs.  Rosa  F.  Burrell  and  Mrs.  J.  H.  McMillen. 

An  invitation  was  extended  to  all  Indian  War  Veterans 
of  the  North  Pacific  Coast  to  join  in  the  exercises  of  the 
Annual  Reunion. 

The  President  and  Secretary  were  appointed  a  com- 
mittee to  draft  a  memorial  of  the  late  Frank  Dekum,  1853, 
one  of  our  most  honored  pioneers,  to  be  spread  upon  the 
minutes  of  this  Association. 

No  further  business  appearing,  the  Board  adjourned. 




Portland,  Oregon,  ) 

Friday,  June  14,  1895.      j 

To-day  was  pioneer  day,  and  in  spite  of  hail  and  rain  it 
was  celebrated  with  more  enthusiasm,  if  possible,  than  ever 
before.  There  was  brought  together  in  this  city  a  familiarly 
picturesque  band  of  men  and  woman  whose  names  and 
lives  have  been  so  intimately  associated  with  the  splendid 
development  of  Oregon  that  everybody  felt  impelled  to 
turn  out  to  do  them  honor.  In  spite  of  the  unpleasant 
weather,  a  large  crowd  of  people  was  on  hand  to  view  the 
parade  of  white-haired  old  pioneers;  and  the  A.  O.  U.  W. 
hall,  where  tl;e  exercises  both  morning  and  evening,  were 
held,  was  filled  to  the  utmost  capacity  on  both  occasions. 

The  attendance  of  pioneers  to-day  was  larger  than  at 
the  two  preceding  reunions.  This  maybe  accounted  for 
by  the  fact  that  although  the  ranks  of  the  Association  are 
thinned  by  an  increasing  number  of  deaths  each  year,  yet 
a  keener  interest  in  each  succeeding  Reunion  brings  out 
enough  more  pioneers  to  keep  the  vacancies  filled  on  such 
occasions  for  a  time.  The  observer  could  not  but  be  im- 
pressed by  the  evident  fact  that  pioneering  must  be  con- 
ducive to  a  hearty  old  age,  judging  from  the  vigorous  ap- 
pearance of  the  aged  people  in  line. 

Many  of  the  members  who  live  at  d  considerable  dis- 


tance  from  Portland  arrived  in  the  city  yesterday,  but  the 
majority  came  this  morning.  The  first  duty  discharged  by 
each  was  to  visit  the  Secretary's  office  to  register  their 
names  and  receive  their  badges. 

Shortly  after  one  o'clock,  the  pioneers  commenced  to 
assemble  in  and  around  the  Hotel  Portland.  The  First 
Regiment  Band  arrived  and  with  it  one  of  the  most  terrific 
hail  storms  for  five  minutes  ever  seen  in  this  city,  in  the 
middle  of  June.  A  peal  or  two  of  thunder,  and  the  worst 
was  over,  though  it  continued  to  shower  occasionally  dur- 
ing the  balance  of  the  afternoon.  The  pioneers  crowded 
the  office  and  veranda  of  the  hotel,  and  chatted  and  waited 
until  at  last,  shortly  after  2  o'clock,  the  rain  ceased  long 
enough  to  give  Grand  Marshal  William  Kapus  an  oppor- 
tunity to  shout  an  order  or  two  and  get  the  parade  under 
way.  Carriages  were  provided  for  all  pioneers  desiring 
them,  and  all  the  ladies,  together  with  many  of  the  old  men, 
occupied  them  from  the  hotel  to  the  hall. 

The  members  of  the  Indian  War  Veteran  Association 
led  the  van,  and  the  divisions  were  formed  of  the  various 
years,  each  divisic'U  bearing  a  banner  on  which  the  date 
appeared  in  large  figures.  There  should  have  been  an 
even  score  of  these  banners  in  the  line,  as  they  commenced 
with  1839,  ^^^  o^ly  fourteen  were  counted.  Arriving  at 
the  hall.  Marshal  Kapus  arranged  a  double  row  of  the  visit- 
ors between  which  marched  the  pioneers. 

At  the  head  of  the  procession  marched  a  mild  looking 
old  gentleman  in  a  silk  hat  and  long  frock  coat.  He  bore 
the  banner  inserted  **i839."  He  was  Rev.  J.  S.  Griffin  of 
Hillsboro.     He  is  familiarily   known  as  "Father''  Griffin 


and  "Doctor"  Griffin.  He  is  a  native  of  Utchfield  county, 
Connecticut,  and  crossed  the  plains  on  horseback,  accom- 
panied by  his  wife,  who  was  a  native  of  Boston,  arriving  at 
Walla  in  1839.  He  was  31  years  of  age  at  that  time.  As  a 
missionary  he  worked  among  the  Indians  for  some  time  at 
Lapwai  station,  near  Lewiston.  Later  he  moved  to  a  spot 
near  where  the  town  of  Hillsboro  now  stands,  and  com- 
menced the  first  American  settlement  there.  His  wife  was 
the  first  white  woman  that  ever  set  foot  in  that  region. 
Mr.  Griffin  looks  hearty  and  vigorous  enough  to  visit  many 
more  reunions  of  the  Association. 

Close  abreast  with  Mr.  Griffin  walked  a  tall,  robust- 
looking  man,  with  straight  black  hair  and  a  white  mus- 
tache. He  also  wore  a  badge  with  the  date  "1839**  printed 
thereon.  He  was  Napoleon  McGillivray  and  was  a  fol- 
lower of  Fremont  in  early  California  days.  Born  at  Little- 
woods,  in  Upper  Canada,  he  entered  the  Hudson's  Bay 
Company's  service  in  his  early  boyhood,  and  finally  fol- 
lowed that  service  to  Vancouver,  Wash.,  in  1839.  In  the 
spring  of  1846,  he  moved  to  Marion  county,  but  shortly  af- 
ter went  on  to  California  and  joined  Fremont,  whom  he 
followed  in  the  latter's  famous  expedition  in  that  state. 
Later  he  crossed  the  plains  to  St.  Louis  with  Commodore 
Stockton,  and  recrossed  them  again  westward  in  1848. 
Returning  to  Oregon  for  a  few  days  only,  he  went  again  to 
California  when  the  gold  excitement  broke  out,  and  was 
there  for  several  years. 

The  procession  went  from  the  Portland  Hotel  to  Fourth 
thence  to  Salmon,  thence  to  Second  and  to  A.  O.  U.  W. 
hall.  On  arriving  at  the  hall,  the  pioneers  filed  up  the 
stairway,  and  they  were  seated  in  the  order  of  their  arrival 


in  Oregon.  The  hall  was  beautifully  decorated  with  roses 
set  in  evergreens,  a  magnificent  piece  being  the  word  *Tio- 
neers,"  in  letters  a  yard  or  more  in  length,  formed  of  roses 
and  evergreens,  and  set  just  in  front  of  the  platform. 

The  large  gathering  was  called  to  order  by  Hon.  H.  W. 
Corbett,  1851,  President  of  the  Association,  a  musical  selec- 
tion was  rendered  by  the  band,  after  which  the  chaplain, 
Rev.  D.  B.  Gray,  1852,  offered  a  brief  prayer,  and  the 
President  delivered  a  brief  address  of  welcome  as  follows: 

Pioneers  of  Oregon:  The  citizens  again  welcome  you  to  our  city. 
The  people  of  Portland  have  always  had  a  warm  place  in  their 
hearts  for  the  early  pioneers,  and  now  as  their  numbers  decrease, 
they  feel  more  warmly  than  ever  the  ties  of  common  interest  that 
have  bound  and  still  bind  us  together.  The  incidents  of  early 
settlements  will  again  be  brought  vividly  before  you,  as  they  are 
recounted  by  your  chosen  speakers  fof  to-day.  May  the  ties  of 
friendship  be  strengthened  and  our  hearts  grow  warmer  as  our 
years  grow  fewer;  may  this  Reunion  be  as  pleasant  to  you  as  it  is 
agreeable  to  the  citizens  and  pioneers  of  Portland. 

Hon.  William  Galloway,  of  McMinnville,  Yamhill  coun- 
ty, was  then  introduced  and  gave  the  Annual  Address. 

Following  Mr.  Galloway,  Hon.  T.  T.  Geer,  of  Macleay, 
Marion  county,  delivered  the  Occasiomal  Address,  at  the 
conclusion  of  which  another  selection  of  music  was  played 
by  the  First  Regiment  Band,  and  the  benediction  was  pro- 
nounced by  the  chaplain.  Rev.  D.  B.  Gray. 

It  was  now  5:30  o'clock,  and  all  persons  wearing  badges 
were  requested  to  remain  in  the  hall  for  refreshments  pro- 
vided by  the  pioneer  ladies  of  Portland.  Some  400  persons 
were  served  with  delicious  cake,  lemonade,  ice  cream  and 
3trawberries.     Pioneer  daughters  assisted  in  serving. 


The  Ladies*  Committee  of  Arrangements,  which  served 
the  refreshments  and  decorated  the  rooms  was  as  follows: 
Mrs.  F.  M.  Harvey,  '44;  Mrs.  R.  F.  Burrell,  '53;  Mrs.  M.  C. 
George,  '53;  Mrs.  P.  L.  Willis,  '54;  Mrs.  A.  H.  Morgan,  '45; 
Mrs.  M.  A.  Smith,  '41;  Mrs.  D.  P.  Thompson,  '45;  Mrs.  C.  M. 
Cartwright,  '45;  Mrs.  J.  H.  McMillen,  '51;  Miss  Susie  Cos- 
grove,  '47:  Mrs.  Amanda  Bowman,  '48;  Mrs.  Benton  Killin, 
*48;  Mrs.  M.  H.  Lucas,  *5o;  Mrs.  William  Grooms,  '52;  Mrs- 
J.  C.  Cartwright,  '45;  Mrs.  Richard  Williams,  '53,  Mrs.  Alice 
T.  Bird,  '49;  Mrs.  K.  S.  Albright,  '52;  Mrs.  M.  A.  Stratton, 
*5i;  Mrs.  Geo.  H.  Himes,  '58;  Mrs.  T.  T.  Struble,  Mrs.  R.  J. 
Marsh,  ^47;  Mrs.  R.  Hoyt,  Mrs.  E.  E.  McClure,  '53;  Mrs.  H. 
H.  North  up. 


In  the  evening,  at  ^130,  the  usual  business  meeting  was 
held,  and  officers  for  the  ensuing  year  were  elected  as  fol- 

President,  Henry  Failing,  1851,  Multnomah  county; 
Vice-president,  F.  X.  Matthieu,  1842,  Marion  county;  Secre- 
tary, Geo.  H.  Himes,  1853,  Multnomah  county;  Correspond- 
ing Secretary,  William  Kapus,  1853,  Multnomah  county; 
Treasurer,  J.  T.  Apperson,  1847,  Clackamas  county;  Direc- 
tors, T.T.  Geer,  Marion  county;  William  Galloway,  Yam- 
hill county;  Thomas  D.  Humphrey,  Washington  county. 

It  was  voted  to  elect  an  Assistant  Secretary  in  each 
county,  these  to  be  named  by  the  Secretary. 

The  committee  on  resolutions,  Hon.  John  Minto,  A.  R. 
Burbank  and  W.  C.  Johnson,  reported  as  follows: 

Mr.  President:  Your  committee  appointed  to  formulate  resolu- 
tions expressive  of  sentiments  of  the  Oregon  Pioneer  Association 
on  divers  subjects,  beg  leave  to  report  as  follows: 


WHEREA.S,  It  is  one  of  the  chief  points  of  glory  to  pioneers, 
as  a  class,  that  they,  as  citizens  of  the  United  States,  moved  to  the 
Pacific  coast  under  the  patriotic  impulse  to  plant  the  flag  of  their 
country  on  its  shores,  aware,  while  so  doing,  that  the  movement 
was  also  a  reaching  out  of  national  interests  towards  the  com- 
merce of  Asia,  as  advocated  by  Senator  BeJiton  and  others;  and 

Whereas,  The  pioneers  thus  making  the  shortest  land  route  to 
Asiatic  commerce, they  claim  the  right  to  appeal  to  their  descend- 
ants and  all  interested  in  national  development,  to  urge  them  to 
push,  by  all  honorable  means,  the  opening  of  the  Nicaragua  canal  as 
a  further  means  of  consolidating  our  national  interests  and  secur- 
ing the  most  direct  water  route  to  Asia  at  the  same  time;  there- 
fore be  it 

Resolved^  The  pioneers  of  Oregon  favor  the  construction  of  the 
Nicaragua  canal,  as  an  American  enterprise,  under  American  con- 
trol, in  the  least  possible  time. 

Resolved^  We  appeal  to  the  nation  at  large  to  do  an  act  of 
simple  justice  to  the  Indian  War  veterans,  who  gave  their  services 
and  their  property  in  fighting  the  early  Indian  wars  of  Oregon, 
which  arose  out  of  the  extension  of  the  American  settlements  to 
and  over  the  Pacific  slope,  by  paying  them  the  balance  of  the  sum 
found  due  by  a  commission  appointed  by  congress,  and  wrongful- 
ly withheld  by  the  arbitrary  act  of  the  third  auditor  of  the  Uni- 
ted States  treasury.  We  claim,  also,  pensions  are  as  justly  due 
them  as  to  any  other  soldiers  of  the  nation,  and  should  be  granted. 

Resolved^  There  are  yet  many  claims  for  property  lost  and 
for  services  rendered,  which  have  never  yet  been  audited,  but 
which  ought  to  be  examined  and  paid  for  where  just. 

Resolved^  That  while  we  indorse  and  highly,  commend  the 
past  action  of  generous  citizens  of  Portland  in  securing  a  portrait 
of  the  early  and  potent  friend  of  the  earliest  pioneers  to  Oregon, 
Dr.  McLaughlin,  and  of  the  governors  who  have  been  chosen  to 
execute  the  government  first  established  by  them,  we  think  the 
people  of  Oregon  would    now  honor  themselves  by    securing   and 


placing  in  the  capitol  of  the  state  the  likenesses  of  such  pioneers 
as  Jesse  Applegate,  Peter  H.  Burnett,  Daniel  Waldo,  J.  W.  Nesmith, 
John  H.  Couch  and  J.  C.  Ainsworth,  representative  men  in  the 
development  of  American  interests  here. 

Resolved^  We  thank  the  pioneer  citizens  of  Portland  and  their 
friends  for  the  past  and  present  liberal  treatment  of  our  Associa- 
tion; especially  do  we  thank  the  ladies  of  this  city  for  the  care 
and  trouble  they  take  to  make  our  Annual  Reunions  occasions  of 

We  thank  the  transportation  companies  for  concessions  made 
to  such  of  us  as  have  to  use  their  means  of  conveyance. 

We  would  recommend  to  our  membership  the  importance  of 
informing  the  Secretary  of  the  demise  by  death  of  any  member 
or  pioneer  who  may  be  entitled  to  membership. 

We  would  recommend  the  attention  of  our  board  of  directors 
to  a  proper  compensation  to  our  Secretary  for  the  services  he  ren- 

Respectfully  submitted, 





Business  disposed  of,  the  meeting  resolved  itself  into 
an  old-fashioned  "camp-fire,"  with  Vice-President  Gallo- 
way as  master  of  ceremonies,  and  Secretary  Himes  as 
prompter,  and  three  hours  of  reminiscence  and  speech- 
making  followed,  each  speaker  being  limited  to  five  min- 
utes. The  First  Regiment  band,  concealed  behind  the 
banks  of  flowers  and  greenery,  occasionally  enlivened  the 
proceedings  with  catchy  music  which  added  much  to  the 
pleasure  of  the  evening. 


After  the  session  had  been  formally  opened  by  a  few 
humorous  remarks  from  the  presiding  ofl&cer,  Mrs.  Robert 
A.  Miller,  a  pioneer  daughter  of  Oregon  City,  was  intro- 
duced, and  read  a  very  touching  and  vivid  paper  on  **The 
Part  of  Women  in  the  Pioneer  Days/*  Such  a  striking 
impression  did  Mrs.  Miller*s  remarks  make,  that  they  really 
sounded  the  key-note  for  the  speech-making  of  the  even 
ing.  [The  address  may  be  found  elsewhere.]  At  the 
conclusion  of  the  address,  Secretary  Himes,  in  a  few  re- 
marks, moved  that  the  Pioneer  Association  extend  to  Mis. 
Miller  a  vote  of  thanks.  The  vote  was  taken  standing 
amid  great  applause. 

Chairman  Galloway  then  called  upon  his  comrades  for 
stories  and  expressions  of  sentiment,  such  as  were  in  vogue 
in  pioneer  days  when  open-air  campfires  were  the  favorite 
gathering  places.  Thomas  A.  Wood  was  first  called  upon 
and  he  asked  permission  to  read  a  short  poem  from  the  pen 
of  Mrs.  June  McMillen  Ordway,  a  pioneer  daughter,  dedi- 
cated by  her  to  her  father,  Captain  James  H.  McM  illen 
1845.  This  poem,  Mr.  Wood  said,  had  been  suggested  by 
the  murmurings  of  the  breezes  in  the  fir  forests,  which 
lulled  to  sleep  tired  emigrants  in  early  days.  The  poem  is 
entitled,  ^'Spirit  Voices,*'  and  is  as  follows: 

Spirit  voices  soft  and  sweet, 
Sweeping  o'er  the  boundless  deep, 
Come  to  me  in  dreams  at  night, 
Stay  with  me  still,  at  morning  light. 

Sweeter  than  voice  of  bird  or  hum  of  bee, 
Or  balmy  winds  from  o'er  the  sea, 
You  whisper  of  a  life,  oh!  fairer  than  this, 
And  tell  of  days  of  bltss,  of  bliss. 


Oh!  Father  above  in  that  home  of  love, 
Help  me  to  find  the  way; 
While  sweet  voices  whisper  to  me 
I  cannot  go  astray 

Chorus — 
Stay  sweet  voices  through  each  troubled  day: 
Sweet  Spirit  voices  with  me  stay,  with  me  stay. 

Mr.  John  Minto,  1844,  of  Salem,  was  then  called  upon. 
The  intensity  of  feeling  that  existed  among  early  pioneers, 
which  formed  the  theme  for  Mrs.  Miller's  paper,  he  said, 
was  more  entertained  by  the  women  than  by  the  men  of 
that  early  day.  While  all  suffered  hunger,  exposure  and 
many  other  privations  and  dangers,  Mr.  Minto  said  that 
such  memories  had  passed  from  him  long  ago,  and  now  he 
calls  to  mind  more  easily  the  jolly  good  times  he  and  his 
comrades  used  to  have  in  crossing  the  plains.  He  told  an 
amusing  story  of  General  Gilliam,  the  commanding  officer 
of  their  train,  who  halted  his  column  and  mounted  his 
daughter's  horse  to  pursue  a  vast  herd  of  buffalo,  encoun- 
tered on  the  plains.  Mr.  Minto  then  described  a  confer- 
ence with  the  Indians,  their  love  for  speechmaking  and 
ceremony,  and  how  such  affairs  were  regarded  by  the  pio- 
neers. On  one  occasion  Mr.  Minto's  party,  after  such  a 
"pow-wow,"  had  leveled  off  a  spot  in  the  woods  where  "us 
young  fellows"  danced  half  the  night  away,  singing  songs 
and  making  merry  as  they  did  in  their  old  eastern  home. 

Mr.  A.  R.  Burbank,  of  Lafayette,  who  in  1853  was  cap- 
tain of  an  Oregon-bound  emigrant  train,  spoke  of  the  won- 
derful changes  that  have  been  effected  in  the  vast  stretch 
of  country  over  which  pioneers  traveled  on  foot  and  horse- 
back. The  great  distances  that  were  traveled  was  a  most 
interesting  theme  for  him.     He  came  to  Oregon  for  his 


health,  and  he  had  not  made  a  mistake.     Mr.  Burbank  also 
referred  gallantly  to  the  pioneer  women. 

Colonel  C.  A.  Reed  was  in  a  reflective  mood,  and  spoke 
feelingly  of  the  passing  of  the  pioneers.  He  said  that  he 
would  rather  speak  of  the  pioneer  women,  but  'thought 
that  he  could  not  commence  to  do  the  subject  justice  in  a 
five  minutes  talk.  He  recalled  a  **campfire"  held  in  Salem 
25  years  ago,  when  only  about  one-half  of  the  '49ers  re- 
sponded to  roll-call.  '*Two  years  ago,"  he  said,  "seventeen 
marched  through  the  streets  of  Portland  under  the  banner 
of  1849,  while  to-day  but  three  were  present."  Colonel 
Reed  reaffirmed  that  the  pioneers  assembled  represented 
the  root  and  branch  of  a  nation  that  would  redeem  the 
world,  if  it  continued  to  show  the  same  characteristics  in 
future  that  it  has  in  the  past.  He  closed  by  paying  a 
touching  tribute  to  the  pioneer  women. 

Chairman  Galloway  at  this  point  called  upon  Mr.  Van 
B.  DeLashmutt,  1852,  for  a  speech,  affirming  that  he  was  a 
man  that  could  always  be  relied  upon  for  an  extemporane- 
ous speech  from  notes  previously  prepared  and  committed 
to  memory. 

Mr.  DeLashmutt  replied  in  a  humorous  speech,  saying 
that  he  expected  to  make  a  speech  and  had  prepared  it,  but 
that  he  unfortunately  left  it  in  another  suit  of  clothing  and 
so  would  have  to  disapppoint  his  auditors,  who  had  been 
led  to  believe  that  a  treat  was  in  store  for  them.  Continu- 
ing, Mr.  DeLashmutt  made  some  humorous  remarks  in  re- 
gard to  pioneer  women,  indorsing  the  sentiments  of  Colonel 
Reed  upon  the  subject.  He  said  that  the  right  of  equal 
suffrage  ought  to  be  granted  to  women.     If  it  had  been 


long  ago,  the  country  would  not  have  suffered  a  financial 
panic,  as  women  were  all  notoriously  for  free  silver. 

General  Kapus,  having  been  summoned  to  the  rostrum, 
made  a  rousing  speech.  He  addressed  the  pioneers  as 
''men  and  women**  instead  of  "ladies  and  gentlemen,"' and 
after  a  few  introductory  remarks,  said  that  Mr.  DeLash- 
mutt  had  not  spoken  truthfully  in  regard  to  his  speech.  "Mr. 
DeLashmutt,"  he  said,  "never  had  a  speech  prepared,  and 
could  not  have  left  it  in  his  other  clothes,  for  there  is  not 
a  real  estate  agent  in  Oregon  who  possesses  two  suits  of 
clothes."  This  created  a  great  laugh  at  Mr.  DeLashmutt's 

General  Kapus»  continuing,  asserted  that  the  "wail  in 
regard  to  the  passing  of  the  pioneers,*'  was  ill-timed;  that 
there  is  still  a  great  multitude  of  pioneers  left  in  Oregon, 
and  that  those  who  remain  are  a  standing  testimonial  to  the 
Darwinian  theory  of  the  "survival  of  the  fittest.*' 

Colonel  Kelsay,  1853,  of  Corvallis,  the  Indian  war  vet- 
eran, was  the  next  speaker,  and  he  told  some  interesting 
incidents  of  his  trip  across  the  plains.  He  pleased  the  la- 
dies by  referring  to  them  as  "gals,"  and  closed  with  a  remin- 
iscence of  a  brush  with  Indians  near  the  California  bound- 
ary. There  were  a  number  of  women  in  his  party,  which, 
while  traveling  through  a  hostile  country,  was  attacked  at 
daylight  by  a  score  of  redskins.  Colonel  Kelsay  on  that 
occasion  remarked  to  the  women:  "I'll  see  you  out  safe,  or 
never  go  out  of  the  mountains  alive,"  and  it  is  needless  to 
say  that  his  appearance  in  the  land  of  the  living  to-day  is  a 
testimonial  that  the  party  escaped. 

Ed.  Chambreau,  1846,  the  old  time  Indian  scout,  told  of 
an  Indian  fight  in  the  Chinook  jargon,  which  was  very  amus- 


ing.     Nearly  all  of  the  pioneers  understood  him  perfectly, 
and  the  recital  was  one  of  the  best  things  of  the  evening. 

Speeches  were  also  made  by  A.  Hill,  '43,  of  Gaston,  and 
Joseph  Buchtel,  ^52,  of  Portland,  both  ot  which  savored  of 
the  reminiscent. 

In  closing.  Chairman  Galloway  made  a  brief  address  in 
which  he  returned  thanks  on  behalfof  the  visiting  pioneers 
to  the  people  of  Portland,  for  their  many  courtesies  to  the 
Pioneer  Association,  and  also  to  the  band  foi  its  music. 
The  "camp-fire"  was  then  put  out,  while  the  band  played 
''Home,  Sweet  Home." 


The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  the  pioneers  who  were 
in  attendance,  arranged  by  years. 

Napoleon  McGillivray,  Portland, 


Mrs.  Wiley  Edwards,  Portland. 


Rev.  J.  S.  Griffin,  Hillsboro, 

Mrs.  J.  R.  Mill,  Portland, 

Mrs.  C.J.  Hood,  Portland. 
F.  X.  Matthieu.  Butteville. 

P.  G.  Stewart,  Portland, 

H.  A.  Straight,  Oregon  City, 

Sarah  T-  Hill,  Gaston. 

John  Hobson  Astoria, 
A.  Hill,  Gaston, 


William  M.  Case,  Champoeg,  Mrs.  Jacob  Conser,  Eugene, 

H.  Caples,  Caples,  Wash.,  John  Minto,  Salem, 

J.  C.  Nelson,  Lafayette,  O.  C.  Wirt,  Skipanon. 

Mrs.  J.  Welch,  Astoria,  Judge  S.  S.  White,  Portland, 

Mrs.  B.  Jennings,  Oregon  City.  J.  Johnson,  Lafayette, 


W.  A.  Scoggin,  Portland,  W.  Q.  Johnson,  Oregon  City, 

J.  H.  McMillen,  Portland,  W.  Savage,  The  Dalles, 

Mrs.  Barlow,  Barlow's  Station,  J.  S.  Risley,  Oswego, 

Mrs.  M.  A.  Clark,  Portland,  L.  J.  Bennett,  Portland, 

Mrs.  S.  J.  Henderson,  Portland,  Mrs.  E.  Perry,  Houlton, 

J.  S.  Rinearson,  Rainier,  Mrs.  Julia  A.  Wilcox,  Portland. 




Kate  S.  vSlocum,  Portland, 
Dock  Hartley,  Rockwood, 
C.  W.  Shane,  Vancouver, 
Rachel  H.  Holman,  Pendleton, 
Frances  A.  Holman,        *' 

William  Merchant,  Carlton, 

O.  H.  Cone,  Butteville, 

John  T.  Hughes,  Portland, 

T.  D.  Humphrey,  Hillsboro, 

R.  V.  Short,  Portland, 

Mrs.  C.  A.  Lappeus,  Portland. 

Mrs.    F.    Catching,  " 

Mrs  Eva  A.  King,  " 

Mrs.  J.  B.  Waldo, 

Robert  Patton. 

A.  E.  Wait,  Portland, 

J.  T.  Apperson,  Oregon  City, 

Ahio  S.  Watt,  Portland, 
N.  L.  Croxton,  Portland. 

W.  A.  Miller,  Portland. 
John  Kelly,  Springfield, 
T.  J.  Eckerson,  Portland. 
Mrs.  J.  M.  Freeman,  Portland 

A.  H.  Sale.  Astoria, 

R.  L.  Simpson.  Amity, 

B.  C.  Duniway,  Portland. 
Elizabeth  Ryan.  **  ^ 
Theodore  Wygant,     " 

C.  C.  Redman,  " 

R.  S.  McEwan,  Portland, 
James  Blakely,  Brownville, 
K.  V.  Moses,  Portland, 
A.  C.  Brown,  Forest  Grove, 
Wm.  Elliott,  Portland. 

J.  B.  Dimick,  Hubbard, 

A.  I.  Chapman,  Vancouver,  Wash 
Wm.  B.  Jolly,  Portland, 

W.  T.  SchoU,  Schoirs  Ferry, 

F.    A.  Watts,    Portland, 

Mrs.  A.  J.  Mcpherson,  Portland, 

Mrs.    L.    Barger,  Portland, 

Seneca  Smith,  ** 

Mrs.  R.  J.  Barger, 

Mrs.  W.  E.  Brainerd,  " 

J.  S.  Bybee,  Portland, 

H.   Luelling,  Milwaukie. 


S.  A.  Walker,  Portland, 


D.  E.  Pease,  Skipanon, 
Mrs.  M.  B.  Quivey,  Portland, 
Mrs.  T.  J.  Eckerson. 

J   M.  Breck,  Portland, 
J.  H.  Lambert,     '* 
I).  S.  Dunbar,  Goldendale, 
J.  B.  Wyatt.  Astoria, 

B.  C.  Her,  Sherwood, 

E.  W.  McKee,  McKee. 



George  F.  McClane,  Portland,       J.  S.  Dillard,  Mt.  Tabor, 

William  Grooms, 
T.  A.  Davis, 
R.  Weeks, 
E.  A.  Dean, 
W.  W.  Baker, 
W.  H.  Pope, 
Mrs.  H.  C.  Exon, 

I.  G.  Davidson,  Portland, 

James  Wilson,        " 

I.  H.  Gove, 

Rev.  J.  W.  Miller,  " 

S.  Beary, 

Samuel  Swift,  Portland. 

185 1 

O.  D.  Doane,  Portland,  D.B.  Gray,  Portland, 

Mrs.  William  Merchant,  Carlton,  Wyatt  Harris,  McMinnville, 

L.  Liddell,  The  Dalles, 
M.  C.  George.  Portland, 

E.  D.  White. 

F.  M.  Arnold, 
C.  C.  Hall, 
Henry  Failing      " 
John  N.  Davis,  Silverton, 
T.  H.  Eckerson,  Portland. 

P.    W.    Gillette,   Portland, 
Gustaf  Wilson,  " 

T.  A.  Wood, 
I.  M.  Wagner,  Salem, 

T.  T.  Geer,  Macleay, 
H.    W.    Olds,    Portland, 
E.  E.  McClure, 
W.T.  B.  Nicholson,  Portland, 
J.  Zimmerman,  " 

Richard  Williams  '* 
E.  S.  Conner,  Sellwood, 
H.  W.  Corbett.  Portland, 


Sarah    L.  Black,  Portland, 

W.  H.  Harris, 

G.  W.  Taylor. 

A.  Slocum,  " 

Hon.  W.  Galloway,  McMinnville,  Mrs.  A.  S.  Duniway, 

James  Howe,  Palestine, 

Mrs.  C.  A.  Coburn,  Portland, 

H.  A.  Leavens,  Cascade  Locks, 

Fred  V.  Hoi  man,  Portland, 

George  Hornbuckle,  Portland, 

A.  D.  Ballard, 

R.  S.  Perkins,  " 

J.  S.  Newell,  Dilley, 

J.  H.  Jones,  Portland, 

J.  E.  McQonneU,  SUerwood, 

Mrs.  A.  M.  McDonald,  St.  Paul, 

John  Hug,  Portland, 

John  Winters,  Middleton, 

Thomas  Cox,  Gales  Creek, 

A.  P.  Carroll,  Portland, 

Peter  Taylor.        " 

O.  N.  Denny, 

M.  R.  Hathaway,  Vancouver, 

L.  M.  Parrish,  Portland, 

Hf  Wehrung,  HiUsboro, 



Mrs.  E.  L.  Grow,  LaCenter,\Vash. 

Wm.  A.  Gardiner,  Portland, 

Mrs.  M.  E.  Saylor,  Junction, 

John  Mack, 

William  Masters,  Portland, 

J.  D.  Kelty,  McCoy, 

John  Parkhill,  Portland, 

J.  W.  Briedwell,  Amity. 

J.  C.  Burnside,  Willsburg, 

Mary  H.  Holbrook,  Portland, 

Amelia  M.  Beach,  Hughes, 

Mrs.  J.  W.  Cook,  Portland, 

Mrs.  John  Kelly, 

Mrs.  W.  P.  Burke, 

Joseph  Bucthel,  " 

A.  H.  Paxton,  Albany, 

William  GriflSth,  Albina, 

J.  P.  Powell,  Gresham, 

W.  S.  Moore,  Klamath  Falls, 

J.  S.  Royal,  Portland. 

Mrs.  Elizabeth  H.  By ars, Portland 

W.  G.  Ballard,  Portland, 

Mrs.  Arvilla  McGuire,  Portland, 

J.  A.  Strowbridge, 

W.  H.  Gandy,  Hubbard, 

Isaac  Ball,  Tualatin, 

David  Monnastes,  Portland, 

William  Gifford,  Albina, 

B.  P.  Cardwell,  Portland, 
John  P.  Walker,      " 

Abbie  M.  Cardwell,  Portland, 
Mrs.  Susie  G.  Whitwell,  " 
Mrs.  McDonald. 
James  B.  Forsyth,  " 

J.  C.  Morel  and,  " 

Thomas  Newman,  " 

C.  F.  Belcher, 

Mrs.  J.  C.  Davenport,      " 

W.  E.  Brainerd, 

Mrs.  Louisa  Carter,         " 


F.  A.  Saylor,  Junction, 

Mrs.  Mary  A.  White,  Portland, 

E.  D.  Shattuck,  Portland, 

John  Kelsay,  Corvallis, 

Wyatt  Harris,  McMinnville, 

S.  L.  Pope,  Portland, 

John  Flanagan,  Empire  City, 

W.  F.  Matlock,  Pendleton, 

Mrs.  N.  Hughey,  Portland, 

M.  S.  Daily,  Hillsboro, 

M.  G.  Wills,  North  Yakima, 

A.  R.  Burbank,  Lafayette, 

Norman  Darling,  Portland, 

Frank  Ford,  Oswego, 

James  S.  Failing,  Portland, 
Chas.  Lafollet.  " 

Ed.  Nesmith  Deady,  Portland, 
Levi  Arms  worthy,  Wasco. 
W.  H.  Pope,  Portland, 
John  Conner,        " 
W.  K.  Smith, 

C.  P.  Hogue.  " 
R.  A.  Hart, 

T.  B.  Newman,     " 

D.  P.  Thompson  " 
D.  H.  Hendee,  '* 
Geo.  H.  Himes,  " 
John  Mack,  " 



Peter  Kindt,  Kindton, 

J.  H.  Bleakesly,  St.  Helen's 

C.  H.  Newell, 

Mrs.  W.  F.  Matlock,  Pendleton, 

Sarah  P.  Cartwright,  Portland, 

M.  C.  Boatman,  " 

W.  H.  Mitchell, 

P.  J.    Mann,    Portland, 

Robert  A.  Miller,  Oregon  City, 

John  C.  Leasure,  Portland, 

J.  W.  Cook, 

Louise  M.  Stone,  " 

Douglas  W.  Taylor,     " 

George  Clark, 

J.  W.  Watson, 

Ira  E.  Purdin,  Forest  Grove, 

Dr.  E.  Poppleton, 
O.  H.  Mitchell, 
Mrs.  McClure, 
Maria  Eagan, 
Mary  E.  George 
James  H.  Burk, 

W.  M.  Ladd,  Portland, 

F.  P.  Mays, 

J.  C.  Baldwin,  The  Dalles, 

Cnarles  N.  Wait,  Portland. 

J.  F.  Boothe,  Portland, 
Mrs.  M.  E.  Henkle,  " 
D.  S.  Stearns, 

Mrs.  M.  W.  Gibbs,  Portland, 
,      H.  M.  Lawley, 

Vincent  Cooke,  " 

J.  A.  Henkle, 

Charles  McGinn,  " 

Mrs.  H.  M.  Lawler. 

R.  E.  Crawford, 

W.  W.  Beach, 

Dean  Blanchard,  Rainier. 

Mrs.  Jane  C.  Failing,  Portland, 
A.  H.  Breyman,  " 

Mrs.  Clara  M.  Harding,  Portland, 


Efl&e  Cone,  Portland. 
Homer  D.  Sanborn,  Portland, 


Mrs.  Geo.  H.  Himes,  Portland,    O.  F.  Paxton,  Portland, 
J.  P.  Randall. 

Mrs.  C.  M.  Cummings,  Portland,  William  P.  Shannon,  Portland, 



Mr.  President^  Pioneers  and  Fellow- Citizens:  On  a  similar 
occasion  to  the  present  J.  W.  Nesmith  said:  **In  the  summer  of 
1846.  my  wife  and  self  entertained  two  British  officers.  I  staked 
out  their  horses  on  the  grass;  they  had  their  own  blankets  and 
slept  on  the  floor  of  our  palatial  residence,  which  consisted  of  a 
pole  cabin  14  feet  square,  the  interstices  between  the  poles  'stuffed 
with  clay  to  keep  the  wind  away/  a  puncheon  floor  and  a  mud 
chimney,  and  not  a  pane  of  glass  or  particle  of  sawed  lumber 
about  the  institution.  The  furniture  consisted  of  such  articles  as 
I  had  manufactured  from  a  fir,  with  an  ax  and  auger.  We  re- 
galed our  guests  bountifully  upon  boiled  wheat  and  jerked  beef, 
without  sugar,  coffee  or  tea.  A  quarter  of  a  century  afterward  1 
met  one  of  these  officers  in  Washington.  He  reminded  me  that 
he  had  once  been  my  guest  in  Oregon.  When  that  fact  was 
recalled  to  my  mind,  I  attempted  an  apology  for  the  brevity 
of  our  bill-of-fare,  but  with  characteristic  politeness  he  inter- 
rupted me  with,  *My  dear  sir,  don't  mention  it.  The  fare  was 
splendid  and  we  enjoyed  it  hugely.  You  gave  us  the  best  you 
had,  and  the  Prince  of  Wales  could  do  no  more.'  " 

As  our  departed  friend  gave  freely  of  his  humble  store,  so  I 
offer  willingly  my  mite,  though  stale  and  necessarily  a  repetition 
to  a  great  extent  of  the  early  history  and  settlement  of  the 

Then  the  waters  of  the  Columbia  and  the  Willamette  flowed 
undisturbed  to  the  ocean.  No  great  cities  with  their  wealth,  their 
civilization,  splendors  and  vices  adorned  the  shores  of  majestic 
streams.     Where  your  metropolis  now  stands,  a  dense  forest  grew 


In  those  days,  Ladd,  Corbett,  Failing,  Lewis,  Pittock,  Macleay, 
the  Thompsons,  and  others  now  living  and  dead,  were  only  too 
anxious  to  work  out  Iheir  "roadtax"  by  grubbing  out  the  g^iant 
firs  where  stands  their  stately  buildings.  And  methinks  Harvey 
W.  Scott,  then  in  his  teens,  was  exercising  his  youthful  mind  for 
its  future  field  of  operation,  by  writing  articles  to  prove  that 
beaver  skins  were  the  only  safe  and  stable  standard  of  currency; 
hurling  anathemas  and  maledictions  against  the  wholesale  and 
unlimited  use  of  coon  skins,  as  being  an  unsafe  and  unstable 
circulating  medium,  and  destined  to  drive  the  pioneers  to  a  coon- 

To-day  the  landmarks  of  discovery  and  early  settlement  are 
fast  passing  away  before  the  introduction  of  the  steam  engine 
and  rail-car.  Ocean  steamers  and  sailing  vessels  from  every 
quarter  of  the  globe  enter  our  harbors;  the  waters  of  the  Willam- 
ette, spanned  by  bridges  of  steel  and  iron,  flow  through  a  city  of 
100,000  inhabitants.  But  with  all  this  splendor  and  wealth  has 
come,  too,  the  open  door,  the  rum  shop,  the  penitentiary,  the  in- 
sane asylum  and  the  gallows. 

Mr.  President,  pardon  my  digression,  as  I  fain  would  dwell 
on  the  present  while  I  mingle  in  social  intercourse  with  the  liv- 
ing pioneers;  but  the  duty  of  the  present  occasion  demands  that 
I  revert  to  the  early  discoveries,  explorations  and  settlements  of 
the  Oregon  territory.  To  Captain  Wyatt  Harris,  of  McMinnville, 
a  pioneer  of  1853,  I  am  indebted  for  much  valuable  information 
on  the  Northwest  boundary. 

By  the  ''Oregon  treaty"  of  June  15,  1846,  between  the  United 
States  and  Great  Britain,  it  was  agreed  that  the  territory  on  the 
Northwest  coast  should  be  divided  by  extending  the  line  of 
boundary  from  the  "summit  of  the  Rocky  mountains,  along  the 
49th  parallel,  to  the  middle  of  the  channel  which  separates  Van- 
couver island  from  the  mainland  thence  southerly  through 
the  middle  of  the  channel  to  the  straits  of  Juan  de  Fuca,  thence 
through  the  middle  of  said  straits  to  the  sea."  But  this  treaty 
did  not  entirely  settle  the  difl&culty,  for  the  controversy  over 
boundary   lines  which    had    been  going  on  from   the    time  King 


George  acknowledged  our  independence  in  1782,  continued  to 
agitate  the  two  nations  until  the  21st  day  of  October,  1872,  when, 
by  the  decree  of  Willi  im,  Emperor  of  Germany,  as  arbitrator,  the 
United  States  assumed  complete  sovereignty  and  control  over  the 
entire  Haro  archipelago.  By  this  decision,  the  United  States 
secured  peaceable  possession  of  an  additional  territory  of  some 
640  square  miles.  The  importance  of  this  acquisition  was  not  so 
much  in  extent  of  territory,  as  being  a  strategic  point.  Lieuten- 
ant Parke  of  the  United  States  engineer  corps,  says:  "It  is  in  a 
military  point  of  view  that  this  archipelago  possesses  the  greatest 
value,  embracing  as  it  does  some  of  the  6 nest  harbors  in  the 
territory,  commanding  Bellingham  bay  and  Admiralty  inlet,  and 
in  fsct  forming  the  key  to  the  whole  of  the  Puget-sound  district. 
The  interior  passages  and  bays  are  capable  of  being  entirely 
closed  by  fortifications,  which  is  not  the  case  with  our  other 
possessions  on  the  Sound;  and  the  islands  themselves  command 
all  the  adjacent  waters.  They  are,  in  fact,  the  only  check  upon 
the  preponderance  which  the  ownership  of  Vancouver's  island 
gives  to  Great  Britain  in  this  quarter."  This  archipelago  was 
discovered  in  the  year  1789,  by  Don  Gonzala  Lopez  de  Haro,  of  the 
Spanish  royal  marine.  It  was  often  visited  by  Spanish,  Ameri- 
can and  English  vessels  up  to  1812,  and  especially  by  the  Ameri- 
can fur- traders.  But  the  maps  and  charts  of  these  early  explorers 
were  very  faulty,  and  gave  but  little  correct  information,  gener- 
ally representing  the  group  as  one  island.  In  1841,  the  United 
States  exploring  expedition,  under  Captain  Wilkes,  made  a  mi- 
nute hydrographical  survey  of  the  entire  group,  and  for  the  first 
time  the  archipelago  was  correctly  delineated  on  the  maps. 

The  DeHaro  archipelago  lies  between  the  mainland  and  the 
great  island  of  Vancouver,  and  between  the  waters  of  Fuget  sound 
on  the  south  and  those  of  the  gulf  of  Georgia  on  the  north.  The 
group  contains  about  forty  islands  and  islets,  varying  in  size  from 
Orcas  and  San  Juan  islands  with  areas  from  55  and  54  square 
miles  respectively  to  others  scarcely  worth  a  name.  Some  of  the 
islands  contain  valuable  lime  and  building  stone  quarries.  The 
United  States  custom-house  at  Portland  is  built  of  stone  quarried 
at  Flat  Top  island,  which  contains  less  then  100  acres. 


In  1782,  Captain  Gray  sailed  into  the  harbor  "Where  rolls  the 
Oregon,  and  hears  no  soiind  save  its  own  dashings,"  immortaliz- 
ing alike  the  name  and  fame  of  a  ship  and  its  master.  The  dis- 
covery and  naming  of  the  "River  of  the  West"  belongs  to  Gray;  his 
ship  the  Columbia,  was  the  first  to  part  its  waters;  he  made  the  first 
hydrographical  chart  of  its  shores;  he  was  the  first  civilized  man 
to  stand  upon  its  banks,  and  the  flag  he  there  unfurled  was  the 
stars  and  stripes,  the  emblem  of  freedom  and  justice.  The  next 
navigator  of  importance  was  Nathan  Winship,  an  American  who 
in  1810  sailed  up  the  Columbia,  a  distance  of  40  miles,  in  the  ship 
Albatross  with  40  men  aboard;  he  planted  the  first  crop  of  vege- 
tables ever  planted  in  the  Northwest.  His  crop  being  destroyed 
by  the  June  freshet,  he  sailed  away. 


This  exploring  party  of  some  30  venturesome  spirits,  under 
command  of  Captains  Lewis  and  Clark,  left  the  mouth  of  the 
Missouri  on  May  14,  1804,  under  instructions  from  President 
Jefferson — one  of  the  first  of  American  statesmen,  as  he  was  father 
of  American  pioneer  thought  and  enterprise.  They  were  to  ex- 
plore the  Missouri  to  its  source  in  the  Rocky  mountains,  thence  their 
course  was  to  be  westward  down  some  river  furnishing  the  most 
practicable  route  for  commerce  and  trade  to  the  Pacific  ocean. 
This  expedition,  traversing  and  exploring  a  territory  before  un- 
known, is  certainly  the  most  memorable  ever  undertaken,  and  so 
successfully  accomplished  that  it  overshadows  and  surpasses  all 
others,  either  by  land  or  sea,  excepting  it  be  the  discovery  of 
America.  Their  route  from  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Columbia  and  return  covered  a  distance  of  nearly  8,000  miles. 
Their  maps  and  altitudes  of  those  two  great  rivers,  their  tribu- 
taries and  adjoining  lands,  stand  to-day.  after  a  lapse  of  90  years, 
as  marvels  for  accuracy  and  perfect  execution  as  to  details.  These 
brave  advance  guards  of  the  grand  army  of  pioneer  men  and 
women  who  were  to  follow,  deserve  the  highest  praise;  and  each 
succeeding  generation  should  be  taught  to  venerate  and  enshrine 
their  names  and  memory. 


After  the  return  of  Lewis  and  Clark  with  information  of 
the  wonderful  river  they  had  explored  to  its  mouth,  is  it  any 
wonder  that  such  men  as  John  Jacob  Astor  and  his  associates 
should  wish  to  establish  a  great  commercial  trading  post  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Columbia?  This  they  succeeded  in  doing  in  1811, 
and  named  it  Astoria  after  its  founder,  which  but  for  treachery, 
dissension  and  mismanagement  on  the  part  of  members  of  the 
company,  might  have  proven  a  most  successful  venture.  The 
most  unfortunate  incident  of  this  enterprise  was  the  blowing  up 
of  the  ill-fated  ship  Tonquin,  off  the  coast  of  Vancouver  island, 
with  loss  of  all  on  board,  including  the  brave  and  noble  hearted 
Andrew  McKay,  who  left  worthy  representatives  in  Dr.  William  C. 
and  Donald  McKay.  And  thus  for  a  quarter  of  a  century  we  find 
the  American  traders  and  trappers,  including  such  notable  char- 
acters as  Hunt,  Wyeth.  Kelly,  Meek  and  Bonneville,  whose  expedi- 
tion was  second  only  to  that  of  Lewis  and  Clark,  contending 
with  their  British  cousins  for  supremacy   and  self-preservation. 


This  formidable  corporation  with  its  thousands  of  employees, 
scattered  all  over  Canada  and  the  Northwest  coast,  hunting,  trap- 
ping and  trading  with  every  tribe  of  Indians  within  its  jurisdiction, 
was  naturally  destined  to  play  no  unimportant  part  in  the  settle- 
ment of  the  Oregon  territory.  Through  it  Mackenzie  visited  the 
Arctic  Ocean  by  the  river  which  bears  his  name,  and  later  in  1791, 
this  daring  explorer  turned  his  face  toward  the  Pacific,  and  was  the 
first  white  man  to  cross  the  Rocky  mountains.  In  the  following 
summer  he  had  the  proud  satisfaction  of  painting  in  bold  letters 
on  a  rock  facing  the  Pacific,  these  words,  '^Alexander  Mackenzie, 
from  Canada  by  land,  the  23  of  July,  1792."  Time  forbids  a  more  ex- 
tended mention  of  this  company  and  its  work,  farther  than  briefly 
to  allude  to  the  one  important  personage  connected  with  it,  whose 
life  and  history  are  so  closely  interwoven  with  all  that  pertains  to 
the  settlement  of  the  Northwest,  Dr.  John  McLoughl in,  whose  hu- 
manity was  so  great  that  he  loved  all  mankind,  and  who  was  born 
for  eternity.  J.  Quinn  Thornton,  an  honored  pioneer  and  judge  of 
the  supreme  court  of  the  provisional  government,  says  of  Dr.  Mc- 


Loughlin:  "He  was  a  great  man,  upon  whom  God  had  stamped  a 
grandeur  of  character  which  few  men  possess,  and  a  nobility 
which  the  patent  of  no  earthly  sovereign  can  confer.  His  stand- 
ard of  commercial  integrity  would  compare  well  with  that  of  the 
best  of  men.  As  a  Christian,  he  was  a  devout  Roman  Catholic, 
yet,  nevertheless  catholic  in  the  largest  sense  of  the  word.  While 
he  was  sometimes  betrayed  by  his  warm  and  impulsive  nature 
and  great  force  of  character,  into  doing  or  saying  something  of 
questionable  propriety,  he  was,  notwithstanding,  a  man  of  great 
goodness  of  heart,  too  wise  to  do  a  really  foolish  thing,  too  noble 
-and -magnanimous  to  descend  to  meanness,  and  too  forgiving  to 
cherish  resentments.  The  writer,  during  the  last  years  of  Dr.  Mc- 
Loughlin^s  life,  being  his  professional  adviser,  had  an  opportuni- 
ty such  as  no  other  man  had,  save  his  confessor,  of  learning  and 
studying  him;  and  as  a  result  of  the  impressions  which  daily  in- 
tercourse of  either  a  business  or  social  nature  made  upon  the 
writer's  mind,  he  hesitates  not  to  say,  that  old,  white-headed 
John  McLoughlin,  when  compared  with  other  persons  who  have 
figured  in  the  early  history  of  Oregon,  is,  in  sublimity  of  charac- 
ter, a  Mount  Hood  towering  above  the  foot-hills  into  the  regions 
of  eternal  snow  and  sunshine."  Through  the  wisdom  and  benevo- 
lence of  McLoughlin  many  of  the  employees  of  the  Hudson  Bay 
Company  settled  in  the  Willamette  valley  and  upon  the  Sound, 
and  they  or  their  representatives  are,  to-day,  worthy  and  re- 
pected  citizens. 


This  was  secured  to  the  United  States,  not  only  by  the  Louis- 
iana purchase  and  treaty  rights  with  Spain  and  France,  but  by 
discovery  and  explorations.  This  vast  territory,  out  of  which  has 
been  carved  three  great  states  and  a  part  of  the  fourth,  is  of  far- 
reaching  importance;  not  alone  for  the  millions  of  precious  metals 
which  have  entered  the  channels  of  commerce,  nor  for  the  untold 
millions  yet  imbedded  in  its  mountain  sides;  not  alone  for  its  un- 
rivaled scenic  beauties  and  equable  climate,  nor  for  the  fact  that, 
in  every  section,  the  cereals  and  hardier  kinds  of  fruits  grow  to 
the  highest  state  of  perfection;  not  so  much  for  its  vast  forests 
of  choice  timber  and  unlimited  water  power,  as  for  the  fact  of  its 
being  a  gateway  to  the  greatest   of  oceans,  a   key.  as    it  were,  to 

Oregon  pioneer  association  29 

unlock  the  great  storehouse  of  the  Orient.  It  gave  to  the  United 
States  a  great  harbor  on  the  great  highway  to  the  Bast,  upon 
whose  placid  bosom  all  the  navies  of  the  world  might  safely  float. 
It  gave  our  government  the  "River  of  the  West,"  over  whose  bar 
the  great  warships,  the  Baltimore,  the  Charleston  and  the  Monte- 
rey have  safely  passed.  Lastly,  it  rounded  out  our  jurisdiction 
where  floats  the  stars  and  stripes  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Paciflc; 
fulfilling  the  prophecy  of  Coleridge,  make  fifty  years  ago  of  the 
"Possible  destiny  of  the  United  States  of  America,  as  a  nation  of 
100,000,000  freemen,  stretching  from  the  Atlantic  to  the  Pacific, 
living  under  the  laws  of  Alfred  and  speaking  the  language  of 
Shakespeare  and  Milton." 

Mr.  President,  ancients  had  their  day  of  feasting  and  rejoic- 
ing, that  they  might  commemorate  the  great  events  in  their  his- 
tory. These  festivities  have  been  sacredly  observed  by  Jew  and 
Gentile,  Christian  and  pagan,  as  faithful  chronicles  of  important 
events  in  their  past.  Then,  why  should  not  we  add  to  our  feast 
days  the  15th  of  June,  in  remembrance  of  this  important  event 
in  our  nation's  history? 

The  pioneers  who  came  here  prior  to  1846,  as  those  who  fol- 
lowed, were  intensely  American,. many  of  them  of  Revolutionary 
ancestry,  and  were  deeply  imbued  with  the  spirit  which  actuated 
the  patriots  of  the  Revolution. 

Then  they  met  on  the  banks  of  the  Mis-^issippi,  and,  looking 
out  beyond  the  broad  expanse  of  plains,  deserts  and  mountain 
fastnesses,  pledging  themselves  to  each  other  before  God  to 
follow  the  course  of  the  setting  sun  to  where  the  waters  of  the 
Columbia  met  the  inflow  of  the  Pacific.  They  cut  out  all  bridges 
behind  them,  they  severed  the  ties  of  home  and  kindred,  but  not 
the  unquenchable  love  of  country  and  patriotic  devotion  to  its 
flag.  They  nailed  "Old  Glory"  to  the  masthead,  and,  under  its  am- 
ple folds,  received  new  inspirations  of  patriotism,  justice  and  hu- 
manity. When  information  of  the  favorable  and  peaceable  settle- 
ment of  the  Oregon  boundary  reached  the  noble  band  of  home- 
builders  of  the  Pacific,  the  pioneer  mother  kissed  again  her  babe 
in  the  grand  consciousness  that  it  had  not  been  born  on  foreign 
soil  nor  owed  allegiance  to  foreign  potentate. 




Early  in  the  history  of  the  Northwest  coast  Catholic  and 
Prostjestant  missionaries  from  Canada  and  the  Atlantic  states  ar- 
rived and  located  among  the  Indians,  along  the  coast  and  the  s^reat 
inland  plateau  west  of  the  Blue  mountains.  Rev.  Jason  Lee  and 
two  companions,  representing  the  Methodist  mission,  arrived  in 
October,  1834,  settling  just  below  the  townsite  of  Salem,  and  were 
the  first  to  enter  the  field.  As  an  incident  of  the  good  feeling  then 
existing,  Rev.  Lee  preached  on  Sunday,  October  19,  the  first  formal 
sermon  ever  delivered  in  the  Willamette  valley,  in  the  house  of 
Joseph  Gervais,  a  Roman  Catholic.  In  1837,  his  force  was  BLUfr- 
mented  by  four  others,  two  of  whom  were  white  women.  Three 
years  later,  Mr.  Lee  brought  out  a  company  of  53  persons,  includ- 
ing five  ministers,  one  doctor,  six  carpenters,  four  farmers,  four 
female  teachers,  one  steward  and  seventeen  children.  They  must 
have  early  realized  the  futility  of  their  efforts  to  convert  the  natives 
of  Oregon,  for  Rev.  Stephen  Olin,  D.  D.,  tells  us  that  "Very  few 
Indians  came  under  the  influence  of  their  labors.  The  mission- 
aries were,  in  fact,  mostly  engaged  iu  secular  affairs;  concerned- 
in  claims  for  large  tracts  of  land,  claims  for  city  lots,  larming,  mer 
chandising,  blacksmithing,  grazing,  horsekeeping,  lumbering  and 

Thus  did  these  pioneer  missionaries,  though,  perhaps,  not  ful- 
filling the  expectations  of  the  home  board,  lay  deep  and  broad  the 
foundation  for  a  permanent  settlement  of  homebuilders.  More 
than  50  years  ago  these  hardy  pioneer  men  and  women  success- 
fully established  the  first  important  educational  institution  in  the 
Northwest — The  Willamette  University — which  to-day  survives 
as  a  lasting  monument  to  their  energy,  perseverance  and  indomit- 
able courage.  From  its  colleges  of  literature,  law,  theology  and 
medicine,  young  men  and  women  have  gone  forth  who  are  a 
credit  to  their  families,  their  state,  and  the  professions  they  repre- 

The  next  in  importance  in  missionary  and  edututional  work, 
was  the  arrival,  in  the  fall  of  1836,  of  Dr.  Marcus  Whitman  and 
Rev.  H.  H.  Spalding   with  their  wives — the  first  white  women  to 


cross  the  plains.  They  located  in  the  Walla  Walla  valley,  among 
the  Cayuse  Indians,  who  cruelly  massacred  the  man  who  sought 
civilize  them,  and  cure  them  of  their  ailments.  Such  has  too 
often  been  the  ingratitude  of  the  savages  of  the  West.  Dr.  Whit- 
man was  a  man  of  broad  humanity;  unassuming  and  of  great 
purity  of  character.  His  humanity  cannot  be  better  illustrated, 
nor  the  trials  and  hardships  endured  by  the  pioneer  women  better 
understood,  than  by  quoting  from  Jesse  Applegate's  account  of 
"A  day  with  the  cow  column  of  1843."  He  says:  "But  a  little  in- 
cident breaks  the  monotony  of  the  march.  An  emigrant's  wife, 
whose  state  of  health  had  caused  Dr.  Whitman  to  travel  near  the 
wagon  for  the  day,  is  now  taken  with  violent  illness.  The  doctor 
has  had  the  wagon  driven  out  of  the  line,  a  tent  pitched,  and  a 
ifire  kindled.  Many  conjectures  are  hazarded  in  regard  to  this 
mysterious  proceeding,  and  as  to  why  this  lone  wagon  is  to  be 
left  behind.  Evening  approaches;  every  one  is  busy  preparing 
fires  of  buffalo  chips  to  cook  the  evening  meal,  pitching  tents, 
and  otherwise  preparing  for  the  night.  There  are  anxious  watchers 
for  the  absent  wagon,  for  there  are  many  matrons  who  may  be 
afflicted  like  its  inmate  before  the  journey  is  over,  and  they  fear 
the  strange  and  startling  practice  of  this  Oregon  doctor  will  be 
dangerous.  But  as  the  sun  goes  down,  the  absent  wagon  rolls  into 
camp,  the  bright,  speaking  face  and  cheery  look  of  the  doctor, 
who  rides  in  advance,  declare  without  words  that  all  is  well,  and 
both  mother  and  child  are  comfortable." 

The  work  of  the  Congregational  missionaries,  through  the 
labors  of  such  men  as  Revs.  Atkinson,  Clark  and  Marsh,  has  left 
a  deep  and  lasting  impression  on  the  institutions  of  Oregon,  in  the 
founding  and  building  up  of  Tualatin  Academy  and  Pacific  Uni- 
versity, at  Forest  Grove,  first  incorporated  in  the  year  1849.  With 
a  college  property  and  an  endowment  of  nearly  |20o,ooo,  it  is  on 
the  high  road  to  prosperity,  and  speaks  well  for  its  founders. 

In  the  fall  of  1838  a  company  of  Catholic  missionaries,  in 
charge  of  Bishop  Blanchet  and  Father  Demers,  arrived,  overland 
from  Canada.  After  a  perilous  journey  of  nearly  5,000  miles, 
made  in  canoes  and  on  horses,  they  crossed  the  Rocky  mountains, 


near  the  headwaters  of  the  Columbia,  and  descended  that  river  to 
the  Willamette  valley.  A  history  of  the  early  settlement  and 
missionary  work  done  in  the  Oregon  territory  would  be  incom* 
plete  without  an  account  of  the  labors  and  writings  of  Bishop 
Blanchet  and  his  associates.  He  early  become  interested  in  the 
cause  of  education,  establishing  a  school  for  boys  at  St.  Paul,  on 
the  Willamette,  in  1841,  The  ruins  of  this  building  are  still  to  be 
seen.  In  January,  1843,  a  school  for  girls  was  opened  at  the  same 
place,  under  the  supervision  of  six  sisters  of  Notre  Dame.  The 
daughters  of  many  prominent  pioneers  received  their  education 
from  these  nuns.  In  1859,  twelve  sisters  arrived  from  Canada,  and 
laid  the  foundation  of  St.  Mary's  Academy  and  College  in  this 
city.  Others  followed,  of  whom  we  cannot  speak  for  want  of 
time.  Archbishop  Blanchet  died  in  Vancouver,  in  1883,  in  his  88th 
year,  respected  by  all  for  his  humanity  and  great  goodness  of 

Revs.  Fisher,  Johnson,  Snelling,  Hunsaker  and  others  were 
early  arrivals  of  the  Baptist  church  and  they  took  an  important 
part,  from  the  first,  in  missionary  and  educational  work.  Their 
pioneer  college  is  located  at  McMinnville,  and  is  in  a  prosperous 
condition,  ranking  with  the  leading  educational  institutions  of 
the  state.  The  Baptist  church  in  Oregon  has  increased  in  wealth 
and  membership  certainly  beyond  the  expectations  of  its  pioneer 

It  was  not  until  1851,  that  the  Episcopal  church  entered  the 
missionary  and  educational  field  west  of  the  Rocky  mountains. 
In  that  year  the  Rev.  William  Richmond  came  out,  well  equipped 
for  the  work  in  hand,  although  as  early  as  1847,  ministers  of  that 
church  had  emigrated  to  this  coast,  notably  Rev.  St.  Michael 
Fackler,  who  afterward  figured  prominently  as  an  earnest  and 
faithful  ^yorker.  In  April,  1854,  Bishop  Scott  arrived  and  took 
charge  of  church  and  missionary  work;  and  being  a  man  of  in- 
domitable courage,  perseverance  and  piety,  he  early  made  his 
presence  felt.  The  high  grade  of  che  schools  under  the  supervis- 
ion of  the  Episcopal  church  has  done  much  to  place  the  Pacific 


states,  in  the  excellence  of  their  educational  facilities,  among  the 
first  in  the  grand  sisterhood  of  states. 

Other  churches  and  societies  have  taken  an  active  part  in 
building  up  the  many  literary  and  educational  institutions  of  the 
West;  but  we  must  be  pardoned  for  alluding  to  only  those  of  pio- 
neer origin.  I  have  time  to  mention  only  a  few  of  the  more  im- 
portant personages  and  institutions,  leaving  to  the  student  of  his- 
tory an  enticing  field  for  study  and  research. 

Those  who  imagine  our  free  public  school  system  is  the  result 
of  the  wisdom  of  a  later  generation,  have  certainly  never  read 
article  viii,  of  our  state  constitution,  which,  among  other  matters 
relating  to  education,  provides  that,  "all  the  proceeds  of  the 
500,000  acres  of  land  to  which  this  state  is  entitled  by  the  pro- 
visions of  an  act  of  congress,  *  *  *  and  also  the  5  per  centum 
of  the  net  proceeds  of  the  sales  of  public  lands,  to  which  this 
state  shall  become  entitled  on  her  admission  into  the  Union,  * 
*  *  shall  be  set  apart  as  a  separate  and  irreducible  fund,  to  be 
called  the  common-school  fund,  the  interest  of  which,  together 
with  all  other  revenues  derived  from  the  school  land  mentioned 
in  this  section,  shall  be  exclusively  applied  to  the  support  and 
maintenance  of  common  schools  in  each  school  district."  This 
provision  in  our  constitution  is  the  handiwork  of  the  pioneers. 
The  broad  and  enduring  foundation  there  laid,  upon  which  the 
grand  superstructure  of  our  public  school  system  has  been  erected, 
will  ever  remain  the  admiration  and  pride  of  all.  It  is  true  a  few 
later-day  pedagogues  and  shoddy  legislators  have  sought  to  dec- 
orate the  structure,  unduly,  with  red  tape  and  peacock's  feathers 
yet  the  grand  edifice  is  unimpaired,  and  I  would  have  the  thous- 
ands of  children  receiving  the  blessing  of  ajcommon-school  edu 
cation  know  from  whence  they  receive  their  priceless  heritage. 

I  have  alluded^to  the  futility  of  the  labors  of  the  early  mis- 
sionaries in  Christianizing  the  savage,  not  so  much  in  the  spirit 
of  criticism,  as  I  believe  it  useless  to  attempt  to  civilize  or  Chris- 
tianize a  people  incapable  of  self-support.  Until  a  man  can  sup- 
ply his  temporal  wants  he  is  in  poor  condition  to  understand  th^ 


mysteries  of  the  plan  of  salvation  and  the  principles  of  theology; 
I  think  the  response  made  by  the  Indian  chief,  on  behalf  of  his 
tribe,  to  the  earnest  plea  of  the  missionary  for  their  salvation, 
characteristic  of  the  race  and  conveys  their  conception  of  the 
teachings  of  religion.  His  speech  translated,  reads:  "Yes,  my 
friend,  if  you  will  give  us  plenty  of  blankets,  pantaloons,  flour 
and  meat  and  tobacco,  and  lots  of  other  good  things,  we  will  pray 
to  God  all  the  time  and  always. 

Where  is  that  almost  countless  number  of  Indians  Lewis  and 
Clark  estimated  as  dwelling  on  the  Columbia  and  its  tributaries? 
Where  ate  they  today?  Fast  passing  away  like  frost  before  the 
rising  sun.  A  few  scattered  and  isolated  tribes — remnants  of  a 
distinct  race  of  humanity — remain  to  tell  the  sad  story  of  the 
downfall  of  their  people.  Only  a  few  short  years  and  they  will 
be  known  as  the  lost  tribes  of  America. 

Up  to  the  year  1842  there  were  less  than  two  hundred  white 
people  in  Oregon,  exclusive  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company.  Even 
as  late  as  June  3, 1845,  on  the  election  of  George  Abernethy  as  the 
6rst  governor  of  Oregon  under  the  provisional  government,  there 
was  cast  but  504  votes  in  all.  Those  who  came  here  prior  to  1842 
did  not  at  first  have  in  view  permanent  settlement;  they  were 
mostly  missionaries  and  traders.  They  were  not  of  the  class  of 
home-builders  who  had  opened  up  the  Mississippi  valley  to  set- 
tlement, and  were  moving  westward  with  their  families  and  be- 
longings to  unfurl  the  flag  and  engraft  the  principles  of  the  con- 
stitution and  laws  of  the  United  States  011  the  Pacific.  They  ex- 
pected to  return  enriched  with  the  spoils  of  traflSc  or  remunerated 
with  the  conversion  of  souls.  But  once  here  the  larger  number 
remained,  which,  with  the  immigration  of  1843  (about  1000),  se- 
cured definitely  the  supremacy  of  American  institutions  and  ef- 
fected for  the  first  time,  through  the  formation  of  the  provisional 
government,  civil  authority  on  the  Pacific  Northwest. 

Speaking  on  this  matter,  Judge  William  Strong,  a  pioneer  of 
1850,  and  among  the  first  of  Oregon's  jurists,  says:  "The  pioneers 
of  Oregon  were  brave  and  sturdy  men.  The  more  I  study  the  his- 
tory of  th^ir  acts,  the  greater  my   admiration.    The  provisional 


government  they  established  is  a  monument  to  their  wisdom.  It 
shows  that  they  had  a  just  appreciation  of  the  true  principles  of 
republican  government.  *  *  *  *  Oregon  owes  by  far  the 
most  of  its  prosperity  and  rapid  progress  to  the  early  formation 
of  the  provisional  government,  the  wise  laws  which  were  enacted, 
and  the  inflexible  justice  with  which  they  were  administered." 

As  regards  the  importance  of  the  emigration  to  Oregon  prior 
to  the  commencement  of  hostilities  with  Mexico,  ex-Governor 
Grover  has  well  said:  "As  great  events  generally  follow  in  clusters, 
the  acquisition  of  California  was  followed  in  1848  by  military  oc- 
cupation. It  is  fair  to  claim  that  our  government  never  would 
have  ventured  with  the  small  force  it  had  at  command  to  push 
its  way  to  the  Pacific,  in  Mexican  territory,  during  the  war  with 
Mexico,  if  we  did  not  already  possess  domain  in  that  quarter,  and 
a  reliable  American  population  in  Oregon.  So  that  the  pioneers 
of  Oregon  were  really  the  fathers  of  American  jurisdiction  over 
all  that  magnificent  domain  of  the  United  States  west  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  an  empire  of  itself." 


Mr.  President,  since  last  we  met,  death  has  called  to  its  do- 
main many  of  our  pioneer  friends  and  associates.  It  has  left  its 
footprints  on  your  hearthstone,  and  today  we  extend  to  you  and 
yours  our  heartfelt  sympathy,  and  hope  its  shadow  may  not  cross 
your  threshold  again  for  many  years.  Death  has  also  laid  its  heavy 
hand  on  the  home  of  that  old  pioneer  and  humanitarian,  P.  X. 
Matthieu;  to  him  our  hearts  go  out  in  sympathy.  Ex-Governor 
Stephen  F.  Chadwick,  a  pioneer  of  i85i,has  passed  to  the  great  be- 
yond, full  of  honors,  ripe  in  years,  loved  and  repected  by  all  who 
knew  him.  So  also  has  passed  away  Father  Parrish,  beloved  by  all, 
one  whose  absence  for  the  first  time  we  so  deeply  feel.  Perhaps 
the  demise  of  no  one  has  attracted  more  widespread  attention 
nor  caused  deeper  sorrow  on  the  Pacific  coast  than  the  death  of  the 
late  Peter  H.  Burnett,  the  first  governor  of  California,  and  an  Ore- 
gon pioneer  of  1843,  who  had  served  in  the  legislature  and  was  one 
of  the  first  justices  of  the  supreme  court.     Hon.  John  Minto,  a  pio- 


neerof  1844,  has  recently  and  fittingly  said:  "The  state  of  Oregon 
has  done  itself  credit  by  placing  upon  the  walls  of  its  capital 
likenesses  of  its  governors  and  the  friend  of  the  early  pioneers.  It 
can  well  afford  to  step  further  and  place  within  its  halls  the  por- 
traits of  at  least  three  of  its  early  pioneers — Peter  H.  Burnett,  Jesse 
Applegate  and  James  W.  Nesmith."  Others  worthy  of  honorable 
mention  have  passed  away,  but  want  of  information  and  lack  of 
time  prevents  any  allusion,  trusting  the  names  of  all  such  will  be 
furnished  the  secretary  of  this  Association;  a  duty  every  pioneer 
owes  to  himself  and  family. 


The  cry  of  hard  times  has  no  terrors  for  the  pioneer  men  and 
women  who  endured  the  hardships  and  dangers  of  a  weary  trip 
across  the  plains  with  their  ox  teams,  and  left  their  wagons  at 
The  Dalles  or  brought  them  over  the  Cascades  by  the  Barlow 
route  along  the  base  of  Mt.  Hood.  Then  there  was  no  circula- 
tion of  gold  and  silver,  traflSc  being  carried  on,  prior  to  1850,  by 
beaver  skins,  pelts,  hoop-poles  and  wheat.  When  scarcely  able  to 
lift  a  sack  of  wheat,  I  have  myself  hauled  it  to  Portland,  with 
oxen,  a  distance  of  about  fifty  miles,  and  disposed  of  it  for  one 
cent  a  pound,  taking  in  exchange,  groceries,  clothing,  etc 

While  freight  and  passenger  rates  are  exceedingly  and  unrea- 
sonably high,  yet  those  who  enjoy  the  present  advantages  have  but 
slight  conception  of  the  difficulties  experienced  by  the  pioneers. 
For  instance,  in  1850  postage  on  a  single  letter  to  the  states  was 
40  cents.  Steamboat  fare  from  Astoria  to  Portland  was  $25  each 
way,  which  was  reduced  by  the  steamer  Lot  Whitcomb  in  1851  to 
$16,  or  I32  for  the  round  trip;  the  same  year  freight  was  carried 
from  Oregon  City  to  Portland,  a  distance  of  about  12  miles,  for 
$15  per  ton,  passengers,  $5  each;  about  the  same  charges  were  made 
from  Canemah  to  Salem  and  Dayton. 

As  late  as  1859  ^^  ^^g^  ^^  $20  per  ton  was  charged  on  freight 
from  Portland  to  the  Cascades.  In  fact,  there  were  very  uncer- 
tain and  limited    facilities  for    transportation  on   the  Columbia 


and   Willamette  rivers   prior  to  the   organization  of  the   O.  S.  N. 
Co.  in  i860. 


In  civilized  warfare  the  soldier  realizes  that  the  eyes  of  his 
countrymen  are  watching  his  every  act,  the  pomp  and  splendors  of 
war  kindle  anew  the  flames  of  patriotism  and  urge  him  on  to  deeds 
of  valor  and  feats  of  prowess;  if  he  goes  down  he  knows  that  an 
honored  sepulchre  will  receive  his  remains,  and  that  a  grateful 
nation  will  perpetuate  his  name  and  memory.  Not  so  with  the 
pioneer  who  made  a  fortress  of  his  log  cabin,  and,  leaving  the 
wife  of  his  bosom  and  the  mother  of  his  children  to  guard  home 
and  family,  while  he  went  forth  to  meet  a  savage  foe,  unknown 
to  civilization  and  law,  whose  one  passion  is  torture,  rapine  and 
destruction;  no  bugle  sound  or  martial  strain  led  him  on,  but 
often  alone  or  in  small  bands  he  was  compelled  to  seek  the  lurking 
foe.  Such  were  the  brave  men  who  protected  the  early  settlements 
with  their  blood  and  treasure.  All  honor  to  the  heroes  living  or 
dead  through  whose  sacrifices  it  was  made  possible  for  the  Colum- 
bia river  basin  to  become  the  home  of  millions  whose  civilization, 
splendor,  and  wealth  are  destined  to  rival  the  far-famed  valley  of 
the  Mississippi.  And  right  here,  Mr.  President,  I  feel  it  a  duty  to 
record  the  fact  that  the  general  government  has  not  dealt  fairly 
with  the  veterans  of  our  Indian  wars  on  this  coast.  In  our  homes 
for  disabled  soldiers  the  government  pays  $100  per  year  for  all  hon- 
orably discharged  soldiers  of  the  Mexican  and  Civil  wars  who  are 
members  of  these  homes,  but  nothing  for  equally  as  deserving 
veterans  of  our  Indian  wars.  Unclt  Sam  has  dealt  justly  and 
liberally  with  those  who  have  defended  the  flag  against  civilized 
and  human  foes,  then  why  not  give  some  consideration  to  those 
who  performed  a  similar  service  against  a  savage  and  inhuman 
foe.  There  has  been  absolutely  no  assistance  rendered  those 
veterans  who  welded  the  link  which  unites  the  Pacific  with  the 
Atlantic  under  one  constitution  and  one  flag.  The  young  and 
unknown  soldier  who,  scorning  all  tactics  of  civilized  warfare, 
plunged  into  the  river  by  the  side  of  the  gallant  Nesmith  to  dis- 
lodge the  ambushed  savage  from  his  stronghold,  and  who  on  an- 


Other  occasiuu  sent  word  to  the  besieged  settlers  in  the  Cascade 
blockhouse  that  he  was  coming  to  rescue  them  or  die  in  the  at- 
tempt, was  as  deserving  then  as  when  he  became  the  hero  of 
Murfreesboro,  Chickamauga,  Chattanooga,  Appomatox  Court- 
house and  Winchester.  Who  knowns  that  but  for  the  lessons  in- 
culcated as  a  pioneer  and  Indian  fighter  of  Oregon,  the  name  and 
fame  of  Phil  Sheridan  might  have  gone  down  unhonored  and 
unsung.  Governor  Lord  himself,  schooled  in  the  hardships  of 
Indian  warfare,  has  well  said  that  a  braver  and  more  deserving 
class  of  men  never  lived,  and  that  justice  and  humanity  demand- 
ed early  recognition  by  congress  for  services  long  since  rendered. 

Pioneers  of  Oregon,  you  have  furnished  the  material  out  of 
which  has  been  woven  the  majestic  structure  of  our  civil  and  po- 
litical institutions  we  so  dearly  cherish.  It  is  true  many  have 
passed  beyond  the  realms  of  finite  existence,  yet  they  have  left  a 
lasting  impress  upon  the  character  of  our  people  and  the  institu- 
tions they  helped  to  upbuild.  When  first  you  came  here  you  were 
young,  brave  and  strong;  the  weak,  the  halt,  the  timid  and  the 
wavering  died  on  the  wayside  or  turned  back  before  scaling  the 
Rocky  mountains,  or  traversing  the  sagebrush  plains  of  Idaho, 
and  nobly  have  you  performed  your  work.  From  50,000  souls  in 
1859  our  population  has  increased  to  near  500,000;  yet  from  out 
that  pioneer  band  merchant  princes,  bankers  and  honored  repre- 
sentatives in  every  profession  and  trade  are  today  on  every  hand. 
During  all  these  years  of  changing  scenes,  the  stability,  business 
capacity  and  statesmanship  of  the  pioneer  men  have  been  excelled 
only  by  the  spotless  purity  of  character,  integrity  and  virtue 
of  their  wives,  daughters  and  mothers.  Out  of  nine  governors  all 
but  two  have  been  pioneers,  and  those  two  are  worthy  of  honor- 
ary membership  by  long  residence  and  faithful  services  as  citi- 
zens of  their  adopted  state.  Of  that  band  one  has  honorably  dis- 
charged the  duties  of  attorney -general  of  the  United  States,  while 
two  others  have  been  appointed  judges  of  the  United  States  court, 
the  survivor  still  holding  that  exalted  position.  Of  28  senators 
and  representatives  in  congress,  all  but  five  have  been  pioneers. 
Two  of  the   judges  who    honor  the  [supreme  bench  are  pioneers; 


the  chief  justice  and  one  United  States  senator  being  native  sons 
of  Oregon.  Nearly  all  the  circuit  and  supreme  judges  and  a  ma- 
jority of  the  state  legislators  came  to  Oregon  prior  to  1859. 

In  the  few  minutes  necessarily  allowed  me  on  this  occasion, 
Mr.  President,  I  have  endeavored  merely  to  allude  to  a  few  of  the 
facts  and  incidents  of  the  early  history  of  Oregon.  Its  discovery, 
development  and  wonderful  resources  are  grand  themes  for  the 
impartial,  unbiased  and  painstaking  historian.  Of  the  number 
who  have  essayed  to  write  a  history  of  the  Northwest  coast,  too 
many  have  been  guided  by  undue  adulation,  sectarian  or  partisan 
bias — writing  history  as  the  early  settler  staked  off  his  claim — 
on  horseback,  without  chain  or  compass.  The  pioneers  were  men 
and  women  of  great  strength  of  character,  combined  with  a  high 
order  of  intelligence;  they  came  from  every  state,  and  were  of 
nearly  every  nationality,  embracing  nearly  every  creed  and  be- 
lief, all  being  conscientious — inspired  alike  by  their  belief  in  a 
God,  and  the  brotherhood  of  man.  A  true  narrative  of  their 
lives  and  character,  and  not  the  pen  of  a  few  biased  sectarian 
writers,  will  enshrine  their  memory  in  the  heart  of  every  just 
man  and  woman. 



No  other  circumstance  so  vividly  illustrates  the  "passing  of 
the  pioneer"  as  the  fact  that  during  the  past  few  years  your  Asso- 
ciation has  frequently  selected  men  to  deliver  the  annual  and  oc- 
casional addresses  who  are  too  young  to  have  been  in  any^way  con- 
nected with  the  great  pioneer  movement  that  gradually  wrenched 
our  fair  land  from  the  domination  of  the  untutored  Indian  and 
the  condition  of  a  howling  wilderness. 

In  the  earlier  days  of  your  Association,  I  used  to  attend  its 
annual  gatherings  and  listen  to  the  narratives  of  personal  experi- 
ences of  such  men  as  Nesmith,  Lane  and  other  honored  pioneers 
of  the  early  '40's,  little  dreaming  that,  in  the  course  of  time,  I 
should  be  called  upon  to  talk  to  the  Oregon  Piqneers.    . 

Just  what  is  to  be  or  can  be  expected  in  an  address  before  a 
gathering  of  actual  pioneers  from  one  who  never  "pioneered"  any 
in  all  his  born  days,  is  precisely  what  puzzles  me  at  this  moment. 
In  all  the  pioneer  addresses  I  have  ever  heard,  the  happy  narra- 
tors grew  enthusiastic  in  the  recital  of  the  genuinely  patriotic 
impulses  that  prompted  them  to  encounter  the  "hair-breadth  es- 
capes by  flood  and  field"  that  they  knew  lay  between  them  and 
the  promised  land  by  the  setting  sun;  but  after  such  a  wonderful 
country  as  this  Oregon  of  ours  has  been  captured  and  conquered, 
the  enraptured  victors  are  quite  apt  to  justifiably  weave  a  slight 
thread  of  colored  romance  into  the  warp  of  monotonous  reality — 
to  relieve  the  dead  level  of  common  prose  with  a  pleasant  mix- 
ture of  roseate  poetry. 

For  instance,  a  few  days   since,  in  conversation  with  "Uncle" 


Billy  Taylor,  one  of  my  nearest  neighbors,  who  settled  on  his 
donation  land  claim,  which  he  still  owns,  in  the  fall  of  1845,  now 
full  50  years  ago  lacking  only  a  few  months,  I  asked  him  how  he 
happened  to  come  to  Oregon  so  long  ago,  and  he  replied  that  in 
1844  himself  and  his  wife,  to  whom  he  had  been  married  four 
years,  and  his  father-in-law,  Uncle  Jimmy  Smith,  who  was  well 
known  in  Marion  county  30  years  ago,  moved  from  Franklin 
county,  Missouri,*  to  Holt  county,  on  what  was  known  as  the 
"Platte  purchase."  A  few  weeks  after  their  arrival  there,  and 
while  seated  around  their  campfire  one  night.  Mr.  Smith  said, 
after  a  protracted  silence,  "William,  did  you  ever  hear  anything 
about  Oregon?"  Mr.  Taylor  replied  that  he  had  heard  of  such  a 
country,  but  had  never  thought  anything  about  it.  "Well,"  said 
Uncle  Jimmy,  after  another  lapse  of  silence,  and  as  he  rolled  a 
fresh  log  into  the  fire,  "we  had  better  go  there  in  the  spring; 
there's  too  infernal  much  ague  in  this  blasted  country." 

So  there  was  a  motive  for  coming  to  Oregon  that  was^not  so 
patriotic,  perhaps,  as  it  was  sensible,  though  it  is  possible,  I  ad- 
mit, that  having  been  for  years  so  thoroughly  the  victims  of  the 
old  fashioned  ague  they  may  have  for  that  reason  the  more  readi- 
ly hoped  to  succeed  in  shaking  off  the  fierce  hold  of  tlie  British 

But  it  is  not  for  us  of  the  younger  generation  to  question  the 
motive  of  any  man  who  came  to  Oregon  during  the  first  half  of 
the  century — whether  he  came  to  uphold  the  war  cry,  "54:40  or 
fight."  to  escape  the  ague  or  to  secure  a  home  in  a  country  where 
land  could  be  had  without  price  On  this  occasion  we  graciously 
accept  the  fact  that  you  have  temporarily  called  us  into  your  ser- 
vice and  expect  a  recital  of  the  motives  that  brought  us  here.  I 
say  "us,"  for  in  the  younger  generation  I  include  the  distinguished 
gentleman  who  to-day  delivered  the  most  excellent  annual  address. 
I  regard  him  as  still  being  one  of  the  boys,  a  lover  of  fun,  and  who, 
as  you  all  remember,  only  a  year  ago,  was  eugaged  in  perpetrat- 
ing a  most  stupendous  joke,  with  the  entire  state  as  an  interested 
audience.     May  his  youth  be  perennial! 


My  own  uiotive  for  coming  to  Oregon  is  somewhat  lost  in  a 
film  of  obscurity,  superinduced  by  circumstances  over  which  I 
had  no  adequate  control.  When  1  got  here  I  seemed  to  have 
been  here  already.  As  near  as  I  can  make  out,  however,  my  com- 
ing in  March,  1851,  was  owing  largely  to  the  fact  that  my  parents 
preceded  me  in  the  summer  of  '47,  and,  whatever  else  I  may  have 
to  thank  them  for,  I  shall  never  cease  to  lift  my  voice  in  expres- 
sions of  gratitude  that  my  eyes  first  saw  the  light  of  this  world  in 
the  famous  "Waldo  hills,"  Marion  county,  Oregon — a  reg^ion  at 
once  picturesque  in  its  topography,  matchless  as  to  fertility  of 
soil,  unequalled  as  to  the  variety  of  its  timber,  the  purity  of  its 
running  waters,  and  the  varied  beauty  of  its  fields,  pastures,  mead- 
ows and  woods. 

The  poetic  enthusiast  who  wanted  to  climb  where  Moses 
stood  and  view  the  landscape  o'er,  would,  I  am  sure,  have  con- 
sidered his  anticipations  provokingly  tame  if  he  could  have  been 
with  Uncle  Dan  Waldo  on  that  famous  day  in  1843  when,  from 
the  enchanting  eminence  just  east  of  the  spot  where  he  after- 
ward built  his  house,  he  beheld  with  one  extended  sweep  of  the 
eye  the  magnificent  country  that  was  as  unsullied  by  the  touch 
of  man  as  when  first  made  by 

"Our  fathers*  God,  from  out  whose  hand 
The  centuries  fall  like  grains  of  sand." 

Daniel  Waldo,  after  whom  the  garden  spot  of  Oregon  was 
named,  was  the  first  permanent  settler  in  that  region.  A  Rocky- 
mountain  trapper,  whom  Mr.  Waldo  had  met  in  St.  Louis,  named 
William  Burroughs,  had  built  a  cabin  near  where  the  town  of 
Macleay  is  now  situated,  but  had  not  done  so  for  the  purpose  of 
building  a  home,  nor  even  of  holding  any  land.  Mr.  Waldo  set- 
tled on  the  farm  still  owned  by  his  son,  Judge  John  B.  Waldo,  on 
December  i,  1843,  ^^^  was  one  of  the  genuine  pioneers  of  Oregon. 
He  left  3,000  acres  of  land  in  Missouri  undisposed  of  and  came  to 
Oregon  solely  to  escape  not  only  the  annual  but  the  continued 
attacks  of  the  ague,  w^hich  at  that  time  had  undisputed  sway  on 
all  the  river  bottoms  of  the  Western  states. 


For  this  reason  he  passed  by  the  fertile,  attractive  and  un- 
occupied lands  of  Salem,  French  and  Howell's  prairies,  and  lo- 
cated on  the  higher,  picturesque  and  rolling  lands  of  the  hills 
beyond.  Mr.  Waldo's  iudgment  never  failed  him,  though  he  did 
not  then  know  that  ague  is  as  foreign  to  any  location  in  Oregon 
as  comfort  is  to  hades. 

In  the  summer  of  1844  ^r.  Waldo  built  the  log  house  which 
served  as  his  home  until  1853,  when  he  built  the  substantial  frame 
structure  which  is  today  the  cc»mfortable  and  well-preserved  home 
of  Judge  Waldo. 

The  log  house  still  stands  just  as  it  was  built  51  years  ago, 
and  on  last  Sunday,  the  9th  inst.,  I  stood  within  its  sacred  walls, 
and,  with  uncovered  head,  listened  in  imagination  to  the  voices 
of  the  past  that  had  on  many  occasions  mingled  there  in  consul- 
tation concerning  matters  that  affected  the  condition  of  an  em- 
bryonic commonwealth.  Around  the  hospitable  fireplace,  for 
which  the  generous  aperture  in  the  logs  still  remains  as  a  mute 
witness  of  the  times  of  long  ago,  Nesmith  and  Applegate  and 
Burnett  and  Minto,  and  scores  of  others  had  often  gathered  and 
discussed  the  problems  of  incipient  civil  government. 

Like  many  another  pioneer  of  the  early  '40's,  the  old  log  house 
is  settling  to  the  earth,  but,  with  the  true  loyalty  of  a  native  son. 
Judge  Waldo  has  this  summer  placed  under  it  strong  fir  posts, 
eight  inches  in  diameter,  reaching  from  the  eaves  to  the  ground 
at  intervals;  so  that  after  a  generation  of  faithful  duty  the  vener- 
able fir  logs,  taken  from  the  forest  51  years  ago,  are  literally  go- 
ing on  crutches,  supported  by  a  younger  generation  of  their  own 
kind,  started  from  the  seed  long  since  the  historic  summer  of  1844. 

Standing  on  the  dirt  floor,  and  leaning  wearily  against  one  of 
the  wrinkled  walls,  is  an  old  front  door,  which  has  not  seen  active 
duty  for  more  than  40  years,  but  whose  latch-string  could  always 
be  found  hanging  on  the  outside.  It  was  made  entirely  of  hand- 
made nails,  whose  huge,  battered  heads  still  bear  the  marks  of 
the  sou  of  Vulcan  who  fully  earned  his  wages,  no  matter  what 
his  charge. 


The  judge  uses  the  old  house  for  an  implement  shed,  and 
lying  on  the  ground  at  the  feet,  so  to  speak,  of  the  latest  im- 
proved twine-binder,  is  an  old  wooden- axle  wagon  hnb,  without 
hub,  without  spoke,  excepting  two,  which  rolled  its  weary  way 
way  2,000  miles  from  Missouri  to  Oregon,  in  1843.  There  it  rests 
with  its  old  "linch-pin"  attachment,  a  helpless,  discarded  outcast, 
jeered  at  by  a  gorgeous  array  of  steel  binders,  light-draft  runners 
and  rotary  pulverizers — an  eloquent  reminder,  especially  to  the 
younger  generation,  that  the  "world    do  move/* 

Hon.  William  Martin,  present  judge  of  Umatilla  county, 
helped  hew  the  logs  for  the  old  house  51  years  ago,  and  is  still  in 
a  good  state  of  preservation  himself. 

In  the  summer  of  1845,  a  log  school-house  was  built  near  the 
Waldo  house  and  school  was  taught  in  it  the  following  winter  by 
a  man  named  Vernon,  who  went  to  California  soon  after  and  has 
never  been  heard  of  since.  This  was  probably  the  first  public 
school  ever  taught  in  Oregon,  and  was  composed  chiefly  of  the 
children  of  Dan  Waldo  and  William  Taylor. 

Kven  in  those  early  days  the  habits  of  civilization  were  set- 
tling over  the  young  community,  and  a  man  whose  sons  are  to- 
day well-known  citizens  of  Marion  county  lodged  a  complaint 
against  a  neighbor,  charging  him  with  acquiring  possession  of 
a  live  mutton  without  the  knowledge  or  consent  of  the  rightful 
owner.  The  case  was  tried  before  Uncle  Dan  Waldo,  who  was,  by 
mutual  consent,  the  acting  *'squire**  for  the  neighborhood,  and  the 
attorneys  were  J.  W.  Nesmith  and  Peter  H.  Burnett.  My  inform- 
ant was  a  boy  then,  and  remembers  seeing  the  jury  retire  behind 
the  house,  in  the  absence  of  any  room  to  assemble  in,  and,  while 
seated  on  some  logs  by  the  woodpile,  each  one  whittled  a  pile  of 
shavings  while  the  merits  of  the  case  were  discussed  according  to 
the  "law  and  the  evidence." 

From  the  conversations  I  have  had  during  the  past  week  with 
several  pioneers  of  the  early  '40's,  I  judge  that  the  first  thing  the 
head  of  every  family  did  upon  arriving  here  was  to  make  some 
rails  for  somebody  who    had  come  the  year  before    in  return   for 


potatoes  to  eat.  Beyond  potatoes,  the  appetite  of  the  average 
arrival  in  the  Willamette  valley  in  those  days  did  not  dare  to  as- 
pire; bread  was  a  fabled  luxury,  and  meat  an  "iridescent  dream." 
Hon.  David  Simpson,  now  living  in  Salem,  came  in  1845,  and  the 
next  day  after  his  arrival  (I  believe  it  was  the  next  day),  he  be- 
gan making  1,000  rails  for  two  and  a  half  bushels  of  potatoes — 25 
cents  a  hundred  for  rails  and  a  dollar  a  bushel  for  potatoes.  Now- 
a-days  men  get  75  cents  a  hundred  for  making  rails,  buy  potatoes 
for  25  and  30  cents,  andcomplaiu  of  hard  times.    (Applause.) 

Mr.  Simpson  boarded  with  the  man  he  made  rails  for,  and 
when  I  said  to  him  that  for  a  time  at  least  he  got  all  the  pota- 
toes he  could  eat,  he  replied:  "Oh,  yes.  but  I  never  was  fond  of 
potatoes,  and  the  mischief  of  it  was  he  didn't  have  anything  to 
eat  but  potatoes." 

In  1850  my  father  took  up  a  donation  land  claim  of  one  mile 
square,  within  two  miles  of  the  Waldo  place,  and  built  a  log 
house,  10x12,  with  a  kitchen  extension,  two  sizes  smaller.  Here 
my  parents  lived  when  I  was  born  a  year  later. 

Most  of  us  can,  I  presume,  recollect  the  first  thing  we  can  re- 
member. Nothing  is  clearer  to  my  recollection  today  than  the 
first  event  that  ever  impressed  itself  on  my  memory.  Architec- 
ture in  those  days  was  somewhat  different  from  the  style  in  vogue 
at  present,  and  especially  was  ventilation  based  on  a  system  that 
is  decidedly  out  of  favor  now.  In  the  matter  of  the  floor  in  our 
kitchen  above  referred  to,  the  ventilation  between  the  puncheon 
boards  that  constituted  it  was  so — well,  so  ample  that  my  sister, 
who  was  two  years  younger  than  myself,  and  just  able  to  crawl, 
acquired  the  habit  of  depositing  our  spoon  through  one  of  those 
cracks  beneath  the  floor  at  least  once  every  day.  We  had  a  knife 
and  fork  also,  but  they  were  regarded  as  dangerous  weapons  and 
were  kept  beyond  our  reach. 

To  make  diurnal  visits  under  the  floor  and  rescue  that  spoon 
from  permanent  loss  was  exacted  of  me  at  the  tender  age  of  three 
years,  and  is  the  first  thing  on  this  earth  that  I  remember.  The 
space  was  about  a  foot  above  the  ground,  and  must  have   been  at 


least  eight  feet  square,  but  it  was  dark,  and  my  youthful  imagi- 
nation had  it  densely  inhabited  by  all  the  hideous  monsters  ever 
known  to  geology,  zoology,  or  mythology,  each  with  a  belligerent 
demeanor  and  a  carnivorous  intent. 

In  1855,  ™y  father  sold  his  640  acres  of  land,  and  moved  to 
Silverton.  I  am  not  sure  what  he  received  for  it,  but  I  think  it 
was  a  yoke  of  oxen,  a  pair  of  tongs  and  a  quarter  of  beef.  I  know 
it  was  regarded  as  a  good  trade  in  those  days,  for  there  was  more 
land  in  the  country  than  anything  else.  On  the  4th  of  the  pres- 
ent month  I  drove  by  the  same  land,  which  now  constitutes  sev- 
eral farms  highly  improved,  and  which  would,  in  ordinary  times, 
easily  sell  for  $25,000. 

But  men  cannot  foresee  the  result  of  these  moves  on  life's 
checker-board,  and  it  is  probably  best,  else  everybody  wtmld  soon 
be  rich,  and  there  would  be  nobody  to  do  the  work.  It  was  Henry 
Ward  Beecher  who  said  that  men  in  business  matters  were  like 
a  successful  hunter,  who  always'looked  at  his  foresight  through 
his  hindsight. 

Today,  Silverton  is  one  of  the  most  thriving  towns  in  Oregon, 
but  when  my  father  moved  there,  in  1855,  it  contained  only  one 
house,  and  it  was  on  wheels,  having  just  arrived  from  the  preten- 
tious town  of  Milford,  two  miles  above,  on  Silver  creek — though 
when  that  house  started  away  Milford  was  depopulated,  and  has 
been  ever  since. 

It  was  in  Silverton  I  first  attended  school,  and  the  "master" 
was  Paul  Crandall,  a  pioneer  of  the  early  days  and  at  one  time 
well  known  over  the  State.  I  also  went  to  school  to  F.  O.  Mc- 
Cown,  who  afterwards  became  a  prominent  lawyer  of  Oregon  City, 
and  a  few  years  since  delivered  the  Occasional  Address  before  your 
Association.  He  is  now  numbered  among  those  who  have  been 
gathered  to  their  fathers. 

I  trust  no  one  will  be  induced  to  unfavorably  criticize  my  re- 
marks, so  far,  because  of  the  tinge  of  personal  reference  that  has 
pervaded  them,  since  the  object  of  these   reunions   is   largely  to 


gather    the  recollections  of   those  who    took   part,  either   old   or 
young,  in  the  events  which  constitute  our  early  history. 

In  the  spring  of  1861,  my  father  removed  from  Silverton  to 
Snlem  and  thus  cruelly  severed  the  youthful  ties  I  had  formed 
with  the  children  of  the  former  place.  A  pretty  little  missof  eleven 
summers,  with  rosy  cheeks,  curly  hair  and  killing  eyes,  had  com- 
pletely upset  the  moorings  of  my  lacerated  heart,  and  in  the 
midst  of  it  all  I  was  ruthlessly  transplanted  to  what  seemed  to 
me  a  land  of  exile.  It  was  at  the  very  time  of  the  firing  on  Fort 
Sumter  and  the  diflferent  states  were  not  only  "  dissevered,  dis- 
cordant and  belligerent,"  but  the  land  was  being  "drenched  in 
fraternal  blood."  I  can  remember  how  men  were  troubled  and  ex- 
cited, but  I  could  not  understand  what  there  was  in  all  that  to 
cause  them  sorrow,  when,  so  far  as  I  knew,  none  of  them  had 
been  recently  separated,  as  I  just  had  been,  from  the  only  object  on 
earth  that  could  give  any  further  interest  to  life  whatever.  I  had 
just  reached  the  tender  age  of  ten  years,  and  I  had  no  doubt  I 
was  undergoing  the  utmost  bounds  of  mundane  tribulation  ;  but 
so  great  was  my  recuperative  power,  that  within  three  weeks 
my  bereavement  came  to  an  end  and  I  was  again  basking  in 
sunshine  and  roses.  The  last  I  knew  of  my  youthful  charmer, 
she  was  living  on  a  sheep  ranch  on  Burnt  river,  the  mother  of 
eleven  children,  and  was  doing  as  well,  perhaps  better,  than  if 
my  father  had  remained  in  Silverton. 

Few  men  on  this  coast  of  my  age  have  lived  all  their  lives  nearer 
the  place  of  their  birth  than  I  have.  My  home  is  within  one  mile 
of  my  birthplace,  and  until  I  was  36  years  old  I  never  crossed 
the  state  line  of  Oregon.  In  1887  I  visited  the  great  central 
states  of  Ohio,  Indiana,  Illinois,  Missouri,  and  Kentucky  in  the 

We  all  know  the  unimportant  estimate  placed  on  the  value 
of  Oregon  as  a  national  acquisition  by  many  of  the  leading  sen- 
ators at  the  time  the  question  became  one  of  general  interest,  but 
I  was  surprised  to  find  the  same  opinion  largely  prevailing  in  the 
Western  states  yet.     I  can  aptly  illustrate  this  fact  by  narrating  a 


single  instance  that   occurred  during  a  visit  I    made  to  the  Bast 
some  time  since. 

While  traveling  from  Cincinnati  to  Lexington,  my  seat-mate 
in  the  car  soon  learned  that  I  was  from  Oregon,  and,  after  a  some- 
what protracted  study  of  the  general  appearance  of  one  who  had 
recently  emerged  from  the  jungles  of  the  great  Western  wilder- 
ness, said  he  had  a  brother  out  in  Oregon  who  had  been  there 
three  years,  and  gave  his  name.  He  said  he  supposed  I  knew  him, 
and  when  I  told  him  I  was  sorry  to  say  I  did  not,  he  replied: 
"Why,  he  lives  in  Oregon!"  And  the  look  of  pitying  incredulity 
that  overspread  his  countenance  betrayed  his  belief  that  I  had 
never  been  near  Oregon,  else  I  must  have  known  his  dear  brother. 

But  the  many  natural  disadvantages  with  which  those  states 
are  afflicted  appeal  strongly  to  the  charitable  side  of  the  traveler's 
nature,  and  my  firm  belief  is  that  the  people  there  are  really  en- 
titled to  a  generous  degree  of  sympathy  from  the  rest  of  mankind. 

I  spent  several  days  visiting  in  the  family  of  a  well-to-do 
farmer  in  central  Illinois  where  the  only  meat  used  was  chicken, 
daily  led  to  the  sacrificial  altar  for  general  consumption,  while 
the  clover  pastures  were  full  of  fat  hogs;  but  the  hogs  were  "ex- 
empt from  execution,"  because  of  the  frightful  ravages  of  hog 
cholera,  on  account  of  which  disease  the  poultry  were  made  to 
suffer  all  the  pangs  of  vicarious  atonement.  This  was,  of  course, 
a  source  of  satisfaction  to  the  palate  of  a  visiting  brother,  but  it 
seemed  singular  to  a  native  son  of  Oregon  who  had  never  before 
been  nearer  a  case  of  hog  cholera  than  2,000  miles. 

I  should  like  to  describe  the  impressions  a  visit  to  those 
states  made  on  a  native  Oregonian,  but  the  limit  of  this  address 
will  not  permit.  Suffice  it  to  say,  that  upon  my  return  to  Oregon, 
I  became  skeptical,  and  have  been  ever  since,  as  to  the  accuracy 
of  the  historic  and  geographical  conclusion  that  located  the 
original  Garden  of  Eden  in  Asia. 

But  Oregon  is  no  longer  a  new  state;  the  struggles  of  the  pio- 
neers are  over;  no  man  can  be   called  a    pioneer   who  goes  to  a 


country  by  rail  and  finds  it  full  to  repletion  of  all  the  necessaries 
of  life,  and  checkered  with  railroads,  telegraphs  and  river  steam- 
ers. No  country  is  any  longer  new  when  one  of  its  native  sons 
can  sit  beneath  the  shade  of  locust  trees  planted  40  years  ago, 
and  as  the  sun  sinks  behind  the  western  mountains,  dandle  on 
his  knee  his  own  grandson  and  listen  with  dreamy  reverie  to  the 
music  of  his  innocent  prattle.  This  I  did  yesterday.  My  grand- 
father, a  pioneer  of  '47,  also  lives  today,  as  does  my  mother  and 
my  daughter.  Five  generations  of  us  are  living  and  enjoying 
perfect  health,  which  furnishes  an  eloquent  commentary  on  the 
salutary  influence  of  a  healthful  climate  and  the  matchless  bless- 
ings of  untroubled  consciences,  acquired  and  inherited. 

Now,  ladies  and  gentlemen,  I  desire  to  change  the  subject 
enough  to  say  that  the  boastful  spirit  that  so  often  dominates 
the  tyrant  man,  and  which  is  likely  to  become  uppermost  when  he 
is  engaged  in  recounting  his  achievements  while  employed  in 
founding  empires  on  the  conquered  wastes  of  his  martial  prowess, 
shall  have  no  place  in  my  remarks  today;  and  I  wish  to  say  that 
no  pioneer  address  which  pretends  to  deal  with  pioneer  times  can 
hope  to  escape  the  charge  of  being  "stale,  flat  and  unprofitable," 
which  omits  to  give  the  pioneer  women  the  highest  praise  the 
English  language  can  bestow.  This  I  would  do  with  a  cheerful 
heart  and  reverent  demeanor,  but  for  the  fact  that  your  program 
announces  that  to-night  one  of  Oregon's  native  daughters,  and  a 
schoolmate  of  mine  during  the  first  half  of  the  century — I  beg  her 
pardon,  I  mean  the  first  part  of  the  last  half — is  to  discuss  this 
very  theme,  and  the  announcement  itself  guarantees  an  hour  of 
entertainment  and  instruction. 

But  I  must  trespass  enough  to  say  that  the  mothers  of  our 
race  are  the  race  itself;  in  all  great  pioneer  movements  the  hard- 
ships of  the  men  are  pleasant  dreams  compared  with  the  trying 
ordeals  and  patient  denials  of  the  women.  No  settlement  is  so 
far  from  the  great  centers  of  civilization,  no  lonely  cabin  is  so 
far  away  in  the  foothills  from  the  best  part  of  that  isolated  set- 
tlement that   some  devoted,  noble    women  has  not  followed  the 


husband  of   her   choice,  and   is  struggling  heroically  to  build   a 
home — the  sacred  altar  of  Christianity  and  civilization. 

During  recent  years  I  have  traveled  in  Wallowa  county  in  the 
northeastern  corner  of  this  state,  far  aw:iy  from  railroads  and 
telegraphs,  and  even  there,  where  all  the  desirable  land  was  long  agi> 
taken,  I  would  sometimes  see  where  some  homeless  man  had  made 
a  creditable  effort  to  rear  a  domestic  temple  on  some  stray  acre 
of  barren  land  without  means  or  help — the  little  home  withont 
fence,  field  or  garden,  barn,  wood  shed,  or  woodpile,  the  husband 
evidently  away  working  for  food  for  the  family— even  there  I 
would  see  the  wife  and  mother  of  the  family  sitting  in  the  open 
doorway,  no  doubt  thinking  of  the  familiar  scenes  of  her  happy 
childhood  in  some  far  awaj-  Eastern  home. 

Who  can  declare  in  fitting  terms  the  praise  due  women  who 
thus  abandon  the  comforts  of  home  and  sacrifice  the  best  part  of 
their  lives  in  the  altar  of  domestic  constancy?  No  corner  of  the 
earth  is  so  distant,  no  condition  of  men  so  pitiable  and  forsaken, 
that  women  are  not  found  there  lending  their  encouragement  and 
lightening  the  burdens  by  their  cheerful  presence. 

Any  women  on  earth  can  go  into  a  bachelor's  miserable  cabin 
and  without  additional  means,  furniture  or  help,  transform  it  into 
a  miniature  paradise.  In  travelling  through  a  new  country,  you 
can  at  a  glance  distinguish  every  house  presided  over  by  a  women. 
She  will  have  some  kind  of  a  curtain  over  the  window,  if  it  is 
nothing  but  a  newspaper  with  the  lower  edge  adorned  by  some 
kind  of  fancy  "scollops,"  and  she  will  have  some  kind  of  house 
plant  in  the  window,  though  it  may  be  no  more  than  an  old  oys- 
ter can  with  a  pansy  in  it.  Bless  her  heart  evermore!  No  duty 
presses  so  heavily  on  the  hearts  of  men  for  speedy  and  permanent 
recognition  as  the  one  to  help  them  with  lives  of  encouragement, 
devotion  and  constancy. 

May  Heaven  bless  the  small  band  of  white-haired  pioneers 
who  yet  remain  with  us.  As  the  years  go  by  the  Grim 
Reaper  makes  his  demands  more  frequent  and  inexorable,  and 
in  time,  this  Association  will  itself  have  finished  its  work.    Since 

\  ^ 


its  l&st  meeting  my  honored  uncle.  Ralph  C.  Geer,  has  gone  to 
his  final  reward,  after  a  continuous  residence  in  Oregon  for 
more  than  48  years.  He  was  born  in  Windham  county,  Con- 
necticut, on  March  13,  1816.  In  the  spring  of  1818,  his  father 
moved  to  Union  county,  Ohio,  with  his  wife  and  two  children, 
the  youngest,  Fred  VV.  (yet  living  in  Butteville.  Oregon),  being 
then  an  infant. 

The  journey  was  made  in  a  small  wagon  drawn  by  one  horse, 
and  upon  their  arrival  in  Ohio,  their  only  earthly  possession  that 
was  available  for  the  purchase  of  food  was  a  bolt  of  jeans  cloth 
that  Grandmother  Geer  had  woven  before  leaving  Connecticut. 
This  they  sold  for  a  few  dollars  which  kept  the  wcdf  from  the 
door  until  some  other  shift,  always  within  reach  of  the  self-reli- 
ant pioneer,  could  be  found. 

In  1840,  Ralph  Geer,  than  a  married  man,  he  having  married 
Miss  Mary  Willard  three  years  before,  moved  to  Knox  county, 
Illinois.  But  this  proved  to  be  only  a  temporary  repression  of  the 
Western  fever,  and  in  the  early  spring  of  1847,  he,  in  company 
with  his  family,  his  father  and  mother,  four  brothers  and  five  sis- 
ters started  on  the  long  journey  to  Oregon  in  the  company  whose 
leader  was  that  noble  old  pioneer,  Joel  Palmer. 

Soon  after  his  arrival  in  Oregon,  he  bought  the  farm  in  the 
Waldo  Hills,  always  known  as^P'riiit  Farm,"  and  which  remained 
his  home  until  his  death.  Having  brought  a  liberal  supply  of 
apple  and  pear  seeds  from  Illinois,  he  became  the  pioneer  nursery- 
man of  Oregon,  or  at  least  of  Marion  county,  and  for  many  years 
did  a  large  business  with  the  people  of  the  entire  Willamette 

Ralph  Geer  was  a  man  of  positive  opinions,  great  force  of 
character  and  of  unquestioned  integrity.  His  generous  impulses 
and  unbounded  hospitality  were  conspicuous  characteristics,  and 
no  man's  name  will  ever  have  a  place  on  the  roll  of  Oregon's  pio- 
neers, who  had  a  greater  attachment  for  his  adopted  state  than 
he,  nor  who  was  more  impatient  with  a  fault-finding  critic. 


He  held  several  positions  of  honor  and  trust,  both  in  the 
earlier  and  later  years  of  Oregon's  history,  and  his  name  is  honor- 
ably linked  with  the  foundation  and  upbuilding  of  our  beloved 

After  a  long  life  of  activity  and  usefulness,  he  passed  away 
on  January  9th,  1895,  aged  78  years  and  ten  months. 

If  Oregon  ever  attains  that  eminence  among  her  sister  states 
which  the  faith  of  Ralph  Geer  believed  would  yet  be  hers,  she  will 
be  the  fittest  abode  for  man  this  side  of   Paradise. 

But  thedaysof  practical  pioneering  are  gone  and  gone  forever. 
The  man  who  has  the  pioneer  instinct  implanted  in  his  bosom, 
must  now  sit  down  like  Alexander,  and  weep  for  other  wildernesses 
to  reclaim,  or  move  eastward.  Like  the  breaker  which  comes 
dashing  in  on  the  beach,  and  after  spending  its  force,  humbly  re- 
traces its  steps,  so  the  future  pioneer  must  search  out  some  spot 
he  may  have  overlooked  in  the  mad  rush  to  his  great  Western 

So  uniform  and  universal  has  been  the  movement  of  the  hu- 
man family  to  the  westward,  that  an  emigration  to  the  East 
would  seem  like  a  contradiction  of  terms.  The  first  emigration 
mentioned  in  either  sacred  or  profane  history  is  an  account  of  how 
Cain,  after  slaying  his  brother  Abel,  moved  to  the  land  of  Nod, 
east  of  Eden.  This  appears  to  have  so  thoroughly  disgusted  peo- 
ple that  everybody  else  has  been  going  west  ever  since. 

And  now  as  the  time  approaches  for  closing  this  address,  I 
instinctively  pause  and  listen  for  the  voices  of  our  departed  pio- 
neers whose  lives  were  largely  given  that  you  and  I  might  have 
happy  homes  in  peace  and  plenty.  It  was  their  privilege  to 
come  west  and  possess  themselves  of  a  new  world;  it  is  now  our 
duty  to  graciously  accept  it  from  their  generous  hands,  with 
grateful  hearts,  and  preserve  it  as  a  sacred  heritage.  Let  us  con- 
s^cr^t^  QUrs^lv^s  ^n^w  on  this  anniversary  to  the  task  of  pushing 


our  state  ahead  in  all  that  goes  toward  making  a  model  civil 
government  and  a  gradual  recurrence  to  many  of  the  homely  vir- 
tues and  plainness  of  manners  that  characterized  our  honored 

Added  and  growing  responsibilities  are  leaving  the  stooped 
forms  of  our  departing  pioneer  fathers  and  are  settling  upon  us 
who  are  following  in  their  footsteps.  The  immense  magnitude 
of  the  gift  lightens  the  responsibility,  and  the  performance  of 
duty  only  is  required  to  make  our  state  a  land,  so  far  as  a  mere 
human  habitation  may  ever  become,  where 

"Rocks  and  hills  and  brooksand  vales 
With  milk  and  honev  flow." 



Pioneers  of  Oregon:  The  cause  thai  brings  us  together  is  dear 
to  us  all.  That  feeling  of  interest  in  the  pioneer  history  of  Ore- 
gon, which  causes  me  to  speak  is  the  enthusiasm  which  assembles 
you  here.  We  come  to  keep  this  annual  festival  in  commem- 
oration of  the  deeds  of  brave  men  and  women.  We  come  here  to 
celebrate  the  events,  great  and  small,  with  which  Oregon  history 
commenced.  We  come  as  citizens  to  testify  with  pride  that  our 
state  institutions  were  founded  by  these  people,  whom  we  term  , 
the  pioneers,  and  to  crown  them  with  the  well-deserved  wreath  of 
commendation,  before  the  close  of  their  eventful  lives.  Surely, 
then,  I  can  rely  upon  your  indulgence,  knowing  the  interest  that 
incites  me  to  speak,  also  inclines  you  to  hear. 

As  we  in  retrospection  look  over  the  vast  expanse  of  country 
as  it  appeared  fifty  years  ago,  and  view  the  scenes  and  J  events 
which  mark  the  beginnings  of  Oregon's  history,  we  are  thrilled 
with  a  feeling  of  reverence  and  admiration. 

We  look  upon  vast  plains  and  fertile  vales;  on  mighty  rivers, 
and  hills  and  forest  trees;  bubbling  waters,  so  pure  they  must  have 
come  from  the  eternal,  immaculate  snows;  a  smiling  heaven 
above,  and  grassy  slopes  beneath  our  feet;  snow  peaks,  and  moun- 
tains "rock-ribbed  and  ancient  as  the  sun"  surrounding  all.  A 
beautiful  country,  but  wild  and  unsubdued,  inhabited  only  by 
wild  beasts  and  a  roving  barbarous  people.  A  few  days  and 
weeks  go  by  and  we  see  approaching  this  country  occasional 
bands  of  cattle,  horses  and  sheep,  long  lines  of  wagons  with  men, 


women  and  children.  We  look  into  the  faces  of  these  people  and 
fancy  we  see  in  their  countenances  gratitude  for  dangers  escaped 
and  also  anxiety  about  dangers  to  come.  They  all  look  tired  and 
worn,  and  we  know  there  were  no  friends  to  greet  them,  no  homes 
for  them  to  go  to,  and  we  wonder  if  they  will  not  perish?  Ere 
long  we  see  them  again,  first  in  the  Willamette  valley,  then  along 
the  line  of  the  great  Columbia,  and  later  in  the  more  genial  clime 
of  Southern  Oregon.  They  are  building  the  first  hearths  and 
altars  of  homes  in  Oregon,  and  a  change  comes  over  the  face  of 
the  land.  As  these  high-minded,  industrious  people  begin  the 
self-imposed  task  of  subduing  this  wilderness,  it  begins  to  "blos- 
som as  the  rose."  We  see  fields  and  gardens,  the  flowers  of  sum- 
mer, the  yellow  waving  harvest  of  autumn,  spreading  over  the 
hills  and  creeping  along  the  valleys.  We  see  a  society  establish- 
ed in  the  fullest  liberty;  we  see  Christianity  intermingled  with 
the  civilization;  we  see  splendid  edifices  with  spires  pointed  up- 
ward, a  perpetual  reminder  that  the  trend  of  their  lives  must  be 
upward.  Time  goes  on  and  these  people  increase  and  multiply ; 
we  note  that  prosperity  increases  correspondingly.  Villages  arise 
here  and  there,  thriving  towns  dot  the  banks  of  the  beautiful 
rivers,  and  now  cities  enliven  the  land  with  their  commerce. 
,  From  the  simplest  forms  of  social  union,  we  see  evolved  the 
"Wolf  Meeting"  on  French  Prairie,  the  first  legislative  assembly 
at  Oregon  City,  the  efl&cient  provisional  government,  and  finally 
the  wise,  politic  and  liberal  constitution  and  government  of  the 
present  time.  From  the  inborn  zeal  for  learning  we  see  spring 
into  existence  the  little  private  school  in  the  kitchen,  then  the 
poetic  log  school  house  with  its  puncheon  floor  and  backless 
benches,  and  finally  the  public  schools,  the  academies,  colleges 
and  universities  scattered  all  over  the  land. 

Month  after  month  and  year  after  year  has  gone  by  freighted 
with  the  energy,  the  hopes  and  fears,  the  health  and  strength  and 
brain-power  of  these  people.  We  know  that  to  accomplish  all 
this,  they  did  not  selfishly  seek  their  own  personal  ease  nor  the 
prosperity  of  the  individual  or  the  family,  but  as  well,  the  wel- 
ffire  of  all   future   generations.    How  superior   they  have  proven 


themselves  to  be  to  the  Canadian  trappers,  and  even  to  some  of 
bluer  blood,  who  were  content  to  live  an  easy  life  and  possibly 
ambitious  to  grow  rich,  but  cared  not  that  the  country  should 
remain  barbarous  and  inhabited  by  ignorant  and  immoral  half- 
breeds;  or  even  of  another  class,  who,  if  they  took  native  wives, 
at  least  sought  to  make  respectable  their  offspring,  by  a  bona- 
fide  marriage,  but  who  were  only  ambitious  to  accumulate  wealth. 
Our  pioneers  as  a  class  of  people  tower  above  these  people,  as 
they,  with  unselfish  hearts  and  from  a  high  moral  plane,  contem- 
plate the  long  continued  result  of  all  the  good  they  can  do,  and 
resolve  that  the  world  shall  be  better  for  their  having  lived. 
They  have  thus  crowded  into  the  narrow  limit  of  their  earthly 
existence  an  interest  in,  not  only  the  future  glory  of  Oregon,  but 
through  this  state,  they  have  become  of  interest  to  the  whole 
world  through  all  time. 

While  recollection  is  thus  reviewing  the  scenes  and  events  of 
the  past,  and  the  results  evolved  out  of  them,  there  are  people 
inseparably  connected  with  this  development,  and  memory  brings 
them  into  view.  In  imagination  there  appears  before  us  the 
"White-headed  Eagle"  who  befriended  and  guarded  every  pio- 
neer— the  good,  kind,  considerate,  dignified  and  commanding  Dr. 
McLoughlin;  the  decisive  and  soldier-like  JLane;  the  energetic, 
helpful  and  suggestive  "Sage  of  Yoncalla;"  the  scholarly  and  ju- 
dicial Deady;  the  sarcastic  wit,  the  popular  and  honored  Nesmith; 
the  good  and  devout  Lee,  Leslie,  Waller  and  Whitman;  and  the 
equally  good  and  devout  Rev.  Father  Blanchet;  the  kind-hearted, 
honored  and  much  lamented  Chadwick;  then  there  are  Abernethy, 
Grover,  Curry  and  the  legal-minded  George  H.  Williams,  and  we 
might  continue  for  hours  as  we  recognize  the  faces  of  those  who, 
in  private  life  as  well  as  public,  have  been  active  in  making  the 
civilization  we  enjoy.  As  we  thus  think  of  them  and  contem- 
plate what  they  have  done,  we  can  almost  see  them  assemblc^d 
in  council,  and  hear  their  weighty  arguments.  As  we  look  and 
listen,  we  meditate.  What  are  the  thoughts  that  thrill  us  and 
sufifuse  our  eyes?  Is  it  that  they  encounter  the  storms  of  heaven,  the 
dangers  of  earth  and  the  violence  of  savages,  disease  and  famine? 


No,  not  that  alone.  Our  emotions  are  stirred  within  us,  because 
we  realize  that  all  the  present  glory  of  this  state  depended  upon 
the  mighty  endurance  and  majestic  heroism  displayed  by  them. 
Because  we  perceive  that  Oregon's  government  and  free  institu- 
tions, her  statesmen  and  orators,  her  artisans  and  architects,  her 
poets  and  painters,  point  back  to  the  time  when  all  their  future 
existence  depended  upon  the  contingency  whether  these  Oregon 
pioneers  could  withstand  the  fearful  odds  against  them.  With 
what  gratitude  we  rehearse  the  issue;  with  what  joyful  hearts  we 
honor  them;  with  what  pride  ot  ancestry  we  name  them  our  pa- 
rents and  grandparents! 

I  am  here  reminded  that  it  is  my  duty  and  my  privilege  to 
tell  the  story  of  women  in  pioneer  times.  The  lives  and  deeds  of 
the  pioneer  women  and  men  are  so  closely  allied,  and  the  lives 
of  the  women  depended  so  much  upon  the  mode  of  life  of  the 
men,  that  I  must  be  pardoned  for  so  often  alluding  to  the  men. 
Without  them  there  would  have  been  no  story  to  tell. 

In  order  to  understand  the  part  that  women  played  during 
the  pioneer  days,  let  us  ascertain  who  these  women  were  and 
from  whence  they  came.  Were  they  of  a  race  of  amazons  with 
giant  frames  and  iron  sinews?  Were  they  disciplined  and  trained 
by  some  school  and  given  a  knowledge  and  a  skill  to  conquer  the 
difficulties  they  were  about  to  undertake?  I^t  us  see.  Some 
came  from  homes  of  culture  and  refinement;  some  came  from 
luxurious  homes  of  ease;  some  were  the  systematic,  the  method- 
ical but  thrifty  new  England  wives  and  mothers;  some  were  of 
the  proud,  ease-loving  Southern  stock;  some  were  sickly  and  con- 
sumptive, others  were  robust,  vigorous  and  happy;  some  came 
from  homes  in  the  then^  West,  Missouri,  Indiana  and  Iowa;  some 
come  from  the  city,  and  others  from  homes  in  the  country.  A 
very  superficial  examination  developes  the  fact  that  women  of 
nearly  every  station  in  life  and  from  nearly  every  state  in  the 
Union  came  across  the  plains  to  Oregon.  Many  have  been  the 
queries  and  multitudinous  the  answers  tc  why  men  came  to  this 
wild  west.     I  shall  not  venture  an  opinion  in  regard  to  it.    Why 


did  women  come?  Immediately  I  would  have  an  answer,  if  I  pnt 
the  question,  "Because  men  came.*'  Would  not  men  have  come  if 
women  had  not  done  so?  Yes.  Would  women  have  come  if  men 
had  not?  No,  not  even  if  the  country  had  remained  unsettled  un- 
til the  present  time.  From  now  on,  it  might  be  different,  for  the 
the  new  woman  is  among  us.  She  is  not  at  all  like  her  great 
grandmother  and  there  is  no  telling  what  she  might  do.  I  do 
not  say  this  disparagingly  of  either  of  them,  but  just  to  note  the  dif- 
ference. The  last  25  or  30  years  has  wrought  a  wonderful  change 
in  the  status  of  women.  Do  any  of  you  pioneers  of  1840  or  '50  or 
even  *6o  remember  that  there  were  many  women  doctors,  women 
lawyers,  women  preachers,  women  lecturers  or  speakers,  during 
those  years?  It  was  something  entirely  out  of  the  ordinary  for 
women  to  be  asked  to  address  any  kind  of  an  association.  I  read 
recently  a  letter  written  by  that  most  estimable  of  missionaries, 
Mrs.  Whitman,  to  her  mother,  in  which  she  makes  the  following 
statement:  "There  are  so  few  Christian  people  at  our  mission  I 
sometimes  feel  it  almost  a  duty  to  offer  prayer  at  some  of  our 
meetings.  Mr.  Whitman  has  no  objection  to  women  praying,  but 
tells  me  that  I  had  better  not  do  so,  because  in  the  opinion  of 
others  it  would  be  wrong  and  out  of  place."  I  might  relate  a 
number  of  incidents  like  this  to  show  that  women  were  not  like- 
ly to  have  come  west  without  the  approval  and  even  the  company 
of  men.  I  infer  from  these  social  conditions  and  from  other 
things  which  I  will  not  mention,  that  while  many  women  were 
just  as  enthusiastic  and  as  anxious  to  undertake  the  journey  into 
this  far  west  as  the  husbands,  fathers,  brothers  and  sons  were, 
that  the  majority  of  them  came  in  obedience  to  man's  judg- 
ment, whether  or  not  in  accord  with  her  own. 

Many  were  the  incentives  for  men  to  come  to  Oregon.  What 
incentive  was  there  for  women?  She  was  not  ambitious  to  conquer 
an  empire,  nor  carve  out  a  state.  Neither  did  she  aspire  to  polit- 
ical honors.  Did  she  come  to  improve  her  home  conditions?  She 
certainly  had  some  kind  of  home,  "though  ever  so  humble," 
where  she  was;  say  a  log  cabin  in  Missouri,  where  a  daily  round 
of  little  duties  were  never  ceasing,  but  ever  increasing.    She  could 


not  hope  for  much  more  than  this  in  the  west  for  a  number  of 
years,  and  she  must  first  make  that  long  hazardous  journey. 
She  was  ill-fitted  to  endure  the  traveling.  She  could  not  easily 
endure  the  heat  and  dust,  cramped  up  in  a  low-topped  wagon  all 
summer,  sometimes  holding  a  child  in  her  aching  arms  all  day, 
and  each  succeeding  day  like  the  preceding  one.  She  was  unpre- 
pared to  defend  herself  against  the  attack  of  wild  beasts  and  wild 
Indians.  She  desired  advantages  for  her  children,  good  society 
for  her  girls,  and  education  for  her  boys.  She  was  nearer  social 
and  educational  centers  in  Missouri,  and  had  better  bear  the  ills 
she  had  than  to  fly  to  others  that  she  knew  not  of.  What  in- 
ducement was  there  for  her  coming?  Search  as  we  may  we  find 
but  one  inducement,  the  one  o*er-mastering  motive  in  human 
happiness — she  came  for  "love's  sweet  sake."  Love  for  husband 
and  little  ones,  and  the  heroic  desire  to  be  a  helpmeet  to  her  hus- 
band, whatever  his  ambition.  Though  exalted  by  these  admirable 
resolutions,  there  was  a  crucial  test  of  her  fortitude  when  she 
thought  of  breaking  all  home  ties  and  seeking  a  land  from  which 
she  could  scarcely  hope  ever  to  return.  Who  wonders  that  a  tear 
falls  now  and  then  as  she  prepares  to  give  up  the  little  home 
where  she  has  lavished  so  much  care  and  planned  so  much  im- 
provement; when  she  looks  at  the  little  window  garden,  some 
pretty  piece  of  furniture,  some  dainty  pair  of  curtains,  some  beau- 
tiful vase  or  rose  jar,  dear  to  her  woman's  heart,  which  she  must 
leave  behind?  There  was  much  trembling  hesitation  and  many 
stifled  regrets  when  parting  from  relatives  and  friends  for  years, 
if  not  forever;  there  was,  too,  an  appalling  apprehension  for  her 
own  fate  and  the  fate  of  those  to  be  left  behind.  But  even  with 
the  full  realization  of  all  this  almost  crushing  her,  since  she  firm- 
ly adheres  to  her  purpose,  we  catch  a  glimpse  of  the  fiber  of 
her  heart,  and  know,  whether  cultured  and  refined,  or  blunt  or  un- 
tutored, that  she  will  nobly  do  her  duty  and  grandly  fulfill  her 

Let  us  for  a  few  minutes  contemplate  the  condition  and  en- 
vironment of  women  during  this  long  and  perilous  pilgrimage. 
Look  with  a  poet's  eye  at  the  chained  lines  of  yoked  and  patient 


steers;  the  long  white  trains  that  are  pointing  toward  the  West;  see 
the  drivers  at  the  wheels,  and  hear  their  shouting,  and  tbe  cn»h 
and  roll  of  wheels,  as  the  whole  vast  line,  that  reaches  as  if  to 
touch  the  goal,  begins  to  stretch  and  move  and  wind  away  towards 
the  fierce  and  boundless  plains. 

It  is  springtime;  all  the  earth  is  fresh  and  green,  and  the  way 
seems  promising  and  pleasant.  It  lies  through  green  pastures, 
by  sunny  streams  and  amid  belts  of  trees.  Around  the  camp  are 
merry  voices  of  laughing,  romping  children,  and  cheery  noise  of 
cooing  babes.  The  youths  and  maids  dance  upon  the  green. 
Love  songs  are  sung,  love  stories  told  by  youth  and  maidens 
more  serious  than  the  dancers.  Prom  another  quarter  comes  the 
words  of  some  familiar  ballad  or  sacred  song,  which,  as  the 
night  deepens,  fades  away  like  the  amen  of  a  prayer.  Thus  the 
happy  evening  passes.  As  the  days  go  by,  so  goes  the  spring  time, 
and  summer's  sun  comes  parching  all  this  verdure  and  drinking 
up  the  moisture.  The  train  goes  on  and  on,  and  finally 
through  a  boundless  desert  with  its  dried  up  desert  streams,  its 
dry  hot  wind,  and  the  merry-making  is  turned  to  mourning. 

As  the  wagons  stretch  out  over  this  plain  of  sombre  hue  and 
desert  waste,  the  dust  arises  like  smoke  from  out  a  riven  earth. 
It  fills  the  sky  and  falls  again  on  beast  and  wagon,  tent  and  plain. 
While  crossing  this  parched  vegetation  and  naked  earth,  cattle 
plaintively  low  and  call  across  the  land,  thrust  their  tongues  from 
heat  and  thirst,  and  thousands  die.  A  stench  goes  up  that 
poisons  the  air,  and  the  next  train  has  the  cholera. 

Pood  sometimes  fails.  Sickness  often  comes.  Tired  and  fret- 
ful children  cry  for  bread.  Mothers  hold  their  little  children  and 
watch  them  suffer  from  thirst  and  heat,  and  when  the  little  ones 
are  worn  out  by  the  constant  motion  of  the  train,  mothers  help- 
lessly watched  them  suffer,  die,  and  shortly  leave  them  in  a  quick 
made  grave  on  the  lonely  desert.  Mothers  sicken  and  die,  leaving 
tired  and  fretful  children.  Husbands  and  fathers  die,  leaving 
homeless  wives  and  helpless  children.  Others  there  are  who  lie 
on  beds  of  sickness  long  days  through  dust  and  heat;  instead  of 


the  quiet  of  the  sickroom  there  is  the  noise  of  tramping  teams, 
the  rattle  of  yokes  and  chains  and  wheels,  and  querulous  noise  of 
tired  men  and  women  and  peevish  children.  Now  and  then  a 
tawny  rider  darts  into  view  and  yells,  makes  threatening  signs, 
and  plunges  away  again.  Hovering  near  the  train  and  flying 
low  and  still,  expectant  and  threatening,  are  strange  birds  with 
hooked  beaks.  Here  and  there  glides  a  wolf  or  fox  with  stealthy 
vigilance,  and  along  the  way  are  opened  graves  and  scattered, 
bleaching  human  bones.  To  those  who  lie  on  beds  of  sickness 
what  hopes  and  fears  of  life  and  death  go  surging  through  those 
fevered  brows!  How  despairing  any  effort  to  recover!  How  appal- 
ling the  thought  of  death! 

You  may  think  this  picture  overdrawn.  I  do  not  mean  to 
have  it  inferred  that  this  is  the  history  of  every  train,  nor  that 
every  member  of  every  train  encountered  all  this  suffering.  But 
I  do  mean  that  more  should  be  added  to  truthfully  depict  the 
horrors  of  some  lives  that  were  spared,  and  some  that  were  sacri- 
ficed. There  too,  were  those  who  were  well  and  strong,  but  they, 
like  those  who  were  sick,  were  dust  worn,  travel-stained  and  weary. 
Let  us  take  a  few  examples  by  way  of  illustrating.  In  1844  there 
was  a  pale,  delicate  little  woman,  mother  of  several  small  children, 
whose  husband,  from  over-work  and  exposure  took  typhoid  fever, 
died  and  was  buried  by  the  road  side.  This  mother,  with  a  heavy 
heart,  nerved  herself  to  drive  the  team,  cook  the  meals  and  care 
for  the  little  ones,  but  the  burden  was  too  heavy,  She  sank  under 
the  load  of  care  and  traveling,  died  and  was  buried  before  the 
journey  was  nearly  completed.  Her  helpless,  homeless  children 
were  committed  to  strangers.  These  are  the  orphan  children 
brought  to  Dr.  and  Mrs.Whitman,  who  took  them  into  their  fami- 
ly and  cared  for  them,  until  they  and  two  of  the  children  were 
killed  in  that  fearful  Whitman  massacre  of  November  29,  1847. 

There  are  numbers  of  instances  of  women  having  to  bury  their 
children  in  the  darkness  of  the  night  to  prevent  the  marauding 
Indians  from  the  knowledge  of  a  new  made  grave.  Even  the  name 
Grave  Creek  of  Southern  Oregon  suggests  an  instance  of  this  kind. 


A  beautiful  girl,  loved  by  every  member  of  the  train,  died  and 
was  buried  in  the  evening.  That  night  the  cattle  of  the  train  were 
corralled  over  her  grave,  and  the  next  morning  all  the  wagons  of 
the  train  were  driven  across  her  grave,  in  order  to  obscure  it  from 
the  knowledge  of  the  desecrating  Indian. 

There  were  women  who[were  brave  as  men  in  the  midst  of  dan- 
ger. Mrs.  McAllister  stood  guard  over  children,  wagons  and  cattle, 
while  her  husband  crossed  the  DesChutes  river  with  part  of  their 
effects.  While  thus  alone  she  was  attacked  by  three  Indian  thieves; 
she  seized  an  ax,  struck  down  the  leader  and  drove  the  others  from 
the  camp.  Mrs.  Morrison,  mother-in-law  of  John  Minto,  drove  a 
thieving  Indian  from  the  wagon  she  was  driving  by  beating 
him  over  his  head  and  shoulders  with  her  ox  whip.  Later  on, 
when  this  same  train  was  nearing  Clatsop  plains,  a  swamp  had 
to  be  crossed  and  all  the  goods  carried,  so  each  must  do  his  part. 
Mrs.  Morrison  took  charge  of  the  bedding.  She  was  a  heavy 
woman,  with  small  hands  and  feet,  yet  she  took  up  a  great  roll  of 
bed  clothes,  all  her  arms  could  reach  around,  and  struggled 
through  that  swamp;  sometimes  sinking  into  the  bog  up  to  her 
knees,  but  she  safely  landed  that  most  precious  bedding.  I  need 
only  remind  you  of  the  women  in  that  ill-fated  train  of  first  im- 
migrants to  Southern  Oregon,  who,  when  almost  famished,  waded 
in  the  ice-cold  waters  of  Canyon  creek  and  carried  their  bedding. 
Women  not  only  endured  with  fortitude  in  distress,  and  courage- 
ously defended  in  time  of  peril,  but  her  voice  and  deeds  were 
many  times  required  to  give  courage  and  fortitude  to  others.  In 
the  train  of  1850  there  was  a  brave  woman  whose  magic  words 
quelled  a  panic.  The  train  had  been  stricken  by  the  dread  chol- 
era; grief  seemed  present  every  where.  In  the  midst  of  this  af- 
fliction, the  men  in  advance  brought  word  of  recent  Indian  mur- 
ders. These  grief-stricken  people  saw  death  snatching  them 
away,  one  by  one,  where  they  were,  and  staring  inevitable  should 
they  proceed.  The  excitement  occasioned  by  fear  of  disease  was 
heightened  into  terror  by  fear  of  the  Indians,  and  there  was  a 
panic  in  the  camp.  Women  were  weeping  and  pleading  to  return 
to  their  homes,  children  were  wailing  because  of  the  tears  of  their 


mothers;  men  were  tired,  discouraged  and  sick  at  heart.  Not  all 
men  are  brave,  and  some  in  very  cowardice  had  crept  into  the 
wagons  under  the  bed-clothes,  where  they  lay  trembling  and 
sweltering  in  the  heat  and  dust,  half  suffocated  in  their  endeavor 
to  hide.  The  dear  old  gentleman  who  related  this  incident  to  me, 
while  tears  trickled  down  his  cheeks  as  he  in  recollection  reviewed 
the  scene,  was  the  physician  of  the  train  and  the  husband  of  the 
brave  woman  of  whom  I  speak.  He  said,  all  were  ready  to  turn 
back.  I  was  willing,  and  the  captain  of  the  train  said,  "we  must 
return ;  "'t  is  useless  to  go  forward."  In  the  midst  of  this  excitement 
it  seemed  there  was  no  one  in  the  train  who  realized  that  there 
were  just  as  many  dangtrs  to  face  in  returning  as  in  going  for- 
ward; or,  who  remembered  that  only  disappointment  and  unhap- 
iness  awaited  any  who  might  safely  return  to  where  home  had 
been  given  up.  When  hope  seemed  to  have  vanished,  and  des- 
pair was  entering  into  the  hearts  of  all,  a  woman  stepped  forth. 
So  deep  was  her  conviction,  so  courageous  was  her  great  heart, 
that  all  thought  or  fear  of  criticism  of  the  unusual  thing  she  did 
departed.  This  timid,  shrinking  woman,  who  never  before  had 
heard  her  own  voice,  or  been  heard  in  an  audience,  climbed  upon 
the  wagon-wheel  to  be  seen  and  heard.  Her  face  was  pale,  but 
radiant  and  shining  with  devotion;  her  eyes  tearless,  but  sympa- 
thetic and  pleading;  her  voice  was  deep  with  earnestness.  She 
talked  and  reasoned  and  plead  and  encouraged  until  the  tears 
and  fears  were  driven  away,  the  discontent  was  banished,  and 
she  filled  the  hearts  of  those  stricken  people  with  courage.  So 
the  train  moved  on  toward  the  West. 

Numerous  stories  of  the  quiet  heroism  of  women  might  be 
recited,  for  these  migrations  went  out  year  after  year  under  very 
similar  circumstances. 

Finally  the  long  train  of  wagons  rolls  over  the  Cascade  moun- 
tains; monumental  Hood  stands  up  before  these  people  and  skirt- 
ing his  kingly  base,  they  reach  the  settlements  in  Oregon.  Not 
the  same  thrif ty,well-to-do  people  whom  we  saw  leaving  their  homes 
some  five  or  six  months  ago,  but  a  tattered  band  of  homeless, 
shivering,  hungry  human  beings.    Some  came  to  the  end  of  their 


journey  bereft  of  all  that  life  holds  dear;  some  so  worn  by  sick- 
ness and  care  and  the  tedium  of  the  trip  they  had  no  heart  to  be- 
gin life  anew  and  in  sheer  despair  lay  down  and  died;  some 
cursed  their  fate;  some  prayed  for  help;  some  looked  back  over 
the  death -strewn  path  of  the  desert  and  wept  from  day  to  day: 
others  "dipped  into  the  future  as  far  as  human  eye  could  see," 
looked  beyond  the  mists  and  clouds,  caught  a  glimpse  of  the  sun 
shining,  and  by  the  vision  were  made  ready  to  meet  life  grandly. 

These  tired,  homeless  people  were  obliged  to  go  into  winter  quar- 
ters wherever  and  with  whom-ever  they  could  find  shelter.  Often 
two  or  three  families  were  domiciled  in  the  same  cabin.  The  pos- 
sible incompatibility  or  uncongeniality  were  unworthy  any  con- 

A  bachelor  now  and  then  opened  his  heart  and  his  cabin  door 
to  some  houseless  family.  What  recompense  had  he  for  his  hos- 
pitality? Did  he  receive  a  money  rental?  No.  This  tired 
wife  and  mother  added  one  more  to  her  family,  and  washed  and 
mended,  patched  aod  darned,  scrubbed  and  cooked,  and  in  every 
way  endeavored  to  make  this  bachelor  enough  more  comfortable 
by  her  presence  and  effort,  to  pay  him  for  the  presence  of  her 
family  in  his  house. 

Here  in  the  cabin  on  the  prairie  or  in  the ''continuous  woods." 
miles  away  from  sister  women,  she  lived  for  months  and  some- 
times years.  How  starved  her  heart  must  have  been.  There  were 
two  women  living  several  miles  apart  who  were  strangers  to  each 
other.  They  grew  so  tired  of  the  solitude  and  so  lonely  and  homesick 
for  a  woman  friend  that  each  resolved  to  visit  the  other.  It  is 
easy  to  understand  the  willingness  to  undertake  a  fatiguing 
journey  to  visit  a  relative,  friend  or  even  an  acquaintance,  for  the 
purpose  of  pouring  out  one's  heart-aches  or  asking  for  sympathy 
or  advice.  But  these  women  had  never  seen  each  other,  and  each 
only  knew  that  the  other  lived  somewhere  in  a  given'  direction, 
miles  away,  and  her  heart  yearned  for  a  friend.  It  so  happened 
that  each  started  on  this  self-same  errand  of  love  on  the  same 
day   and  they  met  on  the  way.    Think   you   their  meeting   was 


cold  and  formal,  with  mutual  introductions  and  ceremonious 
words  of  salutation?  Or  that  they  received  each  other  with  rap- 
turous smiles,  gushing  affection,  and  fond  embraces?  No;  feel- 
ing was  too  deep  for  effusive  display;  hearts  too  full  to  find  ex- 
pression in  words;  in  silence,  each  looked  into  the  other's  pale, 
sad  face,  and  clasping  hands,  they  wept  together.  Oh!  the  un- 
speakable sadness  of  their  common  lot! 

There  were  others  who  lived  in  a  continual  state  of  fear  of 
the  Indians.  The  courage  of  woman  was  put  to  the  test  when 
she  was  left  alone  in  the  house  with  her  helpless  little  children 
and  the  red  men  at  his  own  sweet  will  stalked  unbidden  through 
the  house,  perhaps  displaying  an  ugly  knife  at  each  knee  and 
tomahawk  or  pistol  at  his  belt.  When  her  husband  went  forth  in 
the  morning  she  not  only  feared  for  the  safety  and  even  the  life 
of  her  children  and  herself,  but  lest  her  husband  should  be  mur- 
dered ere  she  see  him  again.  When  she  lay  down  at  night,  it 
was  only  for  a  fitful,  watchful  sleep,  lest  her  family  be  slain  be- 
fore daybreak.  With  toil  and  fear  through  the  day,  wakefulness 
from  fear  through  the   night,  their   lives  seemed    one    unceasing 

round  of  toil  and  terror. 


Living  as  we  do  in  the  security  of  a  splendid  civilization, 
with  telephone  and  telegraph  lines  making  the  whole  state  one 
neighborhood,  we  can  scarcely  realize  what  it  must  have  been  to 
live  without  neighbors  and  in  danger  of  attack.  Living  in  our 
modern  houses,  with  their  carpets  and  cushions,  their  brilliant 
lights  and  many  apartments,  we  can  scarcely  realize  how  a  fam- 
ily lived  and  entertained  many  guests  in  the  kind  of  house  Col. 
Nesmith  so  graphically  describes.  He  says:  "Our  palatial  resi- 
dence consisted  of  a  pole  cabin,  14  feet  square.  The  spaces  be- 
tween the  poles,  *stuffed  with  clay  to  keep  the  wind  away,'  a 
puncheon  floor,  a  mud  chimney,  not  a  pane  of  glass  or  a  particle 
of  sawed  lumber  in  the  whole  institution.  The  furniture  consisted 
of  such  articles  as  I  manufactured  from  a  fir  tree  with  an  ax  and 
auger."    He  further  says:  **We  entertained  two  British    officers, 


regaled  them  bountifully  on  boiled  wheat  and  jerked  beef;  they 
had  their  own  blankets  and  slept  on  the  floor." 

Imagine  the  woman  of  to-day  entertaining  her  guests  in  a 
room  which  iskitchen,  bedroom,  dining-room  and  parlor,  while  the 
guests  are  sitting  around  conversing,  she  in  their  presence  cookiog 
the  meals  at  the  open  fireplace.  Yet  this  was  the  inevitable  in 
those  days  when  the  foundations  of  this  state  were  being  laid. 
Even  the  illustrious  guests  must  share  the  same  informal  hospi- 
tality. When  Judge  Deady  was  holding  court  through  the  valley, 
he  and  ex-governors  A.  C.  Gibbs  and  S.  F.  Chad  wick,  and  the 
Hon.  P.  P.  Prim,  all  sat  round  the  open  fireplace  while  Mrs.  Wells 
baked  cakes  on  the  hearth  for  their  breakfast.  What  woman  of 
today  would  cheerfully  prepare  breakfast  in  this  way  for  our 
present  judges  and  governors. 

A  dear,  sweet  old  lady,  Mrs.  Buck  of  Oregon  City,  told  me  the 
following  incident  in  her  own  life:  "We  were  living,"  said  she, 
"not  far  from  where  Portland  now  stands;  our  home  was  as  good 
and  as  well  furnished  as  any  of  the  homes  in  those  times.  It 
happened  that  two  ofiicers  from  an  English  vessel  just  arrived 
from  Port  Vancouver  had  been  hunting,  and  night  overtook  them 
near  our  house.  They  came  and  asked  for  a  night's  lodging.  We 
told  them  that  we  were  not  prepared  to  make  them  comfortable, 
but  would  make  a  bed  on  the  floor  if  they  could  accept  that. 
They  thanked  us  and  said  that  they  were  glad  to  find  a  house  to 
sleep  in,  and  not  be  obliged  to  stay  in  the  woods  all  night.  Well/* 
said  she,  "we  had  supper,  and  we  sat  around  the  big,  bright  fire 
talking  until  quite  late,  for  both  the  geutlemen  were  cultured 
Englishmen  and  splendid  conversationalists  and  we  enjoyed  the 
talk.  Finally  we  all  retired  for  the  night,  they  to  their  pallet 
on  the  floor,  and  husband  and  I  to  a  little  room  which  opened 
off  this  room  where  our  visitors  were.  Our  houses  did  not  have 
doubled  plastered  walls  and  partitions  in  those  days,  but  very 
thin  boards  with  quite  wide  cracks  between.  One  could  easily 
hear  from  one  room  to  the  other  every  word  spoken — in  fact  it 
was  most  impossible  not  to  hear.     About  the  time  they  were  get- 


tiug  into  bed/'  continued  the  dear  old  lady,  "I  heard  one  of  them 
say,  *I  wish  I  had  a  night-cap.*  Well,"  said  she.  "I  thought  I 
had  better  get  up  and  give  him  one  of  mine,  or,  perhaps  both 
gentlemen  would  like  to  have  night-caps.  But  my  ca])S  were  so 
plain  and  these  were  such  aristocratic  looking  gentlemen,  that  I 
did  not  like  to  offer  them,  and,*'  she  continued,  **lic  said  nothing 
more,  and  I  concluded  he  had  gone  to  sleep.  Hy  and  by,  it  seemed 
to  me  about  half  an  hour  afterwards,  I  heard  him  say,  *Rae,  are 
you  awake?*  and  the  answer,  *yes.'  Then  the  first  voice  again,  *I 
can' never  go  to  sleep  without  a  night-cap.'  And  the  reply,  'nei- 
ther can  I.'  I  waited  no  longer,"  said  the  dear  old  lady;  *'I  took 
two  of  my  night-caps,  made  of  white  muslin  with  strings  to  tie 
under  the  chin,  and  going  to  the  door  put  my  hand  through  and 
said, 'gentlemen,  here  arc  two  nightcaps;  they  are  plain  and  rather 
small,  but  perhaps  you  can  use  them.'  I  heard  a  faint  sound  of 
suppressed  laughter,  then  in  an  instant  the  house  resounded  with 
the  hearty  laughing  of  those  gentlemen  who  finally  managed  to 
tell  me  that  my  nightcaps  were  not  the  kind  they  wanted." 

Thus  their  lives  went  on.  Not  all  toil  and  terror,  sickness 
and  poverty,  but  hope  and  health  and  happiness  intermingled.  Yet 
methinks  the  record  of  their  lives  will  show  a  preponderance  of 
misfortunes;  that  their  lives  had  more  of  trial  than  of  pleasure. 
But  to  their  honor  be  it  said  that  they  so  pursued  the  course,  not 
chosen  by  them,  but  marked  out  for  them,  that  they  have,  even 
under  the  winepress  of  misfortune,  exemplified  a  sweetness  of 
temper,  sweetness  of  soul  and  an  unrivaled  sweetness  and  grace 
of  old  age,  which  is  seldom  attained  and  never  .surpassed. 

The  wives,  mothers  and  daughters  who  crossed  the  plains  and 
pioneered  in  Oregon,  when  there  was  dearth  of  comforts  in  the 
home,  and  absence  of  the  beautiful;  when  women  starved  for  the 
companionship  of  sister  women,  and  lived  in  the  presence  of  great 
danger — these  wives  and  mothers  and  daughters  are  the  grand- 
mothers in  our  homes  to-day.  Let  us  cherish  them.  They  are 
even  now  few  in  number;  their  eyes  are  dim,  their  hair  is  gray, 
and  their  faces  are  wrinkled,  but  their  countenances  are  wreathed 


in  smiles  and  beaming  with  good  will.  For  genuine  inextin- 
guishable kindness  of  heart,  for  generosity  in  the  common  chari- 
ties of  life,  commend  me  to  the  pioneer  grandmother.  Though 
her  deeds  are  not  recorded  in  great  books,  nor  her  name  enrolled 
in  high  places,  yet  in  developing  the  civilization  we  enjoy;  in 
building  our  churches  and  schools;  in  establishing  society  on 
sound  principles;  in  every  cause  that  tended  to  benefit  and  uplift 
the  community,  women  has  fulfilled  her  allotted  part.  "She  hath 
done  what  she  could;"  man  could  not  do  more.  Her  deeds  are  reg- 
istered **In  the  rolls  of  heaven  where  they  will  live.  A  theme'  for 
angels,  when  they  celebrate  the  high-souled  virtues  which  the 
forgetful  earth  hath  witnessed.'* 

Let  us  cease  complaining  of  their  sorrows,  for  out  of  the  in- 
firmities of  this  human  nature  must  come  its  strength  and  glory; 
and  they,  like  the  blind  Milton,  have  come  forth  from  the  abyss 
of  anguish  and  sung  to  their  fellows  a  song  which  those  who 
have  never  suffered,  could  never  utter.  Their  lives  area  perpetual 
exhortation  to 

"Do  noble  things,  not  dream  them  all  day  long. 
And  so  make  life,  death,  and  that  vast  forever^ 
One  grand  sweet  song." 



Froui  time  imnietiioriHl  history  has  endeavored  to  point  out 
the  first  person  who  accomplished  any  great  principle  of  advance- 
ment, either  in  prowess,  discovery   or  invention. 

Progress  is  a  self-impelling  force.  The  demands  of  the  times 
supply  it  with  material  and  pour  into  its  path  adventurers,  ex- 
perimenters, thinkers  and  heroes.  It  rejects  and  selects.  "The 
fittest  survive."  "Universal  history,"  says  Carlyle,  "consists  essen- 
tially of  the  united  biographies  of  men  who  have  become  the  em- 
bodiment— the  realization  of  the  ideal  thought  that  produced 
them."  There  is  something  reverential  about  the  first  man  who 
dares  to  break  the  monotony  of  a  decorous  age,  who  is  so  filled 
with  the  intensity  of  his  own  feelings  that  he  is  carried  along, 
nolens  volens^  over  untrodden  paths  into  mysteries  which  entice, 
fascinate  and  control  his  every  action.  He  disregards  expense, 
health,  danger,  hatred,  reproach,  life  itself,  in  his  enthusiasm  to 
reach  the  goal  that  beckons  him  on.  He  breaks  down  convention- 
alities and  moves  on  regardless  of  precedent  or  result.  Self  trust 
is  his  motive  power. 

His  own  age  seldom  recognizes  him,  or  if  it  does,  it  calls  him 
a  heretic,  an  iconoclast,  a  backwoodsman,  a  crank,  or  some  name 
expressive  of  derision.  This  idea  prevails  largely  among  many- 
people,  who  are  now  enjoying  the  inheritanceof  pioneers  in  every 
state.  They  say  pioneers  are  those  who  have  been  unsuccessful 
in  the  "civilized"   walks  of   life,  and  who,    in   desperation,  have 


sought  a  reputation  in  a  field,  whose  only  qualifications  are  ad- 
venture and  pluck.  They  cite  Daniel  Boone,  Kit  Carson,  Davy 
Crockett,  as  examples  of  the  pedigree  of  pioneers.  Grant  that  ad- 
venture and  pluck  were  the  only  qualifications  that  many  of  our 
pioneers  possessed  at  that  time  when  they  broke  away  from  the 
ironclad  conventionalities  of  a  hampered  and  monotonous  exist- 
ence; grant  that  the  latent  fires  of  their  lives  could  brook  the 
lack  of  opportunity  no  longer;  that  it  was  only  pluck  that  made 
them  demand  an  opportunity  for  themselves,  that  made  them 
thinkers  with  only  a  six  months'  schooling  in  a  spelling  book 
and  arithmetic;  then  read  on  the  pages  of  American  history  such 
names  as  Benjamin  Franklin,  Andrew  Jackson,  Elihn  Barritt, 
Abraham  Lincoln,  Robert  Collyer,  and  John  Jacob  Astor.  In 
state  affairs  their  names  are  legion. 

Often  that  which  is  hidden  by  poverty,  lack  of  education  and 
adverse  circumstances,  bursts  forth  from  the  exuberance  of  in- 
trinsic merit  within.  Those  who  do  most  for  mankind  are  not  those 
who  stay  back  and  criticise  those  who  go  forward.  It  is  the  cir- 
culation of  gold  that  makes  it  valuable.    So  it  is  with  the  pioneer. 

**Each  man  made  his  own  stature,  built  himself; 

Virtue  alone  outbids  the  pyramids, 

Her  monuments  shall  last  when  Egypt's  fall. 

Oregon  owes  her  national  existence  to  her  self>made  men. 
In  fact  this  is  characteristic  of  the  history  of  America.  When  we 
see  a  large  proportion  of  these  self-made  men  occupying  first 
places  in  political,  social  and  business  circles  in  their  respective 
states,  we  cannot  but  admit  that  energy  will  sometimes  develop 
intuitive  wisdom.  John  Quincy  Adams,  the  "old  man  elo- 
quent," once  said,  in  substance,  that  the  finger  of  nature  pointed 
toward  advance  with  as  much  unerring  accuracy  as  culture  and 

The  conservative  and  satisfied  East  have  always  had  a  skep- 
tical idea  of  the  political  and  moral  importance  of  the  ''Western 
star  of  empire."  Many  eastern  people  go  further  east  to  look  at 
the  civilization  of  the  past,  and   therefore  guage  the  West  by  the 


standards  of  progress  they  learnetl  in  their  aucient  histories.  It 
was  left  for  the  Middle  West  to  emancipate  the  Far  West  from  the 
thralldom  of  oblivion  in  which  she  was  placed  in  the  sedate  and 
conservative  halls  of  Congress.  What  Henton  and  Linn  did  in 
congress  was  supplemented  by  daring  men  who  pushed  westward, 
occupied  and  possessed  the  Oregon  country  and  forced  the  discus- 
sion of   the  question  in  the  legislative  halls  at  Washington. 

Literature,  the  beacon  light  of  progress,  has  ever  heralded  the 
thoughts  of  the  first  great  men  who  delved  into  the  mysteries  of 
tfie  future.  J.  O.  Pattie,  of  Missouri,  stimulated  interest  in  west- 
ward immigration  by  publishing  his  adventures  in  New  Mexico 
and  Colorado.  Captain  Bonneville,  of  the  U.  S.  Army,  led  over 
one  hundred  men  from  the  Missouri  to  the  Colorado,  and  pub- 
lished an  account  of  the  same.  In  1817,  Hall  J.  Kelly,  of  Boston, 
became  enthusiastic  over  the  Oregon  question,  and  organized  a 
society  in  1829,  having  for  its  object  the  settlement  of  the  Oregon 
territory.  The  society  had  over  thirty-seven  agents  and  each 
emigrant  whom  they  could  induce  to  go  would  receive  a  **town 
and  farm  lot  at  the  junction  of  the  Columbia  and  Multnomah 
Rivers.**  Only  two  of  these  enthusiastic  agents  ever  reached  the 
scene  of  their  ideal  colony,  the  originator  of  the  scheme.  Hall  J. 
Kelly,  and  Captain  Wyeth.  Under  the  elms  of  that  pioneer  college 
town,  near  Boston,  Nathaniel  J.  Wyeth,  with  twenty  two  men,  con- 
trived a  strange  mountain  and  prairie  schooner.  It  was  half  boat 
and  half  wagon — the  ^'Amphibian,**  it  was  called,  because  it  was 
adapted  for  swimming,  roading,  rolling  and  flying.  Captain 
Wyeth  established  Fort  Hall  on  the  Snake  River  about  a  hundred 
miles  north  of  Salt  Lake.  The  Hudson's  Bay  Company  after- 
wards established  Port  Boise  below  Fort  Hall.  Soon  a  sacrificing 
competition  compelled  Captain  Wyeth  to  abandon  this  important 
post  to  the  British  monopoly.  Yet  this  attempt,  unsuccessful  as  it 
was,  compelled  Congress  to  wonder,  to  see  and  finally  to  accept 
Oregon  as  a  gift  from  her  American  pioneer. 

Nut  tall,  the  naturalist,  and  Townsend,  the  ornithologist,  accom- 
panied Captain  Wyeth  on  his  further  westward  journey   and   the 


accounts  of  their  explorations  and  observations  did  much  to  at- 
tract scientific  attention  to  Oregon.  Thomas  Jefferson  was  the 
"Great  Father  of  Exploration"  in  the  United  States.  It  should  be 
an  unspeakable  pleasure  to  every  Oregonian  to  link  the  origin  of 
his  state  with  the  name  of  the  man  whose  iatnp  is  inseparably 
connected  with  **life,  liberty  and  the  pursuit  of  happiness.** 
Lewis  and  Clark,  Jefferson's  messengers,  opened  the  overland  route 
to  the  Columbia  and  the  western  sea.  We  should  stand  for  the 
perpetuity  of  these  names,  by  naming  the  principal  branches  of 
the  Columbia,  Lewis  and  Clark,  and  not  permit  one  of  them  to 
pass  into  the  com temptible  one  of  Snake.  Trade  and  speculation, 
as  well  as  fame,  have  always  been  stimuli  to  progress.  The  North- 
west fur  land  became  the  shibboleth  of  enterprise.  Alexander  Mc- 
Kenzie,  of  Scotland,  was  the  first  white  man  to  cross  the  Rocky 
mountains.  The  possibilities  for  trade  made  known  through  his 
tours  were  discussed  all  over  America  and  in  London.  Two  rival 
companies  began  preparations  to  enter  the  great  unexplored  field. 
— the  British  Northwest  Fur  Company  of  Montreal  and  the  Ameri- 
can Fur  Company  under  the  management  of  John  Jacob  Astor. 
The  war  of  1812  brought  England  and  United  States  face  to  face. 
Astoria  became  Fort  George  and  the  American  Fur  Company 
passed  into  the  hands  of  the  English  Fur  Company,  which  was 
the  dominant  power  of  the  country  till  1828,  when  the  new  or- 
ganization, the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  was  perfected.  This 
company  held  sway  from  Fort  Hall  to  Fort  George  and  from  the 
Colville  to  the  Umpqua.  Fort  George  was  abandoned  for  the 
more  central  point  of  Vancouver,  and  the  Americans  again  took 
possession  of  Astoria.  But  the  British  mandate  was  "thus  far  and 
no  farther."  The  mouth  of  the  Columbia  river  became  the  bone 
of  contention.  There  was  nothing  to  do  but  to  compromise; 
therefore  a  joint  occupancy  was  agreed  upon  for  ten  years.  The 
august  negotiations  between  the  two  nations  gave  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company  a  monopoly  of  the  fur  trade.  Its  desire  was  to 
cultivate  the  wilderness.  It  was  to  be  kept  for  the  maintenance 
of  the  beaver,  the  musk  rat,  the  bear,  coyote  and  buffalo.  Only 
men  licensed  with  a  privilege  from    this  great   English  company 


could  invade  the  forest.  It  desired  to  build  huts  only;  it  was  ad- 
verse to  colonization  and  settlement.  It  sought  to  make  the 
beaver  paramount  to  the  plow.  Such  a  policy  was  one  of  the 
greatest  mistakes  England  ever  made.  It  was  contrary  to  the 
laws  of  civilization  and  could  not  stand.  England  lost  her 
thirteen  colonies  by  oppression,  and  now  in  her  tacit  permission 
to  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  to  monopolize  the  country  for  trap- 
ping and  hunting,  she  lost  the  opportunity  for  planting  the  lion 
and  the  unicorn  on  our  soil.  Here  was  the  one  vulnerable  point — 
the  wooden  horse,  through  which  the  Oregon  pioneer  marched 
triumphantly,  bringing  with  him  a  "quart  of  seed  wheat,"  a  wag- 
on and  a  plow.  With  these  implements,  the  pioneer  obtained 
for  himself,  his  country  and  posterity,  a  warranty  deed  of  the 
now  "great  and  prosperous  Pacific  Northwest. 

The  English  fur  companies  were  opposed  to  the  Christianizing 
influences  of  missionaries  and  teachers  among  the  Indians.  Quite 
an  extensive  Indian  slave  traffic  was  carried  on  under  their  sanc- 
tion. A  visit  of  four  Flathead  Indians  to  St.  Louis  in  1832,  opened 
the  eyes  and  hearts  of  the  good  people  (who  are  ever  ready  to 
help  the  poor  heathen)  to  a  large  field  of  domestic  mission  work. 
Soon  Dr.  Marcus  Whitman  and  wife,  Rev.  H.  H.  Spalding  and 
wife,  Jason  Lee.  Revs.  E.  Walker,  C.  Eells  and  others  were  on  their 
way  to  teach  the  "Book"  to  the  "poor  Indians."  On  the  2d  of 
September,  1836,  the  portals  of  old  Fort  Walla  Walla  opened  to 
the  first  white  woman  in  the  Pacific  Northwest.  To  the  aborigines 
and  trappers  the  equipage  that  conveyed  these  women  across  the 
mountains,  was  jsl  right  royal  sight.  The  Indians  called  it  the 
chick'Mck'Shani-le-kai'kash — we  would  call  it  simply  a  (two 
wheeled  cart)  wagon.  The  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  through  its 
agent  at  Fort  Hall,  had  prevented  many  an  immigration  from 
taking  his  wagon  across  the  Stony  mountains,  but  such  men  as  Dr. 
Marcus  Whitman  were  not  easily  diverted  from  a  fixed  purpose, 
so  a  carriage  way  was  opened  to  the  Dalles,  Oregon  in  1836.  The 
destiny  of  our  state  was  largely  decided  by  this  old  wagon.  When 
Dr.  Whitman,  afterwards  in  1842,  made  his  famous  ride  to  Wash- 


ington  to  interview  President  Tyler  and  Daniel  Webster,  our 
great  statesman  ridiculed  the  idea  of  ever  making  homes  in  a 
desert  country,  over  a  mountain  barrier  which  a  wagon  could 
never  cross.  Dr.  Whitman's  proud  answer  was,  "I  have  in  Oregon 
now  a  four-wheeled  wagon  which  I  took  there  six  years  ago. 
Daniel  Webster  was  not  slow  to  respond  to  this  convincing  argu- 
ment, and  the  following  message  was  immediately  dispatched  to 
England:  "The  United  States  will  never  consent  that  the  bound- 
ary line  shall  move  one  foot  below  49  degrees."  There  is  now 
little  doubt,  notwithstanding  Bancroft  and  Mrs.  Frances  Fuller 
Victor  to  the  contrary,  but  that  Dr.  Whitman  is  (in  a  large  meas- 
ure, at  least)  entitled  to  the  honor  of  annexing  Oregon  to  the 
Union  of  the  States.  Hon.  A.  L.  Lovejoy,  who  was  his  companion 
on  that  perilous  midwinter   journey,  says  that    the  whole  burden 

of  Dr.  Whitman's  speech  during  the  long  ride  was  to  immedi 

ately  terminate  the  treaties  of  1818  and  1828  and  extend  the  laws  of  ^ 
the  United  States  over  Oregon. 

In  1836  and  1837,  Washington  Irving's  "Astoria"  and  "Bonne 

ville'"  were  published.    Their  perusal  created  great  interest  in  the*"^ 
minds  of  the  adventurous,  and  also  in  the  hearts  of  those  who  werc-^ 

discouraged  by  the   financial  crisis  of   the  period.     In    1840,  Rev ■ 

Harvey  Clarke,  an  independent  missionary,  settled  on]  the  Tuala 

tin  plains.    He  afterwards  laid  the  foundation  of  the  now  populair: 
Pacific  University  at  Forest  Grove.     Rev.  G.  H.  Atkinson,  Rev.  J  — 
S.  Griffin  and  a  Mrs.  Tabitha  Brown,  who  not  only  gave  land,  buC=: 
her  earnings  for  several  years,  were  also  pioneers  in  education  iim 
Oregon's  early  days.    The  Hon.  Harvey  W.  Scott  was  the  first  grad — 
uate  from  this  seat  of  learning.    The  same  year  there  came  as  in- 
dependent  settlers,  Robert  Moore   and  Joseph    Hoi  man,  with  m- 
party  of  eighteen,  men  who  were  the  first  bona  fide  Oregon  settlers. 
Moore  took  up  land  on  the  west    bank  of  the  Willamette  at  Ore- 
gon City.    With  true  Pennsylvania  instinct  he  saw   iron  aroundi 
the   "Robin's   Nest"  he    had   established   and    the   Oswego    Iron 
Works  now  verify  the  old  pioneer's  suspicions.    Joseph  Holm  an 
settled  at  the  Methodist  mission  in   Chemeketa,  now  Salem.     He 


married  a  teacher  of  the  *'Ohl  Institute/'  Miss  Alniira  Phelps,  and 
their  oldest  son,  Mr.  Geu.  P.  Holman,  of  this  city,  born  February 
6,  1842,  is  probably  the  oldest  native   American  Orej(onian.     Iden- 
tical with  the  "42V  are  the  McKays  of  Pendleton,  A.  L.  Lovejoy, 
the   first  lawyer   of  Oregon,  Hon.    F.  X.  Matthieu,  of   Butteville, 
Medorem  Crawford  and  S.  W.  Moss,  of  Oregon  City,  the  author  of 
that   very    characteristic   pioneer    novel,   "The    Prairie    Flower." 
People  began  to  talk  wildly  about  the  "Great  West."  In  1842  a 
special  impetus  was  given  to  immigration  to  the  western  territory 
by  the  donation   act    introduced    by    Senator  Linn,  of    Missouri, 
offering  to  give  any  settler  and    his  wife  640  acres  of  land.     This 
was  the  first  law  ever  enacted  by    Congress,  which  recognized  the 
equality  of  the   sexes.    About    one  hundred  came  that  year  and 
accepted  this  liberal  gift,  but  like  many  others,  they  were  induced 
by  Capt.  Grant  to  leave    their  wagons  at  Fort    Hall.     Capt.  John 
Couch,  a   name  familiar  to   every  citizen  of  Portland,  made   the 
first   successful  venture    in  the  establishment  of   an  independent 
trade  in    Oregon  in  1842.     He  first   brought  out  the  "Maryland/' 
built  by  John  Cushing,  the  father  of  the  eminent  Caleb  Cushing; 
afterwards  he  landed  the  "Chenamus"  at   Willamette  F|ills,  now 
Oregon  City,  but  quietly   dropped  down    during  high   water  to  a 
deeper  anchoring  place  opposite  the  present  site  of  the  Portland 
Flonr  Mills.    Like  many  a  sea-faring  man  to  the  New  El  Dorado, 
Capt.    Couch    also  abandoned    the   sea  and  took    up  a    donation 
claim  on  the  now  present   site  of  the    north  portion  of  Portland. 
To  A.  L.  Lovejoy    Portland  is  indebted  for  its   euphonious  name. 
The  tossing  of  a  copper   cent  decided    the    momentous  question 
against  Mr.    Pettygrove*s  choice  of  Boston  fur  the  patronymic  of 
this  city. 

The  immigration  of  1843  is  pre-eminent  in  Oregon's  history. 
About  one  thousand  men,  women,  and  children  came  across  the 
so-called  "Mt.  Terminus"  of  the  Stony  mountains  into  the  great 
pseudo  "desert"  of  the  Willamette  valley,  bringing  with  them 
one.  hundred  and  twenty-six  wagons  and  thirteen  hundred  horses 
and  cattle.  Dr.  Whitman's  presence  and  influence  were  every- 
where felt    along  this  journey.    This    was   the  third  time  he  had 


traveled  over  this  same  route,  and  his  confidence   encouraged  the  - 

sometimes  weary  and  disheartened  pioneer.     At  Port  Hall,  he  in- 
sisted that  the  wagons  should  go  through,  and  with  the  exception  j 
of  his  own  little  chick-chick-shani'le'kai'kash  of  1836,  the  wagons           e 
of  1843  were   the  first   to  reach  the  country.    The  introduction  of           "i 
this  great   number   of  American    pioneers,  many    of   whom  were          ^ 
educated  and  refined,  were  sturdy  and  strong  in  brain  and  brawn,           «  . 
raised  Oregon  from  the  camping   ground  of  the  hunter  and  trap-          — 
per,  and  even  from  a  field  of  mere  missionary  work,  to  the  condi-        —  i 
tion  of  a  country  ready  for  the  honors  of  a  civil  government.  On         mim 
the  roll  of  '43  are  the  names  of  men  who    helped  to  make  Oregon         -au 
what  she  is    today.    Jesse    Applegate,  the   sage  of  Yoncalla,  was        ^J 
one  of  Oregon's  chief  governmental  pillars.     His  annotations  on       M::m: 
Gray*s  history,  and  "The  River  of  the  West,"  have  corrected  many      "^^^ 
errors  in  Oregon's  early  history.     Daniel  Waldo's  caustic  "Crit-     —  ^ 
iques"  also  supplied  many  deficiencies  in  previous  reports.    Others,      «^2b 
who  came  this  year,  '43,  were  J.  W.  Nesmith,  the  rival  of  Lincoln     mi^'' 
in  readiness   of   speech    and    mother-wit;  Hiram    Straight,  Peter    Tmr-^ 
H.  Burnett  and  M.  M.  McCarver. 
The   immigration  of  1844   brought  over  1,000    American  pio-    —  ** 
neers.     Prominent  among  them  were  "Uncle  Jimmy"  Stevens,  a    -^^« 
small  portion  of  whose  land  claim    is  now  known  as  ^'Stephen's  ^^bs 
Addition"  to  Portland,  and  John    Minto,  the  pioneer  engineer.  — ^• 
Mr.  Minto  was  one  of  those  good  Englishmen  who  exemplify  the  -'■^"^ 
theory  that  American  ideas  are  not  so  much  a  matter  of  heredity,   .^^ 
as   that  they  are  the  outgrowth  of  all   the  grand  principles  that  — :^^ 
naturally  emanate  from  the  highest  natures  of  all  nations.    Tht       "" 
road  bed  of  the  Oregon  Pacific  Railroad  now  runs  over  the  route==' 
pioneered  by  John  Minto.     Prior  to  1844,  no  settlement  had  beenv^ 
made  north  of  the  Columbia  river.     Michael  T.Simmons  added  to 
the  diplomatic  argument  of  the  United  States' ownership  by  locat — 
ing  at  the  head  of  Pugct  sound.     Many    immigrants   came   this» 
year  expecting  to  carry  out  the  campaign  cry  literally,  and  henc^ 
they  resolved  to  push  forward  to  the  54-40  boundary. 

In  1845,  3,000  people  came  and    became  integral  parts  of  th^ 

oRKi;()N  i»I(»ni:i:k  association  77 

Wy  politic.  They  were  principally  from  Illinois  and  Iowa,  and 
brought  with  them  the  Iowa  code  of  law  and  the  *'Blue  Book.** 
I'ht  roll  includes  Thomas  R.  C'i»rnelius,  Ann)s  N.  Kin^j,  \V.  U.  Rer- 
^r,  Samuel  K.  Barlow,  Oeneral  Joel  Palmer.  John  M.  Bacon  and 
^'thcrs — first  men  in  first  causes.  To  Joseph  Walt  of  '4.1,  and  Wil- 
liam Rector,  of  '^5.  we  are  indel)led  for  the  first  woolen  mills  in 
'iic  state,  built  at  Salem  in   1S57. 

These   immigrants  followed  the  l>eaten  path  of  previous  years 
**  «ltil  they  came  to  The  Dalles.     I'p  to  this  «late,  the  Cascatle   ranj^e 
^^^s  an    impassable   barrier   except    by  way  of    an    Indian    trail, 
"^lirough    the  hospiitality   and   j^enerosity   of    Dr.  McKoujrhlin  the 
"American    settlers,  ti»>*ether   with    their  wa^runs  and    ^oods,  were 
^^ansferred  on  the  Hudson's  Bay  Cotnpatiy*s  !)ateauxor  rafts,  from 
^hc  Dalles  to    the    Willamette  valley.     Mere    Samuel    K.  Barlow 
determined  to    break  the  record    and  take  the  first  wagon  across 
the  Cascade    mountains.     H.  K.    Ilines,  in  his  history  of  Oregon, 
aays:  "Very  seldom,   indeed,  in    the  history  of   exploration  or  ad- 
venture has  a  braver   or  more  resolute    deed  been  done.     We  haz- 
ard   nothing,"  he   continues,  "in  saying    that  in  all    the  distance 
between  the  Missouri  and  Cascades,  there  is  no  100  miles  that  pre- 
sented to  the   primitive   engineering   of  the  emigrants,  anything 
like  the  obstacles    in  the   open    country  east    of  the   Willamette 
valley  and  west  of  the   Cascade  mountains.     It  is  gashed  by  fear- 
ful chasms,  worn    down  by  waters  that  break    from  beneath    the 
glaciers  of  Mt.  Hood.    Its  average  altitude  is  10,000  feet.    The  hills 
are  covered  with    large  and    lofty    trees    and    its  undergowth    of 
alder,  laure\  dogwood    and  underbrush    made  an  almost    impas- 
sable barrier  to  further  progress.**    Judge  Matthew  P.  Deady  in  his 
annual  address    before    the  Oregon    Pioneer   Association  in    1876, 
says:    "The  building  of    railroads  since    has    been  of   less  impor- 
tance to   the  community,  than  the   opening  of  this    road,  which 
enabled   the   settlers  to   bring  their  wagons  and  teams  into  the 

In    leaving   the    Dalles,  Mr.    Barlow   desired  none    who   had 
learned  the  adaptability  of  the    word  "can't**  to   follow  him.     On 


October  i,  1845,  he  and  his  household,  W.  H.  Rector,  Joel  Paluier, 
John  M.  Bacon  and  about  forty  others,  started  with  tweuty  wag- 
ons loaded  with  women,  children  and  provisions.  Rector  and 
Barlow  were  out  sixteen  days  in  advance  of  the  wagons,  cutting 
guide-marks  on  the  trees.  They  followed  the  Indian  trail  to 
within  ten  miles  north  of  Mt.  Hood,  but  from  this  p>oint  the 
road' makers  blazed  an  entirely  new  route  into  the  primeval 
forest.  The  wagotis  slowly  followed,  cutting  their  way  as  they 
came.  After  many  hardships  and  trials,  for  several  days  being 
compelled  to  eat  the  flesh  of  a  horse  that  had  died  from  the 
effects  of  eating  mountain  laurel,  they  reached  Oregon  City  De- 
cember 25th,  having  made  the  journey  of  eighty  miles  in  two 
months  and  tweuty-four  days.  The  road  became  a  toll-gate  by 
charter  of  the  provisional  government.  In  1847,  Mr.  Barlow  do- 
nated it  to  the  territory,  and  for  twenty  years  it  was  the  princi- 
pal pass  over  which  thousands  came  to  cast  their  fortunes  in  the 

The  introduction  of  so  many  true  born  sons  of  Columbia  in 
'43,  '44,  and  '45,  many  of  whom  were  educated  and  refined,  were 
sturdy  and  strong  in  "brain  and  brawn,"  raised  Oregon  from  the 
camping  ground  of  the  trapper,  and  even  from  a  field  of  mere 
missionary  work,  to  the  condition  of  a  country  ready  for  the  honors 
of  a  civil  government. 

In  1841,  Ewing  Young,  a  wealthy  cattle  king,  died,  leaving  a 
large  estate,  without  any  known  heirs.  What  to  do  with  his 
property  became  a  question.  Organization  of  some  kind  of  gov- 
ernment seemed  necessary.  For  the  time  being,  the  money  real- 
alized  by  the  sale  of  his  property  was  used  in  building  the  jail  at 
Oregon  City,  which  at  the  present  time  is  undergoing  a  state  of 
total  demolition.  The  amount  appropriated  for  this  necessity  of 
early  times,  was  afterwards  restored  by  the  state  to  Mr.  Young's 
son.  The  talk  of  organization  at  this  time  did  not  end  in  talk, 
but  continued  on  and  on.  Pioneer  orators  discussed  the  question 
in  debating  societies  and  well  organized  lyceums.  In  1843,  repre- 
sentatives from  "all  the  citizens  of  the  colony"  organized  the  first 


general  society.  The  wolf  meet  in  j{.  hs  its  iiHiiie  suggests,  pro- 
vided for  the  "destruction  of  all  the  wolves,  panthers  and  bears." 
After  legislating  them  out  of  existence,  from  "the  <lcad  corpse  of 
these  wild  animals,  the  provisional  government  suddenlv  sprung 
upon  its  feet,"  and  the  wolf  meeting  expanded  into  the  first 
lenfislativc  body  in  Oregon.  A  committee  «.tn  orguiii/ation  was 
appointed  to  meet  at  Cham{M>eg.  May  2,  1H4.V  The  Hudson's  Ray 
Compan}'  representatives  were  there  and  oppnsetl  the  organiza- 
tion measures  very  emphatically,  .\mong  the  lou<lest  but  not 
the  least  earnest  advocates  of  the  provisional  government,  was 
Col.  Joe  Meek,  the  patri«>tic.  kind-hearted  Rocky  mountain  trap- 
per. Hecried  «)ut  vociferouslv,  "All  for  the  report  of  thecommit- 
tee  and  organization  follow  me."  Fifty-two  friends  and  allies  of 
protection  against  the  Dr.  Fell  of  nations  followed  "old  Joe  Meek,*' 
leaving  fifty  British  and  Canadian  subjects  to  smother  their  cha- 

Order  has  ever  been  the  6rst  law  of   nature.     As  in   the  May- 
flower, the  love  i>f  humanity,  the  security  of   rights  and  protec- 
tion of  property,  clamored  for  a  civil  code  of  laws,  so  the  far  off  Ore- 
gon pioneers,  with  scarcely  a  shelter  to  protect  them  from  the  ele- 
ments of  nature,  demanded  assistance  from  the  mother  government. 
Spurned    like  the  Revolutionary  fathers,  they  were  compelled  to 
erect  a  temporary  government,  never  though,  like  our  forefathers, 
abandoning  their  allegiance  to  the  Constitution   of  the  United 
States.     The  formation  of  their  government,  was,  as  its  name  in- 
dicates, only  provisional  and  would  be  enforced  only  until,  as  Jesse 
\pplegate  said,  "Such  time  as  the  United  States  of  America  extend 
tlicir  jurisdiction  over  us."     It  was  a  necessity   not  a  choice  that 
forced  them,  when  they  were  not  i)ermitted  to  look  for  protection 
-o  the  great  American  eagle,  to  put   upon  their  banner,  their  own 
t^otto  of  self-reliance  and  trust — '\4lis  volai  propriisy 

The  Iowa  code  of  laws  brought  out  by  the  emigration  of  '45, 
Enabled  the  framers  of  the  provisional  government  to  perfect 
tlieir  organization  to  such  an  extent  that  it  assumed  the  dignity 
:>f  a  constitutional  government,  with  the  executive  power  vested 


in  a  governor  and  its  legislative  privileges  in    a  house  of  repre- 

Geo.  Abernethy,  who  came  as  steward  of  the  Methodist  mission- 
ary board,  was  elected  governor  in  June,  1845.  Medorem  Crawford 
said  of  him,  "As  a  missionary,  he  was  consistent;  as  a  business 
man,  he  was  honorable,  enterprising  and  liberal;  as  a  governor, 
he  was  patriotic,  efi&cient,  and  unselfish.  And  for  this  he  de- 
serves the  respect  of  pioneers  and  honorable  mention  in  the  his- 
tory of  Oregon."  He  has  been  criticized  by  Bancroft  and  Mrs. 
Victor  for  sending  Hon.  J.  Quinn  Thornton  to  Washington  to  im- 
plore protection  for  the  settlers  against  the  Indians.  Memorials 
had  been  repeatedly  sent  to  Congress  and  received  no  recognition. 
The  Indians  had  been  constantly  menacing  the  white  settlers  and 
it  was  absolutely  necessary  for  some  one  to  go  in  person  to  secure 
immediate  aid.  The  Whitman  massacre,  which  occurred  one 
month  after  Judge  Thornton's  departure,  proved  how  fatal  was 
the  delay  caused  by  the  jealousy  of  a  few  would-be  federal  oflBcers. 
The  provisional  government  was,  however,  generally  respected  by 
the  people.  Under  it  life  and  property  were  protected,  counties 
formed,  war  waged  and  treaties  made.  In  I847-8,  three  hundred 
pioneers  were  engaged  in  the  Cayuse  war.  Col.  Cornelius  Gilliam 
was  the  commandant  of  this  little  band.  Gen.  Joel  Palmer  was 
quartermaster  general,  and  many  years  after  the  close  of  the  war, 
and  under  state  authority.  Gen.  Palmer  collected  all  the  Indians 
in  the  south  and  west  portions  of  the  state  and  placed  them  on 
the  Grand  Ronde  and  Siletz  reservations.  Other  pioneer  sol- 
dier boys  were  the  McKays  of  Pendleton,  Jacob  Rinearson,  Gener- 
al B.  F.  Dowell,  "the  first  in  the  war  and  the  last  one  out,"  S.  K. 
Barlow,  J.  H.  McMillen,  and   Hon.  J.  W.  Nesmith. 

This  little  nucleus  of  a  state  even  coined  $50,000.00  in  gold 
in  Oregon  City  in  1849.  ^y  some,  this  was  considered  unconstitu- 
tional, but  the  act  was  only  one  of  expediency,  as  was  the  govern- 
ment itself.  The  United  States  afterwards  called  in  all  of  this  coin 
and  that  which  had  been  issued  by  the  Oregon  Exchange,  and  no 
trouble  was  ever  experienced  by  this  seeming  infringement    of 


constitutional  law,  as  the  coins  were  really  worth  8  per  cent,  more 
than  their  repreiien tat ive  value.  Ju<l>;e  Thomas  Smith  of  Rose- 
^•^fg,  a  pioneer  of  1849,  has  two  of  these  old  "Beaver"  coins.  It 
's  not  likely  that  any  greedy  numisniHtist  will  possess  them  very 
*<Jon,  for  Judge  Smith  values  each  $5  piec  at  rtvc  times  their 
**^^'ght  in  gold.  There  are  alsn  one  or  tw-)  of  ihese  coins  in  Hon. 
*^-  S.  Ladd*t  valuable  collection  of  coins. 

The  progressive  steps  Oregon  took  in  these  times  demanded 
'^^^vspapers,  the  lungs  of  modern  civilization;  through  them  men 

■^^.the  in  an  atmosphere  of  enlightenment:  through  them   they 

""^••the  out  thoughts, opinions  and  facts  and  scatter  them  broad- 
*^*^t.  over  the  sea  of  life.  The  first  printing  press  used  in  Oregon 
*^^*>i«froni  the  Sandwich  Islands.     It   was  presented  to  the  mis- 

*^^«i  at  Capwai,  now  in  Idaho,  and  was  first  used  in  printing  books 
^***     the  Nez   Perce  Indians.     It    is  now    preserved    with  care  and 

^^^ration  at  the  state  capitol.  John  Fleming  printed  the  first 
^^>^spapcr,  the  Oregon  Spectator^  in  Oregon  City,  fifty  years  ago. 
/^^^  Daily  Oregonian  had  its  origin  away  back  in  the  '50s. 
''^^^Oinas  J.  Dryer,  its  founder,  was  a  radical  whig  and  entered  into 
^^^^^ it ical  campaigns  with  considerable  animus.  The  Salem  States- 
^'^^rm  soon  appeared  upon  the  scene  and  a  newspaper  war  ensued. 
,  ^^  style  of  journalism  was  so  characteristic  that  it  soon  won  for 
***^lf  the  special  name  of  "Oregon  Style."    It  would  be  interesting 

^^  ciontraat  some  of  those  early  day  editorials  with  those  issued 
**^er  the  present,  efficient  management  of  Hon.  H.  W.  Scott, 
^  I>ioncer  of  i^. 

The  first  schools  established  were  for  the  purpose  of  educat- 

*  **^  the  Indians.     The  effort  had  no  effect  upon  the  aborigines, 

**^  became  the  "shadow  of  a  great  rock   in  a  weary  desert,"  from 

^Hich  sprang  the  old  Oregon  Institute.     Around  it  grew  up  the 

^^^3r  of  Salem,  one  of  whose  distinctions  is  that  its  Willamette 

^tverity  was  the  first  institution  of  learning  in  the  country. 

John  Ball  of  Massachusetts,  and  Solomon  H.  Smith  of  New 

'^^.^nsphire,  who  came  with    Captain    Wyeth    in    1832,  were  our 

^'^t  pedagogues.    Mrs.  J.  Quinn  Thornton  established  a  private 


school  for  young  ladies  in  Oregon  City  in  the  50's,  which  was  not 
only  patronized  by  our  first  families  of  Oregon,  but  by  our  English 
nobility,  Sir  James  Douglas  and  others.  Hon.  Josiah  Failing,  a 
pioneer  of  '51,  was  the  father  of  public  schools  in  Portland.  Not 
only  in  this  respect,  but  in  proi^rcss  in  every  line,  our  pioneers 
have  been  the  first  in  the  van.  Steamboats  plied  on  all  of  Ore- 
gon's navigable  streams  and  were  built  and  manned  by  pioneer 
boatmen.  The  Columbia  was  built  by  Gen.  Adair,  of  Astoria, 
in  1850.  It  was  capable  of  accommodating  twenty  passengers, 
though  often  incapably  accommodating  over  a  hundred.  The 
Lot  Whitcontb  was  constructed  the  same  year.  The  festivities 
at  her  launching  lasted  three  days  and  nights.  Capt.  Ainsworth 
and  Jacob  Kamm  were  her  trusty  commanders.  They  were  won- 
derfully accommodating  in  every  way,  even  to  reducing  the  fare 
from  Oregon  City  to  Astoria  to  only  I15.  Among  the  first  Amer- 
ican ships  to  visit  this  coast  officially  was  the  United  States  fri- 
gate Shark  commanded  by  Lieut.  Howison.  His.  reports  were 
very  favorable  to  Oregon  interests.  He  thus  speaks  of  the  advent 
of  the  pioneers:  "They  brave  dangers  and  accomplish  Herculean 
labors  on  the  journey  across  the  mountains.  For  six  months  con- 
secutively they  have  the  sky  for  a  pea-jacket  and  the  wild  buffalo 
for  company;  and  during  the  time,  they 'are  reminded  of  no  law 
but  expediency."  We  further  learn  from  his  reports  that  in  1841 
there  were  400  Americans  in  Oregon;  in  '46  there  were  7,600  Ameri- 
cans exclusive  of  Indians,  or  a  gain  in  five  years  of  1,800  per  cent, 
in  the  American  population.  To  Capt.  Howison  we  are  indebted 
for  our  first  American  flag.  The  Shark  on  her  return  trip  was 
lost  on  the  Columbia  bar.  The  commander  and  crew  and  the  ship's 
stand  of  colors  were  saved.  Capt.  Howison  sent  them  (an  ensign 
and  union  jack)  to  Gov.  Abernethy,  and  begged  him  to  accept  them 
for  the  loyal  people  of  Oregon.  He  wrote:  "I  cannot  but  express 
my  gratification  and  pride  that  this  relic  of  my  late  command 
should  be  emphatically  the  first  United  States  flag  to  wave  over 
the  undisputed  and  purely  American  territory  of  Oregon."  They 
were  accepted  by  Governor  Abernethy  with  the  pledge  that  they  - 
would  be  "flung  to  the  breeze  on  every  suitable  occasion." 


Oregon's  Americanization    is   the  crowning  glory  of   the  Ore- 
gon pioneer.     It   not  only  re(|uireil  pluck,  endurance  and   tact  tn 
'accomplish    this,  but    forethought,    intellect,   judgment    and  the 
*firray  matter**  that    makes   some    men    heroes.      The   op|>osition 
^^As  strong  against  the  American   party.    The  British  element  re- 
P^iied   every    proposition.    There  was  one  man    who,   like    the 
^^ bine  women  of  old,  abandoned  country    and    friends  and  gave 
"'s  allegiance,    heart  and    s')ul,  to  the  interests  of  the    American 
'**> migrant.    That  man  was    Dr.  McLoughlin,  who   resigned   his 
^^^*ition  of  chief  factor  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  in  1845,  and 
^^^  tit  nearly  all   the  employees  of  the  then  existing  Hnglish    com- 
^^^ies,  entered    the    ranks  of  the   American  Oregonians.     David 
"^^^^Kinlay  and  Dr.    Forbes  Barclay  were  among  those  good  Kng- 
■*H  men  who  became  Oregon*s   foster  brothers.     Dr.  McLoughlin 
^^^a  ever  a  great   controlling  power  in  the   country,  maintaining 
^**^^r  and    peace,  securing  good    will    and    harmony    among   the 
^^*^flicting  elements  of  a  mixed  population,  and  ever   alleviating 
^*^^    misfortunes  of  the  helpless  and  needy  missionary  and  pioneer. 
^~  ^*"  state  has  as  yet   given  the   noble   doctor   but  half  the  honor 
^^   Reserves.    His  portrait   hangs  in    the  senate  chamber  of   the 
^^ecapitol,  but  his  remains  are  not  marked  by  a  monument  of 
^^  state's  gratitude.     In  the  future  prosperity  of  Oregon  it  is  to 
^    lioped  that  marble  and  bronze  statues    may  grace  our   plazas 
^^^   parks,  and   prominent   among  them  may    the   native    sons 
^*  ^  daughters  of  pioneers  and  others   who  have  linked  their  for- 
j^|^*Xc8  with  them,  read  in    letters  of  gold    the  names  of  Dr.  John 
^^^^Loughlin  and  Dr.  Marcus  Whitman. 

On  the   14th  of   August,   1848,  the  act   organizing    the  terri. 

^^*"y  of  Oregon  was  approved  by   James  K.  Polk.    This  act  recog- 

^  ^cd  the  lawful   existence   of   the  provisional    government    and 

,»^^"^ified  nearly  all  its  laws,  acts  and  proceedings.  It  can  therefore 

^  ^    aaaerted  that  the  territorial  government  began  when  in  1843, 

^  ^^ly  5th,  the  people  met  at    Champoeg  and  ratified  the  proceed- 

^^.9  of  the    wolf  meeting.    Its  existence   continued    till  March 

1,  1849,  when  Gov.  Abernethy,  after  occupying  the  gubernatorial 


chair  four  years,  turned  over  the  securely  established  country  to 
the  strong  arm  of  the  American  Union.  Gen.  Joseph  Lane  was 
appointed  first  territorial  governor  of  Oregon.  He  crossed  the 
plains  with  a  small  military  escort  by  way  of  New  Mexico  and 
Arizona.  He  occupied  this  position  till  1851,  when  he  was  elected 
territorial  delegate  to  Congress  and  was  returned  consecutively 
for  eight  years.  After  Oregon*s  admission  to  statehood,  Gen. 
Lane  was  chosen  U.  S. senator,  and  was  a  candidate  for  vice-presi- 
dent of  the  Union  in  i860,  in  opposition  to  the  great  "rail-splitter." 

Abraham  Lincoln's  memory  is  brought  to  mind  in  Oregon  his- 
tory by  four  other  remarkable  coincidences.  In  1809  John  Jacob 
Astor  conceived  the  idea  of  fitting  out  the  ship  Totiquin  for 
the  Oregon  trade.  The  same  year,  February  12,  Abraham  Lincoln 
was  born.  Fifty  years  exactly  from  that  time,  Oregon  was  ad- 
mitted as  a  state.  When  Lincoln  was  inaugurated  president  of 
the  United  States,  Oregon*s  first  senator,  Col.  E.  D.  Baker,  intro- 
duced him  to  the  immense  populace  assembled  to  receive  him. 
Again,  at  the  time  of  the  territorial  organization  of  Oregon, 
Lincoln  was  asked  to  become  our  first  governor*  His  character- 
istic reply  was,  "No  sir-ee."  Our  loss  was  the  nation's  gain.  This 
reply  was  inspired  by  a  woman's  love  of  home.  Mrs.  Lincoln 
could  not  accept  the  honor  and  at  the  same  time  the  trials  of  the 
journey  and  the  privations  of  a  pioneer  life.  So  many  times  in 
world's  history  a  woman's  power  is  behind  the  throne.  Colum- 
bus, not  only  made  use  of  his  wife's  father's  charts,  but  her  ex- 
planations, her  words  of  encouragement,  inspired  him  to  investi- 
gate them.  Many  a  manly  pioneer  would  never  have  started,  or 
would  have  faltered  and  turned  back  on  the  road  had  not  a 
woman's  hope  inspired  him  to  push  onward. 

The  Pioneers,  like  the  Puritans,  "builded  better  than  they 
knew."  Not  only  have  they  added  to  the  broad  domain  of  the 
United  States  341,000  square  miles  of  land,  but  they  have  placed 
on  the  pages  of  history  the  names  of  men  and  women  who  are 
identified  with   the   nation's  history.    Just   at  the   threshold  of 


Oregon's  state  existence,  a  man  who  was  already  distinguished  in 
fomm,  senate  and  field  came  to  us,  and  with   the  eloquence  of  a 
Burke,  brought  national  recognition  to  Oregon,  the  long  neglect- 
ed child  of  the  Union.     Col.  Kdward    Dickinson   Raker  is  a  spirit 
bero^his  name  and   example  will  ever  live  in  the  nation's  mem- 
ory and  gratitude.     Matthew  Paul    Deady  is  not  only    connected 
%with  the  jurisprudence  of    Oregon,  but  **I)cady*s   Code"  is  widely 
^nd  favorably  known.     Delazon  Smith,  our   senator  for   19  days, 
C3en.  trane  of    Mexican  war  fame,  James    \V.    Nesmith,   Geo.    H. 
^Villiams,  the  author  of  the  reconstruction  policy  adopted  by  Con- 
.^gress  at  the  close  of  the  civil    war,  James  W.  Marshall,  who  emi- 
^;rated  from  Oregon  in  1845  and    discovered  gold  in  California  in 
^843,  the  McBride  family,  \Vm.  S.    Ladd,  the  great  financier — are 
^11  men  who  are  not  only  known   and  honored  in  our  own  state, 
^ut  by  many  others  in  the  great  sisterhoo<l. 

Strictly  speaking,  an  Oregon  pioneer  is  an  American  citizen 
who  came  to  Oregon  by  way  of  the  isthmus.  Cape  Horn  or 
across  theplains,  prior  to  Feb.  14, 1859.  The  precedence  in  point  of 
valor  and  hardihood  of  the  effort  is  naturally  given  to  him  who 
braved  the  hardships  of  the  weary  six  months*  journey  from  the 
Mississippi  river  to  the  great  "Oregon,  Owyhee  and  Wallaway." 
Where  else  in  the  history  of  civilized  or  uncivilized  man  is  there  a 
record  of  a  2,500-mile  pilgrimage  through  a  country  inhabited  by 
hostile  and  treacherous  Indians,  over  a  land  untouched  by  domes- 
tic hoof  or  wagon  tire,  over  barren  wastes  of  "bad  lands,"  across 
rivers  of  quicksand  and  over  almost  impassable  mountain  passes. 
The  "Great  Man  of  Destiny,"  with  his  phalanx  of  armed  retainers, 
cannot  boast  of  greater  prowess   than  the  Pacific  Coast  pioneer. 

The  Oregon  Pioneer  Association  was  organized  October  18, 
1873.  Its  first  executive  oflScers  were  the  Honorables  F.  X.  Mat- 
thieu,  J.  W.  Grim,  Willard  H.  Reesand  EH  C.  Cooley.  Its  purposes 
are  to  collect  reminiscences  of  Oregon*s  pioneers  and  to  "cultivate 
the  friendship  of  those  who  had  met  on  a  common  ground  of  in- 
terest in  shaping  the  history  of  the  state."    Its  annual  meetings 


are  now  held  on  June  15th,  a  date  suggested  by  our  late  governor, 
Hon.  S,  F.  Chad  wick,  in  commemoration  of  the  day  of  the  defi- 
nite treaty  between  the  United  States  and  Great  Britain,  and  which 
marks  the  triumph  of  the  Oregon  pioneer  in  the  contest  for  the 
commonwealth  of  Oregon. 

June  15th  should  be  the  day  of  all  days  to  every  true  Oregon- 
ian.  On  that  day,  1846.  the  Oregon  Pioneer  lifted  the  incubus  of 
British  rule  and  made  it  possible  for  the  United  States  of  Ameri- 
ca to  extend  its  arms  in  peace  and  triumph   from  ocean  to  ocean. 



I  was  born  May  29,  1K26,  in  Hdwardsville,  Madison  county, 
Illinois:  was  married  to  Arthur  H.  Thompson,  April  17th,  1844.  We 
started  on  March  22d,  1845,  from  near  Hennepin.  Putnam  coun- 
ty, Illinois,  in  company  with  J^ugene  Skinrer  and  wife,  for  Ore- 
gon; crossed  the  Illinois  river  there,  and  bid  farewell  to  friends 
and  acquaintances — my  husband  fired  with  patriotism  to  help  keep 
the  country  from  British  rule,  and  1  was  possessed  with  a  spirit  of 
adventure  and  a  desire  to  see  what  was  new  and  strange.  From 
Illinois^river  we  went  to  Quincy;  crossed  the  Mississippi  river 
there  and  went  to  Lexington  and  crossed  the  Missouri  at  that 
place.  Prom  there  to  the  state  line,  as  it  was  then  called,  the  place 
agreed  upon  for  the  emigrants  to  meet  for  a  final  start  for  Oregon; 
there  we  started  from  on  May  nth,  with  a  company  of  four  hun- 
dred and  r^ighty  wagons,  nearly  all  ox  teams,  and  some  large 
bands  of  loose  cattle.  That  was  a  very  dry,  warm  spring  and  thus 
far  a  very  pleasant  experience  for  me.  Stephen  Meek,  a  brother  of 
the  renowned  Joe  Meek,  was  elected  guide.  I  was  not  acquainted 
with  anyone  coming  to  Oregon  when  I  started,  except  my  hus- 
band, but  I  made  many  very  agreeable  acquaintances,  many  of 
whom  I  have  always  held  in  kind  remembrance.  We  were  unable 
to  make  much  headway  with  so  large  a  company,  so  agreed  to 
divide.  Then  we  were  in  a  company  of  eighty  wagons  and  that 
was  far  too  many;  so  kept  separating,  some  times  twenty  wagons 
and  often  only  four  or  five — that  was  more  convenient — and  we 
had*  become  indifferent  to  fear.  We  traveled  up  Platte  river  and 
forded  it.  Then  we  went  in  the  buffalo  country;  there  were  solid 
masses  of  these  as  far  as  the  eye  could  reach,  and  we  had  fresh 
meat  galore.    The  little,  graceful  antelopes  were  plenty  and  now 


and  then  we  saw  a  big  horn  and  an  elk.  We  stopped  uiie  day  at 
Fort  ivaramie.  From  Platte  we  journeyed  to  Sweetwater,  then 
to  Green  river,  which  we  forded  by  placing  blocks  under  the  wa- 
gon bed  to  raise  it  up  to  keep  things  inside  dry.  We  camped 
one  day  near  Fort  Bridger,  then  on  to  Fort  Hall.  Captain  Grant, 
of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  was  in  charge;  he  gave  us  the  con- 
soling information  that  the  Indians  would  kill  us  before  we  got 
to  Oregon;  but  they  proved  better  than  represented.  We  had  lit- 
tle trouble  with  Indians,  but  they  stole  some  things.  We  saw  thou- 
sands of  them,  many  in  the  same  style  as  Adam  and  Eve 
when  first  in  the  garden  of  Kden.  Next  went  to  Fort  Boise; 
Mr.  Craig,  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company,  was  in  charge.  He  was 
more  polite  than  Captain  Grant;  he  only  said  we  had  better  wait 
for  more  company,  and  he  sent  a  French  servant  with  a  large  ca- 
noe to  take  us  women  across  Snake  river,  where  we  crossed  it  the 
second  time.  The  men  and  teams  forded  it;  then  Bear  river 
Burnt  river,  Malheur  and  Powder  rivers,  with  their  numerous 
Indian  camps,  were  passed;  the  beautiful  Blue  mountains.  Grand 
Ronde  valley  and  river,  then  John  Day's  river  and  next  DesChutes 
or  Fall  river.  This  we  had  to  ferry,  the  first  since  leaving  the  Mis- 
souri. There  was  a  sandstorm  raging;  some  Indians  were  there 
with  their  canoes  who  were  more  then  willing  to  take  us  over  for 
some  calico  shirts.  The  wagons  were  unloaded  and  taken  apart 
and  after  many  loads,  we  were  safely  over.  The  teams  had  to 
swim.  Then  we  went  to  The  Dalles;  here  Father  Waller  and  an- 
other missionary  were  stationed,  who  sold  us  some  beef  and  pota- 
toes, for  provisions  were  getting  low.  There  were  a  few  row 
boats  at  The  Dalles  to  take  the  emigrants  down  the  Columbia  and 
up  the  Willamette,  as  that  was  the  only  way  to  reach  the  Willam- 
ette valley  with  wagons  at  that  time.  There  were  so  many  of 
us,  although  one-third  of  our  number  had  turned  ofif  at  Fort  Hall  to 
go  to  California  under  Wm.  B.  Ide,  guided  by  the  old  trapper  Green- 
wood, that  it  would  take  too  long  for  all  to  go  in  those  small  boats, 
so  some  concluded  to  go  through  the  Cascade  mountains.  S.  K. 
Barlow  was  the  moving  spirit  in  this  undertaking.  There  was 
only  an  Indian  trail  that  some  stock  had  been  driven  over.    We 


Started  in  with  teams  and  wagons.    We  had  overcome  so  many  dif- 

Scaltiea  that    we  felt  quite   sure  we  could  go   almost   anywhere. 

We  got  along  quite  well  until  we  came  to  the  heavy  timber.    The 

men  worked  on  the  road  for  about  two    weeks,  but    gave  up  hope 

of  getting  the  wagons    through  that  fall,  as  it  was    now  October, 

and  concluded  it  was  best  to  send  the  women  and  children  out  of 

tlie mountains.     I  was  mounted  on  a  Cayusepony  and  in  company 

^ivith  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Buffuni  and  Captain  Palmer,  left   husband  and 

camp— everything — but   a   few  clothes  and  a    little  provisions,  to 

^ry  to  reach  some  place  before  the   rain  set    in.    The   first    night 

^fter  we  left  camp  rain  commenced  and  it  rained  all  the  time  until 

'^ire  got  through  the  mountains.    The   trail  that   we  traveled  went 

"Ksp  over  the  south  side  of  Mt.  Hood,  away  up  to  and  over  perpetual 

^now.    The  coming  down    was  worse,  the   zigzag   trail    a  foot  or 

^SDore  deep  with  sand.     We   camped  on  the   side  of  the    mountain 

9BS  night  overtook  us.     There  it   rained  very    hard  all  night.     We 

^■d  no    tent   or  shelter  of    any    kind.     The  fourth  night  wc  met 

three  men  from  Oregon  City,  coming  to  meet  those  emigrants  in 

the  mountains,  with  some    provisions,  as  they  had  heard  we  were 

in  distress.     We  were  not  in  any  immediate  danger   of   starving, 

but  the  beef   and  sugar  were  very  acceptable,  and  to  be  so  kindly 

thought  of  by  strangers  was   very  cheering.     The  names  of  those 

Ulen  were  Matthew   Gilmore,   Peter  G.    Stewart  and  Charles  Gil- 

niore.    The  provisions    were  contributed    by    the    people    around 

Oregon  City. 

There  were  many  many  fallen    trees  across  the  trail    that  the 

licrses  had  to   jump;  the  streams  were  deep,  swift   and  cold.     We 

reach  Oregon    City  the  sixth  day   from  camp,  but  when  [    saw  a 

^oman  on  a  very  poor  horse  with  a    little  child    in  her   lap    and 

one  strapped  on  behind  her  and    two    or    three   tied  on    another 

horse,  I  felt  very  very  thankful  and   imagined  I  was  only  having 

a  picnic.     I  found  a  pleasant  place  to  stop  and  was  very  kindly 

treated  by  Mr.  and   Mrs.  Holmes,  near  Oregon   City.    I  remained 

there  until  February;  then  went  to  Yamhill  county,where  we  stayed 

*  through  the  summer.     In  June  my  husband  and  others  who  had 

left  their  wagons  in  the  mountains  took    their  teams  and  return- 


ed  to  bring  them  out,  as  the  road  had  been  cleared  of  timber. 
The  mice  had  made  lint  of  most  of  my  clothing  and  bedding,  but 
I  was  glad  to  get  what  was  left,  as  things  of  that  kind  were  very 
scarce  in  Oregon  at  that  time.  The  fall  of  1846  my  parents  came, 
and  we  all  went  down  the  Columbia  river,  to  Clatsop  plains.  In 
the  fall  of  1848,  when  gold  was  discovered  in  California  my  hus- 
band went,  as  did  many  others,  to  seek  gold,  but  never  returned. 
He  was  murdered  by  the  Indians  near  Mormon  Island  on  Ameri- 
can river.  There  were  four  in  camp  and  none  left  to  tell  the  tale. 
Their  names  were  Arthur  H.  Thompson,  Talmage  B.  Wood,  Rob- 
ert Alexander  and  English. 

July  30th,  1850,  I  was  married  to  Jeremiah  G.  TuUer.  I  lived 
in  Clatsop  county  seven  years  and  went  to  Benton  county  August, 
1854,  where  I  stayed  until  1880.  My  present  postoffice  address  is 
Glendale,  Douglas  county,  Oregon.  My  maiden  name  was  Rob- 




My  father  and  mother, John  and  Cornelia  A.Sharp,  with  their 

children,  Joseph,  Julia  A.,  Addis  B.,  John  P.,  James  M  ,  By- 

*^oii  J.,  Louis  H.,  and  his  brother-in-law,  H.  L.  Turner,  wife  Julia, 

deir  three  children,  Cornelia  A.,  George  and  Lewis,  started  from 

^fc:^ear  Blue   Springs,  Jackson   county,  Missouri,  May  5th,  1852,  for 

^^Dregon,  and  our  family  arrived  at  Foster's  October  11,  1852.    Our 

^CiiDutfit  was   one   wagon   drawn    by    five   yoke  of  fine  oxen,   some 

^^orses  to   ride   and  loose  cattle  to   drive.     With  all    the  economy 

^^nre  could   use   in  selecting   the  necessaries  for   a  six  months'  trip 

"li)etween  settlements,  we  found  ourselves  too  heavily  loaded.    The 

^season  was   backward,  cold  and  rainy,  and  grass   of  slow  growth, 

which  necessitated  the  late  start.    When  the  state  line  was  crossed 

we  were  in  the  territory  and  out  of  the  settlements;  found  the 

ground  very  soft  on  account  of  rain,  and  hard  pulling  for  the 

teams.    We  passed  the  mission,  crossed  Walkarusha  and  struck 

for  the  ferry  on  Kansas  river.     It  was  hard  on  us  to  get  used  to 

camping  out,  the  weather  was  so  rough  at  first.     Crossed  Kansas 

river,  followed  up  Republican  fork,  along  which  we  found  a  better 

road;  crossed   the  divide,  passed   old    Port  Kearney,  and  reached 

Platte  river  bottom,  south  side.    Before  reaching  Fort  Kearney,  a 

squad  of  soldiers  passed;  the  camp,  of  course,  were  all  agog  with 

excitement  to  know  what  was  up,  and  the  answer  was,  ''Indians." 

The  usual  way  in  starting  was  to  form  a  company  of  ten,  twenty, 

or  more  wagons,  and  as  soon  as   possible  organize  with  captain, 

wagon  master,   guards,   scouts,  etc.;   send  out   scouts   to  locate 

camps  and    find,   if  possible,  three  important  things,  viz.,  wood, 

wates   and    grass.    In  coming  into   camp  the  wagons   would  be 

placed  to  form  a  parenthesis,  the  tongue  of  one  chained  to  the  hind 


wheel  of  another,  or  one  fore-wheel  and  one  hind-wheel  chained 
together,  making  a  corral  in  which  we  could  drive  our  cattle  to 
yoke  or  protect  in  time  of  danger.  The  lead  wagon  today  would 
be  in  the  rear  tomorrow  and  so  on.  Tents  would  be  pitched  and  fires 
built  outside,  generally  close  to  each  wagon.  We  found  a  good  road 
along  the  Platte,  except  sometimes  heavy  sand.  Being  between 
the  middle  and  rear  of  a  very  heavy  emigration,  found  grass  scarce 
much  of  the  way.  The  cholera  struck  us  on  the  Platte  and  many 
fell  by  the  way.  We  forded  the  south  fork  of  Platte,  passed 
through  Ash  Hollow,  and  by  Scutt*s  Blu£f,  Chimney  Rock,  Court 
House  Rock,  old  Port  Laramie,  through  the  Black  Hills,  to  the 
crossing  of  north  Platte,  up  Sweet  Water,  past  Devil's  Gate,  Inde- 
pendence Rock,  through  South  Pass.  After  passing  Devil's  Gate, 
a  beautiful  stretch  of  road  lay  before  us.  All  at  once  the  teams 
broke  into  a  run — something  started  them,  no  one  seemed  to 
know  what.  It  was  a  regular  stampede  as  to  our  team.  Father 
and  mother  were  walking;  I  was  walking,  also,  and  some  of  the 
children  were  in  the  wagon;  away  the  team  went,  the  hardest  and 
wildest  running  I  ever  saw.  When  they  stopped  and  we  caught  up 
with  them,we  found  the  children  were  not  hurt,  but  the  two  wheelers 
were  down  and  one  of  them  dead.  It  took  our  team  a  long  time 
to  get  over  the  scare.  From  South  Pass,  we  crossed  the  forty-n^ile 
desert  to  Green  river,  after  filling  our  water  vessels;  we  traveled 
mostly  through  in  the  night,  stopping  a  short  time  at  midnight 
to  rest  and  then  hurry  on  to  water  and  camp.  The  ford  across 
Green  river  was  deep.  From  there  the  route  ran  over  the  hills 
and  pretty  steep  hills  to  Bear  river,  where  we  saw  the  great  nat- 
ural Soda  springs  and  Steamboat  spring.  By  sweetening  the 
water  of  those  springs  it  made  very  fine  drink;  one  of  them  .we 
considered  superior  to  the  others.  Steamboat  spring  emitted  puffs 
of  steam  at  intervals  that  sounded  similar  to  the  puffing  of  an 
engine  on  a  steamboat.  Where  Bear  river  turned  south,  the  road 
forked  the  one  following  the  river  going  to  Salt  Lake  and  Cali- 
fornia, the  other  crossing  the  divide  to  Port  Hall  and  Snake 
river.  A  man  at  Fort  Hall  was  writing  guides  and  selling  them 
to  emigrants.  Not  being  able  to  get  our  cattle  across  Snake 
river,  we  were  compelled  to  come  on   the  south  side.    We  found 


grass  very  scarce  and  stock  suffered  and  many  died  for  want  of 
it.  There  were  so  many  dead  cattle  at  the  watering  places  on 
the  river  it  was  very  hard  to  get  any  water  fit  to  use.  The  rule 
was  to  get  it  above  the  dead  cattle  as  much  as  possible. 

We  came  through  Burnt  river,  Powder  river  and  (irand 
Ronde  valley.  At  Grand  Ronde  we  saw  some  Nez  Perces—fine 
looking  Indians;  crossed  Blue  mountains,  reached  the  Umatilla, 
Willow  and  Butter  creeks,  John  Day,  Columbia,  DesChutes,  The 
Dalles— crossed  the  Cascades  on  the  Barlow  road;  were  in  the 
mountains  eleven  days  instead  of  four,  the  usual  time.  Stormy 
weather  caused  the  difficulties  to  be  encountered  so  great  that  we 
could  not  get  through  any  sooner  with  our  weak,  wayworn  teams. 
Passed  through  Oregon  City  and  reached  Chehalem,  where  we 
wintered.  All  our  outfit  left  in  the  spring  of  1853  was  two 
yoke  of  oxen  and  one  two  year  old  heifer,  having  sold  the  wagon 
during  the  winter  to  get  food  and  comfortable  clothing. 

The  following  are  some  of  the  pioneer  experiencesof  our  fami- 
ly: In  the  Cascade  mountains  we  had  to  pay  twenty-five  dollars 
for  fifty  pounds  of  flour,  and  plead  for  it  at  that,  as  others  fur- 
ther back  were  in  as  much  need  and  farther  from  supply.  In  the 
valley,  flour  was  twenty-five  dollars  per  one  hundred  pounds; 
middlings,  twenty;  shorts,  sixteen;  wheat,  five  dollars  per  bushel. 
While  living  on  Chehalem  mountains,  one  morning  after  break- 
fast we  had  nothing  left  for  dinner  but  bran.  Father  and  one 
of  the  boys  started  to  Chehalem  valley  to  get  food,  and  I  started 
to  a  duck  pond  to  get  a  wild  duck;  shot  the  duck,  got  back  home, 
and  mother  made  duck  soup  thickened  with  bran,  for  dinner. 
Would  just  here  remark  that  there  seemed  to  be  no  end  to  an 
immigrants  capacity  to  stow  away  food;  and  when  he  got  to 
a  table  loaded  with  eatables,  he  sat  down  hungry,  ate  all 
he  could  and  got  up  feeling  almost  as  hungry  as  when  he  sat 


The  first  winter  spent  in  our  Lane  county  home  was  in  our 
house  with  the  ground  for  a  floor,  a  wooden  pen  without  back- 
walls  or  jambs  for  a  fireplace;  a  stick  and  mud  chimney  to  draw 
the  smoke  out.  We  would  sometimes  have  to  go  a  long  distance 
to  mill.  At  one  lime  my  father  started  out  to  buy  wheat  on  credit 
for  bread.  He  went  as  far  as  Luckiamute  before  he  got  it.  If  I  re- 
member rightly  Jack  Gilliam  trusted  him  for  twenty  bushels  at 
one  dollar  a  bushel;  then  he  had  to  come  home,  get  the  wagon 
and  team,  go  after  it,  get  it  ground  into  flour  and  get  it  home.  I 
think  he  got  it  ground  at  Hubbard's  mill  on  the  Muddy,  a  stream 
emptying  into  Mary's  river  from  the  south.  Sometimes  would  go 
to  mill  at  Cloverdale,  eighteen  or  twenty  miles  south— east  to 
Foster's  on  Muddy  or  Matzger's  on  Mary's  river;  but  after  mills 
were  built  at  Eugene  and  Springfield  milling  was  a  great  deal 
easier  to  do.  At  one  time,  at  Springfield,  however,  I  went  with 
wheat  for  grinding.  We  were  nearly  out  of  flour  at  home.  The 
river  had  been  too  high  to  cross;  as  soon  as  it  was  thought  pos- 
sible to  cross,  I  went  and  hallooed  for  the  ferryman.  He  came 
and  said,  "What  do  you  want?"  "Want  to  cross  to  mill  to  get 
my  wheat  ground — nearly  out  of  flour  at  home — must  have  it." 
"Won't  cross  you  unless  you  will  take  all  risks  of  team  and 
load;  water  too  high;  it  is  not  safe."  "If  you  will  risk  your 
boat  I  will  risk  the  wagon,  team  and  load,"  I  replied.  "All  right — 
come  ahead,"  said  he.  He  crossed  me;  I  got  the  flour  and  got 
home  safe.  Another  time  at  the  same  place  in  the  summer  time 
I  went  with  a  load  to  mill;  did  not  know  where  to  ford;  water 
low;  drove  to  ferry  and  called  to  the  ferryman.  No  one  could  I 
make  hear.  The  ferryboat  was  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river. 
The  skiff"  was  on  my  side.  I  took  the  skiff,  went  across,  got  the 
ferry-boat,  brought  it  across,  drove  wagon  and  team  aboard,  and 
started  to  ferry  myself  across;  got  about  to  the  middle  of  the 
river,  ran  aground — stuck  in  the  middle  of  the  river;  there  I  was 
sure  enough.  I  jumped  out,  tried  to  push  the  boat  ahead  and 
could  not;  tried  to  push  it  back;  could  not  as  it  was  stuck  fast. 
Not  being  strong  enough  to  carry  the  load  out  I  fell  to  planning. 
The  result  was  that  I  unhitched  the  leaders  and  make  them  jump 


out  and  pull  the  boat  ashore.  Then  I  hitched  leaders  to  wheels 
again  and  rolled  into  mill,  got  the  grinding  done  and  went  home 
by  way  of  the  ford.  In  the  summer  of  1854,  while  father  was  away 
at  work,  mother  at  home  taking  care  of  farm  with  us  children  to 
help,  I  went  to  the  woods,  cut  pine  sawlogs,  hauled  them  to  the 
sawmill  at  Eugene,  got  them  sawed  on  shares  into  lumber  for 
fl<x)r;  borrowed  wooden  axle  log  wagon,  linchpin  style;  spindles 
stuck  a  little  outside  of  point  of  hub;  rolled  the  big  log  on  with 
yoke  of  cattle,  log  chain  and  skids;  when  I  got  to  the  mill  was 
afraid  to  roll  the  log  off  for  fear  of  breaking  the  points  of  the 
spindles,  so  drove  into  the  mill  pond  as  deep  as  I  couid  and  rolled 
it  off  into  the  water. 

Many  wild  geese  and  ducks  were  on  the  prairie  during  the 
winter  season  and  many  were  brought  to  homes  of  the  immigrant 
by  the  skillful  hunters,  who  in  this  way  furnished  many  rich 
feasts  for  their  loved  ones. 



My  father,  John  Sharp,  was  born  in  Pennsylvania,  about 
seven  miles  from  Pittsburg,  on  March  28,  1797;  died  in  Latham, 
Oregon,  September  27,  1878;  was  raised  a  farmer,  married  twice; 
his  first  wife.  Miss  Anna  Higbee,  by  whom  he  had  no  children; 
she  dying,  in  due  course  of  time  he  married  Miss  Cornelia  Hesser, 
who  was  born  in  Loudon  county,  Virginia,  October  20,  1808,  and 
died  at  Seaton,  Oregon,  September,  12th,  1888.  Her  parents  died 
when  she  was  a  child.  My  parents  are  buried  side  by  side  in  ceme- 
tery near  Cottage  Grove,  Oregon.  By  this  last  union  seven 
children  were  born;  all  of  them  were  living  at  last  accounts.  Fa- 
ther moved  to  Ohio.  Becoming  a  merchant  he  did  fairly  well,  but 
concluded  to  change  location,  and  re-located  in  Harrison  county, 
Ohio,  went  into  merchandising  in  th^  village  of  Hanover,  and 
not  doing  so  well,  moved  to  New  Market,  same  county,  and  com- 
bined merchandising  and  tavern-keeping.  In  1842,  he  was  elected 
on  the  Democratic  ticket  for  auditor  of  Harrison  county;  took 
possession  of  the  office  in  Cadiz.  In  the  spring  of  1843  was 
beaten  for  re-election  by  his  whig  opponent.  In  1844  he  moved 
to  Union  Vale,  same  county,  with  serious  thoughts  of  coming  to 
Oregon;  moved  to  Washington  county,  Ohio,  on  the  little  Hock- 
ing and  near  its  junction  with  the  Ohio  River  went  into  the 
saw  milling  business,  but  did  not  succeed;  built  a  large  flat- 
boat  about  6x16x90,  made  a  comfortable  cabin  on  one  end,  a  goa- 
ger,  a  sweep  on  each  side,  a  steering  oar,  and  check  post;  loaded 
with  fence  posts,  hoop-poles,  etc.,  hired  a  crew,  put  his  family  and 
his  all  in  the  cabin,  cast  loose  the  bow  line,  waved  farewell  to 
friends  and  we  were  afloat  on  the  broad  Ohio,  for  the  far-a- way 
west.     At  Cincinnati  he  sold  his  boat  and  load,  and  delivered  pro- 


perty.  At  Rising  Sun,  Indiana,  took  steamboat  deck  passage  to  St. 
Louis,  Missouri;  ran  over  the  falls  at  Louisville,  instead  of  running 
through  the  canal,  changed  boats  at  St.  Louis  for  Independence, 
Missouri;  took  deck  passage;  had  for  a  great  part  of  the  way  an 
uncomfortable  trip,  being  crowded  with  passengers  of  foreign  ex- 
traction and  not  overly  clean;  arrived  at  Wayne  City, the  landing 
for  Independence,  got  a  house  to  put  his  family  in,  looked  for  a 
place  to  locate,  rented  a  house  in  the  vicinity  of  Blue  Springs 
Jackson  county,  Missouri,  a  beautiful  prairie  country — interspersed 
with  timber — and  when  his  family  was  safely  housed,  with  their 
household  effects,  he  had  twenty  dollars  left.  This  was  in  the 
spring  and  early  summer  of  1848.  Father  was  a  natural  mechanic, 
He  never  learned  a  regular  trade;  had  only  a  common  school  ed- 
ucation, but  could  use  what  he  knew,  make  anything  in  wood 
work  he  wanted  to,  from  a  hoe  handle  to  a  carriage,  make  or 
mend  boots  and  shoes.  This  ability  to  do  so  many  kinds  of 
work  in  a  workmanlike  and  solid  manner  helped  him  very 
much  in  a  new  country  to  build  up  his  shattered  fortunes.  Mother 
had  a  good  education,  and  she  taught  school  and  kept  house, 
cooked  on  fire  in  fireplace  with  dutch  oven  the  bacon,  corncake, 
cabbage  and  greens.  So  in  1852  they  had  quite  a  good  start  of 
stock  gathered  together;  but  not  quite  enough  for  an  outfit  for 
Oregon.  Borrowing  money,  he  completed  his  outfit  and  started 
to  Oregon  as  related  in  preceding  article.  He  was  taken  sick  with 
mountain  fever  immediately  after  his  arrival  in  the  settlement,  and 
found  the  very  kindest  friends,  though  total  strangers,  in  the  per- 
sons of  Uncle  George  and  Aunt  Peggy  Nelson,  of  Chehalem,  whose 
memory  holds  the  warmest  kind  of  a  place  in  our  affections.  By 
careful  and  constant  care  of  mother  and  the  blessings  of  our 
Heavenly  Father,  he  recovered  his  health.  His  wealth  in  the 
spring  of  1853  consisted  of  wife,  seven  children,  a  few  household 
oods,  two  yoke  of  oxen,  one  two  year  old  heifer  and  a  debt  of  six 
hundred  dollars  drawing  ten  per  cent,  interest.  In  the  spring  of 
1853  we  took  a  claim  on  the  north  side  of  Chehalem  mountain.  Not 
liking  the  location,  he  selected  his  home  in  the  fine  prairie  about 
seven  miles   northwest    from    Eugene,  where   he   built   a  home, 


gathered  abundance  of  wealth,  paid  every  dollar  he  owed  that 
he  knew  anything  about,  and  finally,  in  the  closing  years  of 
his  life,  sold  his  fine  farm,  moved  to  Latham  and  on  the  interest 
of  his  means  he  and  mother  lived  together  in  happiness,  abund- 
ance, comfort  and  pleasure,  respected,  honored  and  loved  until 
death  called  him  away.  Mother  continued  to  live  at  Latham  a 
few  years  and  then  took  up  her  residence  with  her  only  daughter, 
Mrs.  Julia  A.  Bean,  the  mother  of  chief  justice  of  supreme  court 
of  Oregon,  the  Hon.  R.  S.  Bean.  With  abundant  plenty  of  her  own 
means  around  her  to  supply  her  desires,  kind  and  loving  hands  to 
minister  to  her  wants,  she  spent  her  last  remaining  years  in  the 
enjoyment  of  that  abundance  which  she  so  bravely  and  nobly 
helped  produce. 


LiivvisTON,  Idaho,  May  31,  1896. 

To  the  Secretary  of  the  Oregon  Pioneer  Association — Dear  Sir: 
I  claim  the  honor  of  being  one  of  Oregon's  early  pioneers, 
having  landed  in  Portland,  Oregon  on  the  lylh  day  of  September, 

1851,  having  made  the  journey  across  the  plains  from  Springfield, 
Illinois,  with  ox-teams  that  >ear.  After  a  rest  of  four  days  at  the 
Skidmore  hou^e,  in  company  with  three  othtrs,  1  started  to  the 
gold  mines.  We  went  in  a  boat  up  the  Willamette  river,  through 
Umpqua  valley  to  the  gold  mines  of  northern  California.  Met 
Aaron  Rose  and  stayed  with  him  over  night  at  the  first  camp  that 
he  made  where  Roseburg  now  stands.  Pell  in  with  a  pack  train 
going  to  the  mines,  and  landed  on  Josephine  creek  the  loth  of 
October,  1851.  This  was  the  only  mining  camp  in  Oregon  Terri- 
tory at  that  time,  which  included  all  of  the  country  from  the 
southern  line  of  Oregon  to  the  British  line  and  east  to  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  where  there  are  thousands  of  mining  camps  today. 

I  thought  perhaps  you  would  be  glad  to  learn  where  the  first 
written  mining  law  was  made  in  this  vast  empire.  This  was  on 
Canyon   creek,  a  tributary  of    Josephine,  on   the  ist  day  of  April, 

1852,  in  a  camp  of  forty  miners,  the  meeting  being  held  under  a 
large  fir  tree.  As  there  has  been  many  laws  made  since  then,  I 
send  you  a  copy  of  the  first  mining  law  that  was  ever  put  on 
paper  in  this  great  empire  : 

"Know  all  men  by  these  presents.  That  the  miners  in  coun- 
cil assembled  on  this  the  first  day  of  April,  A.  D.,  1852,  do  ordain 
and  adopt  the  following  rules  and  regulations  to  govern  this 
camp  : 

"Resolved,  ist,  That  fifty  yards  shall  constitute  a  claim  in  the 


bed  of  the  creek  extending  to  high  water  on  each  side. 

'*  Resolved,  2d,  That  forty  feet  shall  constitute  a  bank  or  bar 
claim  on  the  face  extending  back  to  the  hill  or  mountain. 

^*Resolved  3d,  That  all  claims  not  worked  when  workable,'after 
five  days  be  forfeited  or  jumpable. 

^* Resolved,  4th,  That  all  disputes  arising  from  mining  claims 
shall  be  settled  by  arbitration  and  the  decision  shali  be  final. 

"  E.  J.  NORTHCUTT, 

**Attest :  Chairman. 


"  Clerk." 

I  was  a  partner  with  A.  G.  Walling,  the  printer,  in  1852,  on 
Althouse  Creek;  was  with  General  Lane  at  the  Indian  fight  on 
Evans  Creek,  where  he  was  wounded  in  the  arm  in  1855;  was  with 
Gen.  A.  J.  Smith  (then  Captain)  at  the  battle  of  Hungry  Hill  in 
1856;  was  with  the  Oregon  cavalry  in  1863-64  in  this  country,  and 
in  1867  with  the  First  U.  S.  Cavalry,  under  Gen.  Crook.  I  have 
been  in  eighteen  Indian  fights — twice  wounded.  I  am  a  well 
and  hearty  man  today  ;  never  have  been  sick  an  hour  on  this 
coast  and  I  am  now  sixty-six  years  of  age. 

Yours  truly, 




Capt  Lawrence  Hall  was  born  in  Bourbon  county,  Kentucky, 
March  14,  1800;  was  married  to  Lucy  D.  White  Sept.  19th,  182a, 
who  was  born  Dec.  3rd,  1803,  in  Halifax  county,  Virginia.  They 
moved  in  the  same  year  to  Booneville,  Cooper  county,  Missouri, 
where  their  children  were  all  born  except  one  and  that  one  in 
Oregon.  Crossed  the  plains  with  ox  teams  to  Oregon  in  1845. 
Left  Independence,  Missouri,  the  general  rendezvous.  May  15th; 
started  from  Booneville,  Missouri,  April  loth.  The  first  part  of 
our  trip  was  uneventful,  except  to  get  thoroughly  organized  for  the 
trip;  but  from  Port  Laramie  on  we  had  several  encounters  with 
the  Indians,  who  were  disposed  to  stampede  our  stock,  and  we  were 
attacked  three  times  by  them,  but  no  harm  done.  At  old  Port 
Boise  we  were  induced  to  take  what  was  called  Stephen  Meek's  cut- 
oflf  (which  proved  to  be  a  longer  route).  He  agreed  to  take  us 
further  south  than  the  old  immigrant  route  and  by  a  shorter  one, 
and  as  there  were  some  in  our  company  of  which  Lawrence  Hall 
was  captain,  that  had  large  droves  of  cattle  and  were  a  little 
afraid  of  the  hostile  Indians  that  Meek  said  we  would  have  to 
pass  through,  and  as  grass  was  getting  quite  short,  it  was  decided 
to  trust  Meek  as  our  guide.  We  had  a  hard  trip  from  that  on; 
suffered  for  water;  stock  gave  out,  provisions  scarce,  with  many  sick 
and  dying  with  mountain  fever.  I  saw  many  persons  buried  with  • 
out  coffins.  We  were  lost  in  the  mountains  and  forsaken  by  our 
guide  the  day  before.  We  got  to  John  Day's  river,  which  river, 
as  also  Green  river,  we  ferried  in  a  wagon  box,  swimming  all  the 
teams  and  loose  stock  across  the  stream.  Our  hearts  were  made  to 
rejoice  when  our   men,  who  were  on   the  lookout  with  a  pocket 


compass,  brought  the  glad  news  that  they  had  spied  out  the 
Columbia  river.  It  was  cause  for  great  rejoicing,  as  winter  was 
coming  on,  teams  giving  out,  provisions  almost  gone,  people  sick 
and  dying.  Our  joy  was  not  to  be  wondered  at.  But  we  got  to 
The  Dalles  and  got  our  first  dried  peas  and  potatoes  and  one  peck 
of  wheat — all  that  was  allowed  to  a  family  for  bread  so  all  could 
have  a  little.     Oh,  what  a  feast! 

Well,  we  made  a  log  raft  and  the  men  were  three  weeks  in  the 
rain  propelling  it  down  the  river  to  the  upper  Cascades.  My 
father,  Lawrence  Hall,  was  captain  of  the  raft.  There  were  three 
families  on  the  raft.  David  Tetherow,  a  Mr.  Woolsey  and  my 
father.  We  made  the  portage  from  the  upper  to  the  lower  Cas- 
cades, by  carrying  all  our  household  goods  on  our  backs  with  the 
privilege  of  walking;  were  three  days  making  the  trip^no  float- 
ing, palace  or  Pullman  sleeper.  What  a  change!  My  father  gave 
Dan  Clark  (who  had  preceded  us  down  the  river  by  trail  on  foot 
to  Vancouver,  and  got  a  bateau  of  Dr.  McLoughlin's  and  came  to 
the  Cascades  to  help  the  immigrants  down  the  river)  an  ax  to  bring 
his  family  to  Linnton,  as  Portland  was  a  thing  in  the  distant  fu- 
ture. We  went  from  Linnton  to  Hillsboro,  Washington  county, 
then  Tualatin  county,  and  settled  on  the  Cornelius  plains.  The 
next  year,  when  the  Cayuse  war  broke  out  in  1847  and  1848,  my 
father  raised  a  company  of  volunters  and  went  to  the  rescue  of 
the  captive  women  and  children  of  the  settlers.  He  was  in  the 
principal  battles— of  which  he  kept  a  journal  to  give  to  me  at  his 
death — and  at  the  request  of  the  Pioneer  Society  I  loaned  it  to  the 
society  and  it  has  never  been  returned.  Lawrence  Hall  died  Feb- 
urary  nth,  1867,  Portland  Oregon.  He  was  of  Scotch  descent. 
My  mother,  Lucy  D.  Hall,  was  English  decent.  Her  grandfather 
and  his  seven  brothers  served  in  the  Revolutionary  War. 



William  Harden  Bennett,  know  as  W.  H.  Bennett,  was  born 
in  Middleton,  Jefferson  county,  Kentucky  April  i8,  1823;  moved 
with  his  parents  to  Springfield,  Illinois,  1831;  from  there  to  Bur- 
lington, Iowa.  In  the  following  year  went  to  St.  I^ouis,  Missouri, 
as  clerk  in  drug  store  and  learned  the  druggist  business,  but  had 
to  give  it  up  on  account  of  his  health;  went  back  to  Burlington 
and  learned  the  harness  and  saddle  trade;  crossed  the  plains  to 
Oregon  in  1845;  died  in  Rockford,  Spokane  county,  Washington 
September  3,  1889,  where  he  moved  from  Portland,  Oregon,  in  1880 
He  settled  in  Washington  county,  Oregon,  on  his  arrival  in  Ore- 
gon, and  was  appointed  U.  S.  Marshal  by  Governor  George  Aber- 
nethy  after  Joe  Meek  resigned,  when  Oregon  was  a  territory. 
Later,  was  elected  sheriff  for  six  consecutive  years  of  Washington 
county  when  Multnomah,  Columbia  and  part  of  Clackamas 
county,  were  all  in  one.  He  executed  one  man — Wm.  Turner — 
for  killing  Wm.  Bradbury,  at  the  Bonser  farm  on  Sauvies*  Island. 
The  execution  took  place  at  Hillsboro,  the  county  seat.  Mr.  Ben- 
nett's farm  was  near  Hillsboro,  when  the  law  was  so  changed 
that  he  was  not  eligible  for  re-election.  He  was  then  elected 
county  treasurer  and  afterwards  appointed  deputy  sheriff.  In 
1862  he  was  appointed  U.  S.  Marshal  by  Abraham  Lincoln,  for 
the  district  of  Oregon,  which  then  consisted  of  what  is  now  Wash- 
ington, Idaho  and  Oregon;  which  office  he  held  seven  years. 
When  appointed  to  that  office  he  moved  his  family  to  Portland, 
where  his  residence  was  continued  until  1880.  He  also  served  as 
fireman  in  the  old  Multnomah  No.  i  volunteer  company;  was 
also  one  of  the  city  councilmen  for  one  or  two  years.  He  was 
identified  in  all  work  that   was  for  the  good  of  the  country,  both 


public  and  private.  He  carried  on  the  livery  and  feed  stable  on 
Second  and  Morrison  street.  Later  L.  P.  W.  Quimby  was  a  part- 
ner, and  still  later,  J.  M.  White  was  also  a  partner  in  the  same 
business.  Mr.  Bennett  was  concerned  in  many  business  enter- 
prises. Some  were  successful— others  were  not;  but  he  died,  as  he 
lived,  an  honest  man  and  a  Christian,  and  his  works  will  follow 
him.  His  wife,  Lucy  J.Hall,  is  still  living  in  Spokane,  Wash- 
ington. She  was  born  in  Booneville,  Cooper  county,  Missouri, 
November  7,  1832.  She  was  married  February  22,  1849,  ^^  what  is 
known  as  Cornelius  Plains,  then  Tualatin  county,  but  now  Wash- 
ington county.  There  in  a  little  log  cabin,  she  attended  the  first 
and  only  school  then  in  Oregon.  She  studied  Kirkham's  and 
Greenleafs  grammar  and  the  old  Webster's  spelling  book  was  used. 
The  teacher's  name  was  William  Higgins,  a  Baptist  minister,  and 
a  son- in-law  of  old  Father  Leslie. 



Rev.  J.  L.Parrish,  who  died  at  his  home  in  Salem  on  M«y  31, 
1895,  was  a  conspicuous  figure  in  the  missionary  era  of  Oregon 
territory.  A  sturdy  young  man,  who  had  been  brought  up  to 
labor,  he  was  well  equipped  to  perform  his  part  in  subduing  the 
beautiful  wilderness  that  was  vaguely  known  in  the  East  as  a 
far-away  ''Indian  country"  when  he  landed  here  in  1840.  A  duti- 
ful son  of  the  church  in  whose  simple  tenets  he  had  been  brought 
np,  he  was  a  forceful  factor  in  the  missionary  effort  made  by  the 
Methodist  Episcopal  church  to  gain  a  foothold  in  the  new  coun- 
try and  lay  a  shaping  hand  upon  its  civilization. 

Born  January  14, 1806,  he  was  in  his  90th  year  of  life,  nearly 
two-thiids  of  which  he  had  lived  in  Oregon.  Hale  and  vigorous, 
devoted  to  his  work,  a  stranger  to  fatigue,  he  **rode  the  circuit" 
in  early  territorial  days,  when  Indian  trails  were  the  only  high- 
ways, when  streams  were  unbridged  and  the  settlements  were 
sparsely  populated  and  far  apart.  He  was  known  throughout  the 
Willamette  valley  in  those  days  as  "Brother  Parrish,"  and  the 
latch-string  of  every  pioneer  cabin  hung  out  for  him. 

A  minister  who  is  earnest  in  his  work  and  sympathetic  and 
self-sacrificing  in  his  performance  comes  close  to  the  hearts  of  an 
isolated,  homesick  people.  Whether  therefore,  "Brother  Parrish" 
came  to  the  early  settlers  of  Oregon  with  vigorous  presentment  of 
the  plan  of  salvation  as  outlined  by  old-time  Methodism,  urging 
them  to  accept  it  as  the  only  passport  to  eternal  happiness;  offici- 
ating at  the  then  rare  ceremony  of  marriage  in  lowly  pioneer 
homes,  or  at  the  rite  of  baptism  in  the   rude  log  churches;  saying 


the  last  prayer  at  the  bedside  of  the  dying,  or  the  later  one  at  the 
open  grave  of  the  dead,  he  was  at  once  welcomed  and  revered  by 
the  people. 

All  of  these  labors  have  long  since  belonged  to  the  shadowy 
realm  of  memory — a  realm  narrowed  each  succeeding  year  by  the 
passing  out  of  some  of  its  subjects.  A  man  who  has  lived  for 
four-score  and  ten  years  where  he  was  born  and  brought  up  will 
have  relatively  few  friends  of  his  prime  as  comrades  on  the  last 
two  decades  of  his  journey.  Still  fewer  will  he  have  whose 
prim^  was  passed  in  a  new  and  sparsely  settled  region.  Hence  it  is 
that  Josiah  L.  Parrish  was  known  personally  to  few  of  the  pres- 
ent inhabitants  of  Oregon.  "Father  Parrish"  he  came  to  be  call- 
ed years  and  years  ago,  as  he  appeared  a  venerable  figure,  a  ver- 
itable leaf  from  the  past,  at  a  pioneer  reunion  or  an  occasional 
church  gathering.  Forseveral  years,  however,  he  has  remained  quiet- 
ly at  home  waiting  for  the  end.  Its  announcement  brought  tears 
to  the  eyes  of  his  few  surviving  comrades  of  the  missionary  era — 
tears  not  of  sorrow,  since  nature's  call  in  such  a  case  is  wise  and 
kind,  but  of  tender  retrospection.  He  survived  the  date  of  his 
arrival  in  Oregon  full  fifty- five  years;  died  near  the  site  of  the 
first  Methodist  mission  in  Oregon,  of  which  he  was  a  potent  fac- 
tor, having  served  well  his  day  and  generation.  No  history  of 
the  missionary  era  of  Oregon  will  be  complete  without  his  name 
and  a  chronicle  of  the  simple  but  active  part  that  he  took  in  its 



In  the  year  1851  a  company  of  im  mi  grants  from  Indiana,  con- 
sisting of  21  wagons  drawn  by  ox  teams,  crossed  the  plains  to 
Oregon,  arriving  in  the  Willamette  valley  at  Foster's,  then  a  well 
known  land-mark  a  few  miles  east  of  Oregon  City.  Here  we  sep- 
arated after  our  long  tedious  journey  of  150  days  and  identified 
interests,  to  scatter  and'  seek  out  our  fortunes  as  best  we  might 
be  able  to  do,  bidding  farewell  forever  to  some  of  the  comrades 
of  our  most  interesting  trip,  some  settling  in  Washington,  some 
in  Clackamas,  some  in  Yamhill,  and  some  in  Marion  and  Linn 
counties.  I  first  settled  in  Yamhill  temporarily,  where  I  was 
warmly  received  and  enjoyed  the  unbounded  hospitality  of  a  no- 
ble-hearted people  whose  memory  I  have  always  cherished  with 
heart-felt  gratitude.  My  occupation  as  a  millwright  enabled  me 
to  become  acquainted  with  many  of  the  pioneers  of  Yamhill, 
one  of  the  oldest  settled  counties  in  Oregon,  of  whom  nearly  all, 
then  heads  of  families,  have  passed  away,  among  them  being 
many  of  the  noblest  spirits  of  Oregon. 

Early  in  May  in  '5.^  I  left  Yamhill  and  came  to  Linn  county 
and  settled  on  Muddy,  one  mile  above  Yarbrough's  grove  and  two 
miles  west  of  where  Halsey  now  stands.  Here  I  became  acquaint- 
ed with  a  majority  of  the  oldest  settlers,  whom  to  undertake  to 
name  in  this  short  narrative  would  be  too  laborious  a  task,  and 
memory  would  fail  me  at  this  time,  but  I  will  recall  a  few  -of 
those  with  whom  I  was  best  acquainted  and  who  are  most  prom- 
inent in  my  recollection.  Commencing  in  the  north  end  of 
I^inn  county  were  the  Millers,  the  Knoxes,  Judge  Baber,  Ascium 
Powell,  John  and  Alford  Powell,  the  Climers,  Joe  Moist,  Jackey 
Settle,  William  and  James   Gore,  Morgan   Elmer,  Jake   and  An- 


drew  Keys,  the  Ralstons,  Jerry  and  sons  William  and  Joseph,  the 
Georges,  Robert  and  Charlie  Miller,  the  Peters,  B.  F.  Whitson 
and  Isaac  Coryell,  and  following  back  towards  Albany  we  find 
John  Bell,  George  Crawford,  old  father  Levy,  John  Lines,  Meed 
Hanon,  Anderson  Cox,  the  Haley  family;  and  in  and  about  Albany 
was  George  Cline,  John  Connor  and  Wakefield,  James  and  John 
Foster,  the  Monteiths  and  Crawfords,  besides  many  others.  Lest 
I  should  weary  the  patience  of  the  reader  I  will  mention  only  a 
portion  of  those  generally  known  as  pioneers  in  Linn  county. 
F«)llowing  a  range  towards  Brownsville  from  Albany  among 
those  with  whom  I  was  best  ac^quainted  was  the  Fannings,  theMc- 
Farlands,  the  Roberts,  the  Hustons,  Smelgers,  Brandons,  Whealdons, 
and  Billy  Swank,  and  still  further  on  was  Galagher,  Reuben  Clay- 
pool,  Sperry,  Claiborn  Hill,  Wm.  Cohorn  and  Harman  Swank. 
We  again  return  to  the  western  line  of  the  county  between  the 
Calapooia  and  Muddy  and  find  the  Watsons,  Henry  McCullough, 
Joseph  Hamilton  and  Wash  Pugh,  and  still  further  on  James 
Yantis,  James  Hogue,  Thos.  Kendall  and  Mercer  Thompson,  the 
Farwells,  Savages,  the  Brocks,  John  Bateman,  Elias  Keeney, 
Elias  Walters,  and  John  M.  McKinny,  and  in  and  about  Browns- 
ville were  Alexander  and  Riley  Kirk,  Hugh  Brown  and  James 
Blakely  who  owned  a  little  store  and  employed  George  Cooley  as 
clerk,  who  succeeded  them  and  still  remains  in  the  business.  Set- 
tled above  Brownsville,  along  the  Calapooia  were  the  Templetons, 
James  McHargue,  R.  C.  Finley,  well  known  men  throughout  the 
county.  Again  commencing  at  a  point  on  the  Muddy  west  of 
where  the  Boston  mill  now  stands  were  settled  James  Yarbrough, 
David  Porter,  the  Aubreys  Pughs,  Henry  Davidson,  John  Wilson, 
old  man  Yarbrough,  owner  of  the  Yarbrough  grove,  a  well  known 
land  mark  of  early  days,  and  still  further  lived  Warren  LaRou, 
Tommy  Alford,  also  well  known  to  all  the  old  pioneers.  Besides 
these  I  will  only  mention  a  few  names  of  the  many  settled  weat 
of  Muddy,  commencing  with  Captain  John  Smith,  Owen  Bear, 
James  Martin,  Henry  McCartney,  Henry  Rudd,  D.  and  W.  AUing- 
ham,  John  Smith,  Caleb  Gray,  James  and  Samuel  Porter,  James 
H.  Bramwell  and  Joseph  Lame,  who  settled  near  where  Halsey 
stands.    East  of  Halsey  along  the  foothills  lived  Jonathan  Keen- 


ey,  John  Findley,  Wilson  Blaiu,  the  Michaels,  Johnny  Gray, 
Jacob  Wigle,  Luther  White,  Thomas  Wilson,  the  Wigles,  Daniel 
Putman,  Paul  Glover  and  the  Willoughbys.  Those  I  have  men- 
tioned are  only  a  few  of  the  pioneers  that  were  settled  in  Linn 
county  when  I  came  to  it  in  '53.  At  that  time  Linn  county  was  a 
vast  flower  bed  with  onlv  a  small  percentage  of  the  land  in  cul- 
tivation, but  what  was  cultivated  yielded  a  rich  reward  for  the 
labor  bestowed  on  it.  The  climate  was  delightful  and  men  vied 
with  each  other  in  praiie  of  the  glorious  paradise  which  they  in- 
herited. But  every  part  has  its  counter  part  and  after  a  few  years 
when  cultivation  began  to  rob  the  land  of  its  beauty  and  the 
people  began  to  find  that  they  would  have  to  earn  their  bread 
by  the  sweat  of  their  face,  like  the  old  Israelites,  they  began  to 
murmur,  and  want  to  return  to  the  old  flesh  pots  of  Egypt,  which 
many  have  since  done,  but  were  content  with  staying  away  only 
a  short  period  and  then  returning  to  Oregon    perfectly  satisfied. 

There  are  many  pleasing  reflections  while  looking  back  to 
early  days  in  Oregon,  but  in  all  of  it  there  is  a  touch  of  melan- 
choly. A  generation  has  passed  away  and  with  it  nearly  all  of 
the  list  of  names  given  in  the  above,  and  still  hardly  a  week 
passes  but  I  see  the  account  of  some  old  pioneer  leaving  the  stage, 
and  the  curtain  closing  behind  his  last  act.  Those  of  us  who  are 
left  are  worn  and  ready  to  be  cast  oflf  as  old  garments.  A  few 
more  years  will  close  the  scene  with  every  pioneer  now  occupying 
the  stage.  Length  of  life  is  uncertain,  but  death  is  certain,  and 
when  he  claims  a  victim  neither  rank  or  condition  in  life  can 
stay  his  cold  hand,  and  soon  the  dark  veil  will  cover  every  eye 
that  saw,  and  the  seal  of  death  be  placed  on  every  lip  that  utter- 
ed the  praise  of  this  glorious  land  of  ours. 



At  her  residence  in  this  city,  June  3,  1892,  Martha  A.  Noltner, 
wife  of  A.  Noltner  publisher  of  the  Daily  Dispatch^  passed  from 
this  life.  Mrs.  Noltner  was  an  Oregonian,  being  born  in  Polk 
county  in  the  year  1847.  She  was  married  in  1866,  and  has  re- 
sided in  Portland  the  greater  part  of  the  time  since.  Her  hus- 
band and  five  children  survive  her.  Mrs.  Noltner  was  the  pos- 
sessor of  personal  qualities  rare  and  engaging.  Endowed  with  a 
viirorous  mind,  she  combined  judgment  clear  and  discriminating, 
sympathies  wide  and  warm,  and  an  unselfish  consideration  for 
others  that  made  a  close  acquaintance  with  her  a  delight.  What 
she  was  was  written  on  her  face.  Open,  honest,  true  simple, 
cheery  and  sunny  in  her  nature,  she  won  her  way  without  asking 
into  the  hearts  of  all  who  knew  her.  In  her  home  she  was  at 
once  the  bright  sun  and  guiding  star.  Her  heart,  so  full  of  love, 
was  all  for  those  who  called  her  wife  and  mother,  child  and  sis- 
ter; yet  she  withheld  not  her  strength  from  others  but  coined  it 
day  by  day  into  generous  deeds.  Wherever  sorrow,  or  trial,  or 
death  cast  their  shadow,  there  she  was  to  be  found,  with  gentle 
ministry  and  words  of  comfort.  In  her  Christian  life  she  tried 
to  do  her  duty  faithfully  and  without  ostentation,  but  by  her 
"fruits"  she  was  known  and  her  profession  daily  exemplified; 
and  when  her  summons  came  it  found  her  prepared  to  meet  it 
with  serenity  and  self-possession.  A  devoted  wife,  a  gentle 
mother  and  a  friend  strong  and  true  has  gone  from  us.  The  light 
of  love  has  faded  from  her  eye,  the  kind  heart  beats  no  more,  and 
the  busy  hands  are  folded  to  rest  forever.  It  would  be  wrong 
to  say  there  is  no  loss  to  us.  It  is  nature's  right  to  mourn  that  we 
shall  see  our  dead  no  more.  But  for  her  we  sorrow  not  as  those 
without  hope.    Tears  fall  from  our  eyes  over  the  lifeless  clay,  but 


faith  looks  beyond  to  the  joy  of  a  soul  that  has  reached  its  eter- 
nal home  and  walks  for  aye  in  "green  fields"  and  besides  "waters 
of  peace."  Let  her  memory  and  its  record  be  our  heritage  and 
example.  And  in  the  silence  and  sadness  of  this  hour,  as  we 
look  back  over  our  friend's  life,  and  up  to  the  life  over  which 
death  has  no  power,  let  us  learn  to  live  and  labor  more  truh' 
and  bravely,  and  then  the  world  will  be  the  poorer  when  we  leave  it 
and  heaven  the  richer  when  we  enter  there. 

"The  Savior  wept 
O'er  him  he  loved -corrupting  clay! 
But  then  he  spake  the  words. 
And  death  gave  up  his  prey! 

What  matters,  then, 
Who  earliest  lays  him  down  to  rest? 
Nay,  to  'depart  and  be  with  Christ' 

Is  surely  best." 

The  Secretary  of  this  Association  desires  to  add  his  tribute  to 
the  personal  worth  of  Mrs.  Noltner,  and  heartily  confirms  all  that 
Mrs.  Sellwood  has  said  about  her,  as  the  result  of  an  intimate  ac- 
quaintance for  a  number  of  years.  Another  feature  of  Mrs.  Nolt- 
ner's  character,  which  was  a  beautiful  example  of  her  genuine 
womanliness,  was  her  devotion  to  the  idea  of  making  the  early 
settlers — the  pioneers — happy  whenever  opportunity  oflfered.  To 
her  chiefly  is  due  the  idea  of  getting  up  a  banquet  for  the  pioneers* 
she  being  the  prime  mover  and  leading  spirit  of  the  first  one 
given  in  this  city  in  1891,  in  which  she  was  nobly  and  efficiently 
assisted  by  Mrs.  Rosa  F.  Burrell.  From  the  start  Mrs.  Noltner's 
enthusiasm  in  this  matter  was  contagious,  and  was  the  means  of 
enlisting  many  other  pioneer  ladies  in  the  movement,  which  has 
come  to  be  a  very  prominent  feature  of  the  annual  reunions.  No 
sacrifice  was  too  great  for  her  to  make,  provided  the  visit  of  the 
pioneers  to  this  city  could  thereby  be  made  more  pleasant  and 
aipreeable.  Her  fragrant  memory  will  be  long  and  deeply  cher- 
ished by  all  who  know  her. 


In  the  town  of  Centralia,  Washington,  there  lives  a  woman 
who  has  perhaps  seen  as  much  of  privation  and  hardship  as  any 
of  the  early  settlers  of  the  state.  This  woman  is  Mrs.  Mary  A. 
Borst  McKee.  Mrs.  McKee  crossed  the  plains  with  her  parents  in 
1852,  when  she  was  but  13  years  of  age.  Her  father,  J  H.  Round- 
tree,  was  headed  for  Puget  Sound,  and  after  a  journey  of  many 
months,  in  which  the  usual  hardships  and  privations  were  ex- 
perienced, finally  reached  Skookumchuck.  After  casting  about 
for  a  permanent  I'jcation,  he  finally  decided  to  take  up  a  claim 
on  Gray's  Harbor.  Securing  the  services  of  several  Indians,  he  set 
out  in  canoes  for  a  point  about  two  miles  above  the  present  town 
of  Ocosta,  accompanied  by  his  family,  consisting  of  a  wife  and 
three  children,  «if  which  Mrs.  McKee  was  the  eldest. 

Both  Mrs.  McKee  and  her  father,  who  is  now  81  years  old,  but 
as  hale  and  hearty  as  most  men  of  50,  were  present  at  the  cen- 
tennial exercises  at  Ocosta  in  May,  1892,  and  among  that  assem- 
blage there  were  none  more  interesting  than  they.  Mrs.  McKee 
related  some  of  her  experiences  to  a  reporter  at  that  time,  as  fol- 

"Just  forty  years  ago,  my  parents,  myself  and  a  brother  and 
sister,  younger  than  I,  were  on  our  way  across  the  great  plains 
bound  for  the  Pacific  coast.  We  landed  in  Oregon  City  in  Sep- 
tember, 1852,  and  the  following  month  set  out  for  Puget  Sound, 
but  after  arriving  at  Skookumchuck  changed  our  minds  and 
course  and  steered  for  Gray's  Harbor  instead.  I  have  not  lan- 
guage at  my  command  to  describe  the  privations  and  suffering 
which  we  endured  that  winter  among  the  savages.  At  this  time 
we  were  the  only  white  people  living  on  the  harbor  and  so  far  a& 
I  have  ever  been  able  to  ascertain  I  was  the  first  miss  who  set 
foot  on  the  shore  of  the  harbor.  The  nearest  white  neighbor  at 
this  time  lived  at  what  is  now  Montesano.  The  following  sum- 
mer a  poor  wandering  Irishman  found  his  way  down  the  harbor 
and  took  a  claim    adjoining  us.    To    me  this  was  the  most  lone- 


some  spot  on  earth.  It  seemed  as  if  we  were  removed  from  the 
whole  world.  For  over  thirteen  months  we  did  not  see  a  woman 
or  child,  or  a  domestic  fowl  of  any  kind,  and  I  heard  uothinj^  ex- 
cept 'Chinook  wawa.'  I  can  assure  you  that  to  be  cut  off  from 
all  civilization,  with  nothing  to  see  or  hear  to  indicate  that  the 
world  was  inhabited,  was  a  condition  which  cannot  be  appreciat- 
ed by  any,  save  those  who  have  had  the  experience.  All  our  sup- 
plies of  food  had  to  be  brought  from  Olympia,  which  was  the 
nearest  place,  and  while  my  father  was  gone  on  these  trips  we 
were  alone.  My  mother  was  a  very  resolute  and  determined 
woman,  and  the  number  of  times  she  saved  us  from  the  wrath  of 
the  Indians  are  almost  countless.  1  have  often  thought  that 
there  was  not  another  woman  in  the  world  who  could  have  so 
courageously  braved  the  harships  and  dangers  of  life  on  Gray's 
harbor  in  that  early  period.  A  club,  a  gun  and  an  ax  were  her 
weapons  of  defense,  and  many  times  she  was  required  to  use 
them.  Upon  one  occasion  a  vicious  Indian  insisted  on  coming 
into  our  cabin,  and  after  parleying  with  him  for  some  time  my 
mother  seized  her  club  and  struck  him  on  the  arm  hard  e'nough 
to  break  it." 

In  the  winter  of  1852  Dr.  Roundtree,  accompanied  by  a  man 
named  Chapman,  who  was  exploring  the  country,  started  for 
Olympia  in  a  canoe.  Their  boat  was  capsized,  but  they  managed 
to  reach  shore.  The  weather  was  cold  and  there  were  two  feet  of 
snow  on  the  ground.  As  night  came  on  they  became  so  benumbed 
from  the  cold  and  their  wet  clothing  that  it  seemed  certain 
they  must  perish.  To  lay  down  was  certain  death;  to  go  forward 
seemed  quite  as  hopeless,  so  both  began  running  around  a  large 
tree  to  quicken  the  circulation,  and  in  this  way  they  passed  al- 
most the  whole  night.  Toward  morning  Dr.  Roundtree  fell  ex- 
hausted and  Chapman  must  soon  share  the  same  fate.  Dr. 
Roundtree  begged  him  to  go  in  search  of  a  canoe  and  save  his 
own  life,  but  he  refused,  and  began  to  rub  the  hands  and  face  of 
his  fallen  companion.  As  day  broke  they  sighted  a  canoe  in 
charge  of  several  Indians,  and  were  conveyed  to  a  cabin  some 
miles  up  the  harbor,  where  they  received  care,  nourishment, 
though  Dr.  Roundtree  was  unable  to  walk  for  five  months. 





l^'O  1*     1  «lf-i 

ASTORIA,  MAY  10,   11  AND  12 


,    An  Account  of  the  Celebration  of  the  One  Hundredth  Anni- 
I  versary  of  the  Discovery  of  the  Columbia  River, 

!  by  Captain  Robert  Gray, 


Historical  Address  by  Dr.  John  Fiske,  Cambridge,  Mass., 

History  of  the  Ship  ''Columbia,'*  by  Rev.  Edw^ard  G.    Porter, 
D.    D.,  Boston,    Mass., 









Curtis  C.  Strong,  M.  D.,  Portland. 


Capt.  J.  H.  D.  Gray,  Astoria.  John  Minto,  Salem. 

AVjij.  C.  Brown,  Dallas.  Capt.  J.  T.  App^son,  Oregon 

Hon.  John  Whkeaker,  Eugene  City. 

Robert  A.   Miller,  Jackson-  Hon.  J.  G.  Swan,  Port  Town- 

ville.  send.  Wash. 

Geo.  W.  Riddle,  Roseburg.  Hon.  W.  J.  McConnell,  Mos- 

George  E.  Chamberlain,  Al-  cow,   Ida. 


Recording  Secretary. 

John  Adair,  Astoria. 

Corresponding  Secretary, 
E.  C.  Holden,  Astoria.    * 

Executive  Board. 
J.  H.  D.  Gray,  Astoria.  Rev.  Myron  Eells,  Union  City, 

John  Hobson,  Astoria.  Wash. 

John  Adair,  Astoria.  A.  F.  Parker,  Lewiston,  Ida. 

George  H.  Himes,  Portland.         Henry  Kelling,  Walla  Walla, 
Thos.  G.  Hendricks,  Eugene.  Wash. 

Secretary  of  the  Board. 
George  H.  Himes,  Portland. 

Finance  Committee. 
I.  W.  Case,  Astoria.  W.   S.   Ladd,   Portland. 

S.   S.   Gordon,  Astoria.  Henry  Failing,   Portland. 

H.  C.  Thompson,  Astoria.  D.  F.  Sherman,  Portland. 

Origin  of  the  Movement 

Astoria,  Oregon,  May  12,  1891. 

The  annual  meeting  of  the  Oregon  Pioneer  and  Histor- 
ical Society  of  Clatsop  County  was  held  in  the  Chamber 
of  Commerce  rooms  this  afternoon.  The  officers  present 
were  Silas  B.  Smith,  President;  John  Hobson,  Vice-Presi- 
dent; E.  C.  Holden,  Corresponding  Secretary. 

Col.  John  Adair  was  appointed  Recording  Secretary 

Fred  Beerman,  a  pioneer  of  1851,  was  elected  a  member. 

The  Corresponding  Secre:tary  reported  that  at  a  special 
meeting  of  the  Society,  held  on  March  23,  1891,  Capt.  J. 
H.  D.  Gray  and  himself  had  been  appointed  a  committee 
of  two  to  issue  a  circular  letter  to  all  Pioneer  and  Histori- 
cal Societies,  and  other  kindred  organizations  in  Oregon, 
Washington  and  Idaho,  urging  them  to  send  delegates  to 
Astoria  on  May  12th  to  aid  in  arranging  plans  for  the  cele- 
bration of  the  Centennial  of  the  Discovery  of  the  Columbia 
River,  on  May  11, 1792,  by  Captain  Robert  Gray,  of  Boston. 
The  circular  letter  thus  authorized  was  sent  out  on  April 
2d.  Favorable  responses  have^been  received  from  the  Wallia 
Walla  Pioneer  Association,  Walla  Walla,  Wash.,  State  Ag- 
ricultural College,  Corvallis,  Tualatin  Academy  and  Pacific 
University,  Forest  Grove,  Polk  County  Pioneer  Association, 
Pioneer  Society  of  Southern  Oregon,  Oregon  Pioneer  As- 
sociation, the  Society  of  Pioneers  of  Washington. 

Names  of  the  delegates  chosen  by  the  different  societies 
were   given,   and   among  those   selected  to  represent  the 


Washington  Society  were  John  T.  A.  Bulfinch,  a  grand- 
son of  Charles  Bulfinch,  of  Boston,  one  of  the  owners  of 
the  ship  Columbia  and  a  devoted  friend  of  Captain  Robert 
Gray.  The  latter  named  the  first  port  he  discovered  on 
the  Pacific  Coast  "Bulfinch  Harbor/'  now  known  as  **Gray's 
Harbdr/'  in  honor  of  Charles  Bulfinch ;  but  he  refused  to 
accept  the  honor,  believing  that  the  discoverer  should  be 
honored  instead  of  himself. 

The  following  persons  were  appointed  a  committee  on 
reception  and  entertainment:     Captain  J.  H.  D.  Gray,  E. 

C.  Holden,  R.  W.  Morrison,  Dr.  Owens-Adair,  and  John 

Captain  Gray  was  appointed  a  committee  of  one  to  se- 
cure a  steamer  to  convey  the  delegates  and  friends  to  the 
Columbia  River  Jetty  and  other  interesting  points. 

Officers  for  the  ensuing  year  were  elected  as  follows : 
President,  Silas  B.  Smith;  Vice-President,  Captain  J.  H. 

D.  Gi*ay;  Treasurer,  John  Hobson;  Secretary,  Col.  John 
Adair;  Corresponding  Secretary,  E.  C.  Holden. 

The  constitution  was  amended  so  as  to  advance  the 
limit  of  membership  in  the  Society  from  1855  to  1860. 

A  resolution  was  passed  making  it  the  duty  of  the  Pres- 
ident, on  the  death  of  a  member,  to  call  a  meeting  of  the 
pioneers  to  attend  the  funeral  in  a  body,  and  to  appoint  a 
committee  to  prepare  memorial  resolutions. 

The  meeting  then  adjourned.  Prior  to  adjournment  it 
was  announced  that  a  meeting  of  all  persons  interested  in 
the  Columbia  River  Centennial  would  be  held  in  the  rooms 
of  the  Astoria  Chamber  of  Commerce  tomorrow  morning 
at  ten  o'clock. 


Tuesday  Morning,  May  13,  1891. 

Delegations  of  various  bodies  assembled  at  the  rooms 
of  the  Astoria  Chamber  of  Commerce  at  ten  o'clock  a.  m., 
and  the  meeting  was  called  to  order  by  Silas  B.  Smith,  Pres- 
ident of  the  Pioneer  and  Historical  Society  of  Qatsop 
County.  Temporary  organization  was  effected  by  the  elec- 
tion of  William  C.  Brown,  Polk  County,  Chairman,  and 
Captain  J.  H.  D.  Gray,  Secretary,  and  Colonel  John  Adair, 
Assistant  Secretary. 

George  H.  Himes  and  Silas  B.  Smith  were  appointed  a 
committee  on  credentials,  and,  after  examination,  they  re- 
ported the  following  as  entitled  to  seats: 

Oregon  Pioneer  and  Historical  Society  of  Clatsop 
County :  Silas  B.  Smith,  Captain  J.  H.  D.  Gray,  John  Hob- 
son,  Col.  John  Adair,  and  E.  C.  Holden,  Astoria.  Polk 
County  Pioneer  Association:  William  C.  Brown,  Dallas. 
Lane  County  Pioneer  Society:  George  Noland,  Eugene. 
Oregon  Pioneer  Association:  George  H.  Himes  and  Curtis 
C.  Strong,  M.  D.,  Portland. 

Pertinent  remarks  were  made  by  several  persons  relat- 
ing to  the  importance  of  the  celebration  contemplated,  urg- 
ing all  present  to  give  the  question  their  best  thought  in 
order  that  the  wisest  and  most  comprehensive  plan  might 
be  formulated  and  successfully  carried  out. 

Col.  John  Adair,  Curtis  C.  Strong  and  George  Noland 
were  appointed  a  committee  on  Permanent  Organization. 
After  deliberation  the  committee  reported  as  follows : 

(See  officers,  page  2  back  of  title.) 

Dr.  Strong,  in  taking  the  chair,  thanked  the  conventicm 
for  the  honor  conferred  upon  him,  and  stated  that  he  was 


strongly  in  favor  of  the  celebration  contemplated;  that  he 
knew  of  no  national  event  during  the  last  hundred  years 
that,  in  all  its  bearings,  was  more  important  to  the  United 
States  than  the  discovery  of  the  Columbia  River  by  an 
American  navigator,  being,  as  it  was,  one  of  the  leading 
factors  in  the  acquisition  of  the  Pacific  Northwest.  He 
pledged  himself  to  use  every  effort  possible  to  make  the 
proposed  centennial  celebration  a  complete  success. 

After  discussion,  Astoria  was  chosen  as  the  place,  and 
Wednesday,  May  11,  1892,  as  the  date,  for  holding  the 

As  the  convention  was  permanently  organized,  the  idea 
of  giving  it  a  permanent  name  was  discussed.  Mr.  Himes 
proposed  that  it  be  called  the  "Coltmibia  River  Centennial 
Celebration  Society,"  and  moved  that  the  name  be  adopted, 
and  the  motion  carried  by  a  unanimous  vote. 

In  consideration  of  the  vast  extent  of  country  tributary 
to  the  Columbia  River,  and  of  the  importance  of  the  subject 
in  general,  it  was  voted  that  the  secretaries  of  all  Pioneer 
Societies  and  kindred  bodies  in  Oregon,  Washington  and 
Idaho,  be  made  Assistant  Corresponding  Secretaries  of  this 

'  At  this  point  President  Strong  asked  for  a  general  ex- 
change of  views  as  to  what  plan  for  the  celebration  should 
be  adopted,  and  what  expense  should  be  incurred  in  prep- 
aration of  the  programme.  After  every  one  present  gave 
free  utterance  to  his  views,  it  appeared  that  the  general 
sentiment  was  that  there  should  be  at  least  an  oration,  a 
poem  and  music,  all  especially  prepared  for  the  occasion, 
the  event  being  one  of  such  magnitude  and  so  far-reaching 
in  its  influence  upon  the  Pacific  Coast  and  upon  the  Nation 

ORECk)N    PIONEtR    AS^0CtXTl6N.  7 

at  large  as  to  be  worthy  of  the  best  talent  that  can  be  se- 
cured ;  and  in  conjtinction  such  parades  and  spectacular  fea- 
tures as  can  be  arranged  for. 

In  this  connection  Mr.  Himes  said  that  in  addition  to 
the  features  already  mentioned  he  thought  it  advisable,  if 
possible,  to  secure  as  comprehensive  a  history  of  the  ship 
"Columbia,"  as  possible,  and  went  on  to  state  that  in  the 
late  summer  of  1884  a  gentleman  by  the  name  of  Rev.  Ed- 
ward G.  Porter,  of  Boston,  Mass.,  called  at  his  office  in  Port- 
land, having  just  arrived  in  that  city  from  Japan.  During 
the  conversation,  learning  that  Mr.  Porter  was  a  member 
of  the  Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  the  question  was 
raised  as  to  whether  or  not  he  would  undertake  to  n^ake  a 
study  of  the  history  of  the  "Columbia,"  inasmuch  as  he 
was  a  resident  of  the  city  from  whence  the  famous  vessel 
sailed,  and  furthermore,  that  some  of  the  descendants  of 
Captain  Robert  Gray  were  still  living  in  Massachusetts,  and 
some  of  them  in  Boston,  it  was  believed,  from  whom,  if 
found,  important  information  might  be  secured.  Mr.  Por- 
ter, after  a  little  deliberation,  seemed  considerably  impressed 
with  the  importance  of  the  suggestion,  and  finally  said  he 
would  undertake  the  work.  Within  a  year,  Mr.  Himes  said, 
he  had  heard  from  Mr.  Porter,  and  learned  that  he  found 
some  of  the  grandchildren  of  Captain  Gray,  and  from  them 
had  secured  valuable  material  for  the  history  spoken  of,  and 
presumed  there  would  not  be  any  difficulty  in  getting  Mr. 
Porter  to  prepare  the  article  liE  it  was  deisired. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Holden,  Mr.  Himes  was  appointed 
a  committee  of  one  to  correspond  with  Mr.  Porter  and  as- 
certain if  he  would  prepare  a  "History  of  the  Columbia," 
and  haye  it  ready  on  May  1,  1892,  and  what ^his  charge  for 
the  same  would  be. 


At  the  close  of  these  miscellaneous  remarks,  President 
Strong  said  that  he  hoped  that  all  who  were  to  be  consulted 
in  connection  with  taking  a  part  in  the  programme  would 
be  citizens  of  the  United  States. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Himes,  it  was  voted  to  give  the  Exec- 
utive Board  full  power  to  add  to  its  numbers,  if  deemed 
necessary;  and  it  was  also  directed  to  prepare  a  plan  of 
action  and  submit  the  same  at  the  earliest  moment  possible. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Himes,  a  general  invitation  was  ex- 
tended to  the  Oregon  Pioneer  Association,  the  Southern 
Oregon  Pioneer  Association,  and  all  County  Pioneer  Asso- 
ciations, to  participate  in  the  celebration  at  Astoria  on  May 
12,  1892. 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Holden,  President  Strong,  Messrs. 
Adair,  Himes,  James,  W.  Welch,  and  J.  Q.  A.  Bowlby  were 
appointed  a  special  committee  to  prepare  a  memorial  to 
Congress,  urging  the  erection  of  a  monument  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Columbia  River  in  honor  of  Captain  Robert  Gray, 
this  memorial  to  be  committed  to  the  Oregon,  Washington 
and  Idaho  delegations  in  Congress  for  introduction  and  sup- 

The  Society  then  adjourned,  subject  to  the  call  of  Pres- 
ident Strong,  whereupon  he  announced  that  there  would  be 
a  meeting  of  the  Executive  Committee  in  Portland,  June 
15,  1891. 

At  one  o'clock  p.  m.  the  members  of  the  Pioneer  and 
Historical  Society  of  Clatsop  County  escorted  their  visitors 
to  a  small  steamer,  which  had  been  especially  chartered  for 
the  occasion,  and  an  excursion  was  made  to  Fort  Stevens 
and  the  Columbia  River  Jetty.  Upon  arrival  at  the  Jetty, 
Superintendent  G.  B.  Hegardt  placed  a  locomotive  and  car 


at  the  disposal  of  the  party,  upon  which  it  was  conveyed 
to  the  end  of  the  Jetty,  nearly  three  miles  distant,  thus  giv^ 
ing  all  an  excellent  opportunity  of  seeing  the  method  em- 
ployed in  constructing  this  important  work,  which  reflects 
great  credit  upon  Major  Thomas  H.  Handbury,  of  the 
United  States  Engineer  Corps  iia  Oregon,  and  his  assist- 
ants, who  have  charge  of  the  work. 

After  the  party  returned  to  Astoria,  upon  the  motion  of 
Mr.  Himes,  a  vote  of  thanks  was  tendered  to  Superintend- 
ent Hegardt  for  his  courteous  attention,  and  also  to  the  As- 
toria Chamber  of  Commerce  for  the  use  of  its  room. 

(COPY  OP  mvrrfkTioN) 
iraZ  1082 

CdoUstttisia  fiiorr 

Cdrtitntnial  CHrlriiratlott  i^ortrtg 

CdrUbrattott  at  Ajalorta 

4tag  10.  U.  12 


f mt  art  mriiiaUif  tootttii  to  far  )trf«ttt  at  tlr»  (drlriiratiott  of  tl|» 

<IHt»  IftmiirHktlr  Astnittrrsarg  of  tl|»  9t»Qv>rg  of  tlr» 

CdolssttUiia  Siotr.  bv  (fiaiitalti  ftoittrt  (Krag,  of 

tl|»  l^liUi  "CHolssttUiiar  from  Bootott. 

jUuB..  V.  i».  A..  0Ug  u.  iraz 

to  far  IftUii  at  Aatorta,  (§rtgon,  Q^ttraiUig.  Vrlm^abag  atth  Q^lfttrabag 
0Ug  Ultlr.  Uttf  attb  iZtit,  1002 


(dtsrtiB  (d.  I^trottd 
llrratifttt.  |lortl«tii 

Jal|tt  Aluifr 

X»riir&ltt0  #ffrft«rtf .  Aatorta 

<K»or9»  If.  Ifimm 

i^ftfUurv  Exrcnttur  Soari.  flinrtUitib 

OltEGOK    PIONEER    ASSOaAtlON.  11 


Astoria,  Oregon,  March  5,  1912. 
The  Society  met  in  the  Chamber  of  Commerce  at  10 
o'clock  A.  M.,  and  was  called  to  order  by  Curtis  C.  Strong, 
M.  D.,  President. 

•  In  addition,  there  were  present  the  following  members: 
John  Adair,  Recording  Secretary;  E.  C.  Holden,  Corre- 
sponding Secretary;  I.  W.  Case,  Treasurer;  Capt.  J.  H. 
D.  Gray  and  John  Hobson,  of  Astoria,  and  George  H. 
Himes,  of  Portland. 

The  minutes  of  the  previous  meeting  were  read  and 

The  object  for  which  this  meeting  was  called,  as  stated 
by  President  Strong,  was  to  hear  the  report  of  the  Ex- 
ecutive Board  relative  to  the  success  achieved  in  securing 
speakers  and  to  outline  a  programme. 

Mr.  Himes,  as  Secretary  of  the  Executive  Board,  re- 
ported that  Dr.  John  Fiske,  of  Cambridge,  Mass.,  who  was 
to  be  on  the  Pacific  Coast  in  May  next,  had  been  secured 
to  prepare  the  oration,  the  cost  of  which  was  to  be  $100, 
and  that  Rev.  Edward  G.  Porter,  of  Boston,  had  agreed 
to  finish  his  "History  of  the  Ship  Columbia,"  and  would 
include  the  cost  of  a  number  of  engravings  from  origi- 
nal drawings,  for  $240. 

Upon  motion  of  Mr.  Hobson,  Mr.  Himes,  as  Secre- 
tary of  the  Executive  Board,  was  instructed  to  notify 
Dr.  Fiske  and  Mr.  Porter  that  their  propositions  had  been 


Upon  the  motion  of  Mr.  Holden,  the  arrangement  of 
the  programme  was  referred  to  the  Executive  Committee. 
Also  the  preparation  and  issuing  of  an  invitation,  five  thou- 
sand copies  of  which  were  authorized. 

Adjourned,  subject  to  the  call  of  the  President. 

Recording  Secretary. 


Tuesday,  May  10. 

8:00  A.  M. — Reception  of  members  of  Oregon  Pioneer 
Association  by  delegation  of  members  of 
the  Pioneer  and  Historical  Society  of  Clat- 
sop County. 

10:00  A.  M. — General  reception  at  Opera  House  and  ad- 
dress of  welcome  by  Hon.  Magnus  C. 
Crosby,  Mayor  of  Astoria.  Responses  by 

1:30  P.  M. — Excursion  to  Fort  Stevens  and  the  great 
jetty,  under  direction  of  S.  D.  Adair,  Mar- 
shal. (No  children  under  fifteen  permit- 
ted to  go.) 

4 :00  to  7 :00  P.  M. — Banquet  to  the  Oregon  Pioneer  Asso- 
ciation, tendered  by  the  adies  of  Astoria. 
Mrs.  Samuel  Elmore,  Chairman. 

8:00  P.  M.— Concert  at  Opera  House.  J.  B.  Wyatt,  Di- 
rector,  the  Marine  Band  of  Portland  as- 


Centennial  Day,  Wednesday,  May  11. 

9 :00  A.  M.  to  12 :30  P.  M.— River  1-eception  of  ship  "Co- 
lumbia" by  all  the  vessels  in  the  harbor. 
Capt.  J.  H.  D.  Gray,  Marine  Marshal. 

1 :30  to  3  :00  P.  M.— Street  parade.  Col.  Thomas  M.  Ander- 
son, U.  S.  A.,  Fort  Vancouver,  Marshal. 
1^  Procession  will  be  composed  of  pioneers, 

visiting  and   local  ciyic   and  military  or- 

3  :15  to  6  :00  P.  M. — Literary  exercises : 

Music — Marine  Band. 

Prayer — Rev.  R.  B.  Dilworth,  Astoria. 

Original  Poem  by  A.  T.  Hawley — Read  by  Hon. 
John  W.  Whalley. 

Music — Marine  Band. 

Oration — Dr.  John  Fiske,  of  Cambridge,  Mass. 

Historical  Paper  on  Voyages  of  the  Columbia,  by 
Rev.  Edward  G.  Porter,  D.  D.,  Boston,  Mass. 
— Read  by  Col.  John  McCraken,  Portland,  Ore. 

Brief  address  by  Lydell  Baker,  Esq.,  Portland, 
representing  Oregon. 

Brief  address  by  Hon.  Elwood  Evans,  represent- 
ing Washington. 

Brief  address  by  Hon.  Norman  B.  Willey,  repre- 
senting Idaho. 

Paper  on  Condition  of  Indians  at  Mouth  of  Co- 
lumbia River  One  Htmdred  Years  Ago,  by  Dr. 
Wm.  C.  McKay  of  Pendleton. 

7:30  P.  M.— Torchlight  procession  of  steamers  and  fish- 
ing boats. 



Thursday,  May  12. 

8:00  A,  M. — General  exciursions  to  points  of  interest  as 
each  individual  may  select. 

2 :00  P.  M. — Regatta  of  boat  crews  of  the  U.  S.  war  ves- 
sels Baltimore  and  Charleston  for  prizes. 


The  following  persons  left  Portland  May  9,  1892,  at 
ten  o'clock  p.  m.,  for  Astoria,  to  attend  the  Columbia  River 
Centennial  Celebration: 


C.  H.  Adams, 
".  T.  Apperson  and  wife, 
^.  M.  Arnold  and  wife, 
Isaac  Ball, 
Mrs.  A.  Barnhart, 
John  M.    Beck  and   wife, 
K.  P.    Boise,  Jr.,  and  wife, 
W.  E.  Brainerd  and  wife, 
Arthur   H.    Breyman   and   wife, 
J.  W.  Briedwell, 

B.  B.  Bronson, 

S.  L.   Brooks  and  wife, 
Lloyd  Brooke, 

C.  W.   Bryant,  wife  and  daughter, 
W.  G.  Buffum, 

John  Burke, 

Isaac  Butler, 

W.  H.  Byers  and  wife, 

Mrs.  Ruth  E.  Campbell, 

William  M.    Case, 

Mrs.   A.  F.   Catching, 

John  Catlin, 

S.   F.    Chadwick. 

Edward  Chambreau  and  wife, 

E.  M.   Cheadle, 

R.  Cheadle, 

Stephen  Coffin  and  wife, 

George  C.   Collins  and  wife, 

G.    A.    Cone    and   wife, 

Mrs.  M.  J.  Cone, 

0.  H.  Cone, 
John    Conner, 
f).  W.  Crandall, 
Norman   Darling. 

1.  G.  Davidson  and  wife, 
J.  H.    Dixon  and  wife. 
Judge  Deady  and  wife, 
E.  A.  Dean  and  wife, 

Frank  Dekum  and  wife,   son  and 
three  daughters. 

O.  N.  Denny  and  wife, 

Mrs.  Wiley  Edwards, 

Rev.  Myron  Eells, 

Rev.  Gushing  Eellt,  D.  D., 

Mrs.   £.   Ellerson, 

Miss  P.   Ellerson, 

William  England  and  wife, 

E.  D.  Fellows, 
Adam  Fisher, 

0.  L.  Francis. 

George  W.    Force  and  wife. 
Judge  William  Galloway, 
M.   C.  George  and  wife, 
A.  B.  Gleason, 
A.  S.  Gleaaon, 
Mrs.   Nina  Gleason, 
A.  Glissen, 

1.  H.   Gove, 
William  Grooms, 
Mrs.  M.  J.  Hanna, 
H.  Hanson  and  wife, 
Lavillo  Hanson, 

F.  Harbaugh, 
E.  J.  Harding, 
W.  D.  Hare. 
W.  H.  Harris, 
D.  C.  Hatch, 
P.  H.  Hatch, 
Clark  Hay, 

T.  J.  Hayter, 

W.   C.   Hembree, 

D.   H.   Hendee, 

George  Herrall, 

Almoran   Hill, 

George  H.  Himes  and  wife, 

H.  A.  Hoguc, . 

Fred  V.  Holman, 

Henry  Holtgrieve  and  wife, 

T.  Holtgrieve,  born  1806; 

R.  H.  Hopkins. 



C.  O.    Hosford    and    wife, 
Mrs.  U.  M.  Howard. 
Richard  Hoyt, 

S.  A.  Johns  and  wife, 

Tames  Johnson, 

W.  C.  Johnson  and  wife, 

William  B.  Jolly, 

J.  H.  Jones, 

W.   M.  Kane, 

William  Kapus  and  wife, 

Plyxnpton   Kelly,  wife  and   daughter, 

Peter  Kindt  and  wife, 

F.  Kricff, 

W.  L.   Ladd, 

Clementine  Lambert, 

J.   H.    Lambert, 

R.  R.   Laughlin, 

W.  T.  Legg, 

O.   P.    Lent   and   wife, 

J.  P.  O.  Lownsdale  and  wife, 

Joseph   Mann, 

William  Masters  and  wife, 

F.  X.    Matthieu, 
Mrs.  S.  F.  Mathews, 
George   Mayger, 

M.    McCormick, 
John  McCraken, 
Joshua    McDaniel, 
H.  J.  Mclntirc, 
Dr.  William  McKay, 

D.  A.   McKee  and  wife, 
J.   N.  McKinney, 

J.  H.  McMillen  and  wife, 
R.    L.    McMillen, 
C.   W.  Meek, 
William   Merchant, 
George  Merrill, 

G.  B.  Miller, 

John  W.  Minto  and  wife, 

Ex-Governor  Moody, 

W.  li.  H.   Morgan, 

J.  C.  Nelson, 

T.  B.  Newman, 

A.  I.   Nicklin,  M.  D.,  and  wife, 

N.   M.  Bain, 

Joseph   Pa(^uet  and   wife, 

S.    R.   Parrish  and  wife, 

J.  W.  Belcher, 

C.  Pomeroy  and  wHe, 

W.  H.  Pope, 

E.  Poppleton  and  wife. 

H.  W.   Prettyman,  wife  and  daughter, 

W.  Breyman  and  wife, 

P.   H.  Raymond  and  wife. 

Dr.  H.  Reeves  and  wife, 

C.   C.   Redman, 

Sol   Richards  and  wife. 

J.  S.  Risley  and  daughter, 

B.  M.  Robfiuon, 
Thomas  Roe, 

G.  L.  Rowland, 

gr.  L.  L.   Rowland, 
r.  W.  Bowlby  and  wife, 
A.  W.   Rynearson, 
J.  S.   Rynearson, 
A.  H.  Sale, 
W.  Savatt, 
O.  V.  Sehofiekl, 
W.  A.   Scoggin  and  wife, 
W.   T.    Sdiai, 
Henry   Shepard, 
R.  V.  Short, 

C.  S.  Silver, 

John    S.    Simmons, 
David  Smith, 

iames  Stewart,  1814; 
.   L.   Stout, 
I.    A.    Straight, 
M.   A.  Stratton  and  wife. 
Dr.   Curtis   C.   Strong  and  wife, 
Mrs.   P.   Strong, 
Ella  Talbot, 
Peter  Taylor, 
S.  A.  Talbot, 
G.  W.  N.  Taylor, 
Mrs.    A.    Thompson, 

D.  P.  Thompson   and   wife, 
R.  L.  Thompson, 

T.  W.  Thompson, 

J.  Tompkins  and  wife, 

James  M.  Tracy, 

Mrs.  D.  Tracy, 

T.   B.   Trevett, 

S.   H.  Tryon, 

Thomas  Tucker  and  wife, 

N.  J.   Walker  and  wile, 

W.  P.  Watson  and  wife, 

K.  M.  Waite, 

F.  A.  Watts, 

Henry  Wehrung  and  wife, 

F.   H.  West  and  wife, 

L.  S.  Wheeler, 

George  Williams  and  wife, 

R.   P.   Wilmot, 

R.   Williams  and  wife, 

T.  K.  Williams, 

Gustaf  Wilson  and  two  daughters, 

James  Winston, 

John  Winters, 

T.  A.  Wood, 

Franklin  Yocum, 

J.   Q.   A.  Young, 

S.    E.    Young, 


Astoria,  Oregon,  Tuesday,  May  10,  1892. 

The  opening  day  of  the  Columbia  River  Centennial  cel- 
ebration passed  off  very  successfully.  It  was  estimated 
that  there  were  10,000  visitors  from  outside  the  city  in  at- 
tendance, and  the  committees  having  in  charge  the  work 
of  providing  accommodations  were  taxed  to  the  utmost. 
Outside  of  the  stated  programme  great  interest  was  mani- 
fested by  the  visitors  in  seeing  the  representatives  of  the 
United  States  Navy  in  the  form  of  the  cruisers  Baltimore 
and  Charleston  lying  at  anchor  in  the  harbor,  about  400 
yards  out  in  the  stream. 

At  10  o'clock  A.  M.  a  public  reception  was  held  at  the 
Ross  Opera  House,  and  after  calling  /the  assembly  to  order 
Dr.  Curtis  C.  Strong,  President  of  the  Columbia  River 
Centennial  Celebration  Society,  said: 

"We  are  gathered  today  to  celebrate  one  of  the  great 
events  in  the  history  of  Oregon  and  of  the  United  States 
— the  discovery  of  the  Columbia  River  by  an  American 
and  the  possession  of  this  goodly  land  guaranteed  to  this 
nation  by  virtue  of  that  discovery.  As  we  are  here  about 
the  city  which  guards  the  entrance  to  the  Columbia  River, 
and  past  whose  doors  flows  its  vast  volume  of  water  to 
the  Pacific  Ocean  to  return  in  mist  and  rain  which  as- 
sures us  the  abundant  harvest,  so  we  hope  and  expect 
that  upon  the  bosom  of  his  great  public  highway  that  vast 
bulk  of  grain  and  other  products  passing  out  to  the  com- 
mercial world  will  return  in  golden  pay.  Now,  while  we 
are  not  able,  in  any  sense,  to  present  this  river  to  the  peo- 
ple, not  having  received  official  recognition  of  the  great 


Slates  drained  by  it,  yet  we  do  dedicate,  not  so  much  our 
labors,  for  they  are  insignificant,  but  the  principles  and 
ideas  the  Columbia  River  represents  to  the  nation.  We 
dedicate  it,  not  to  these  states,  but  to  the  Union,  and 
through  it  to  the  nations  of  the  world.  Astoria  sits  here, 
proud  mistress  of  this  mighty  river,  and  may  she  continue 
to  prosper." 

Hon.  Magnus  C.  Crosby,  Mayor  of  Astoria,  responded 
as  follows: 

"The  pleasant  duty  devolves  upon  me  of  extending  a 
cordial  welcome  to  all  who  participate  with  us  in  the 
centennial  celebration  of  one  of  the  most  important  events 
in  American  history — the  discovery  of  the  Columbia  River, 
which  flows  so  majestically  along  our  shores.  Tomorrow- 
it  will  have  been  100  years  since  that  intrepid  navigator, 
Capt.  Robert  Gray,  unfurled  the  American  flag  in  these 
waters,  thus  securing  by  right  of  discovery  the  title  to  the 
land  we  now  possess.  From  that  day  to  this  the  emblem 
of  liberty  has  floated  proudly,  with  undimmed  luster,  over 
the  broad  land.  We  are  here  assembled  to  do  honor  to 
the  memory  of  the  renowned  discoverer  and  that  im- 
portant chapter  in  our  Nation's  history.  We  hope  when 
this  is  done  you  will  all  leave  feeling  we  have  performed  a 
patriotic  duty.  I  will  not  touch  upon  the  historical  features 
of  the  occasion  or  expati.-^te  on  the  growth  and  develop- 
ment of  the  country.  Further  on  this  will  be  brought  to 
your  attention  in  a  more  felicitous  manner  than  I  am  capa- 
Mc  of,  by  others.  Tt  only  remains  for  me  to  cheerfully  ac- 
cord the  freedom  of  the  city  to  all.'' 

Responses  were  to  have  been  made  on  behalf  of  Wash- 
ington  and   Idaho,  but  the  Hon.   Elwood   Evans,  of  Ta- 


coma,  Wash.,  who  had  accepted  an  invitation  to  respond 
for  that  state,  was  not  present,  and  no  one  was  present 
to  respond  'for  Idaho,  notwithstanding  Gov.  Norman  B. 
Willey,  in  response  to  an  invitation,  had  indicated  that 
he  would  be  present. 

President  Strong  then  invited  Hon.  M.  C.  George,  ex- 
Representative  in  Congress  from  Oregon,  to  respond  for 
the  Oregon  Pioneer  Association,  and  in  doing  so  he  said: 
"The  Astoria  people  seem  to  have  provided  everything 
for  guests  but  a  place  to  sleep,  as  some  of  the  pioneers 
who  had  passed  the  night  on  the  floor  and  on  the  deck 
of  the  steamer  Potter  could  testify.  But  they  did  not  mind 
it.  It  reminded  them  of  the  old  times  when  they  crossed 
the  plains  with  ox  teams  and  slept  on  the  ground  every 
night  for  months."  Then  he  returned  thanks  for  Mayor 
Crosby's  hearty  welcome. 

Rev.  Myron  Eells,  of  Tacoma,  son  of  Rev.  Gushing 
Eells,  D.  D.,  and  Mrs.  Myra  Fairbanks  Eells,  missionaries 
of  the  American  Board  of  Commissioners  for  Foreign 
Missions,  the  foreign  missionary  society  of  the  Congre- 
gational churches  of  the  United  States,  who  came  across  < 
the  plains  in  1838  as  missionaries  to  the  Indians,  born 
October  7,  1843 ;  John  Minto,  1844,  Salem,  made  a  brief 
address.  He  was  followed  by  Dr.  William  C.  McKay,  Pen- 
dleton, born  at  Astoria,  March  18,  1824,  a  grandson  of 
Alexander  McKay  and  son  of  Thomas  McKay,  both  of 
whom  came  to  Astoria  on  the  Tonquin  in  April,  1811,  and 
ex-Gov.  Stephen  F.  Chadwick,  1851,  Salem. 

At  1 :30  P.  M.  the  steamer  Potter  and  lighthouse  ten- 
der Manzanita  carried  800  passengers  to  Fort  Stevens  and 


At  4:30  P.  M.  the  banquet  was  served,  with  600  per- 
sons present.  The  special  and  most  prominent  feature  of 
the  banquet  was  a  bountiful  supply  of  Royal  Chinook  sal- 
mon, baked  to  perfection. 

Mayor  Magnus  C.  Crosby  was  toastmaster,  and  Presi- 
dent Strong,  Dr.  Jay  Tuttle  of  Astoria,  George  H.  Himes, 
M.  C.  George,  John  Catlin,  J.  W.  Whalley  of  Portland, 
Capt.  John  T.  Apperson  of  Oregon  City,  Dr.  William  C. 
McKay  of  Pendleton  and  ex-Governor  Chadwick  of  Sa- 
lem responded  in  fitting  terms. 


Wednesday,  May  11th, 

This  was  the  great  day  of  the  Centennial  celebration. 
The  city  was  crowded  to  the  utmost.  Numerous  com- 
plaints were  made  because  of  the  scarcity  of  sleeping  ac- 
commodations, and  in  a  few  instances  cases  were  reported 
where  extortionate  prices  were  charged  for  lodgings.  The 
weather  was  ideal,  however,  and  in  general  the  multitude 
were  happy,  taking  everything  in  good  part  and  making 
the  best  of  the  conditions  they  found. 

The  street  parade,  beginning  at  10  o'clock  A.  M.,  was 
witnessed  by  many  thousand  people,  at  least,  and  was  con- 
ducted under  the  direction  of  Col.  Thomas  M.  Anderson, 
U.  S.  A.,  commander  of  the  post  at  Fort  Vancouver,  Wash., 
who  acted  as  Grand  Marshal.  This  feature  consisted  of 
300  sailors  and  marines  from  the  cruisers  Baltimore  and 
Charleston,  representatives  from  numerous  posts  of  the 
Grand  Army  of  the  Republic,  a  large  number  of  mem- 
bers of  the   Oregon  Pioneer  Association,   Improved   Or- 


der  of  Red  Men,  Pilots'  Association,  Astoria  Fire  Depart- 
ment, local  trades  unions  and  other  civic  organizations, 
six  bands  of  music  and  carriages  tx>ntaining  distinguished 

The  marine  parade  began  at  11  o'clock  A.  M.,  with 
Capt.  J.  H.  D.  Gray,  born  at  Lapwai,  now  in  Idaho,  March 
20,  1839,  as  Grand  Marine  Marshal.  The  demonstration 
in  the  harbor  was  truly  imposing.  The  Government  boats, 
the  Union  Pacific  fleet  and  numerous  private  crafts  were 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  visitors.  The  exercises  opened  with 
the  reception  of  the  ship  ''Columbia,"  which  was  repre- 
sented by  the  barkentine  "Chehalis,"  kindly  profferecl  for 
the  occasion  by  Capt.  A.  M.  Simpson  of  Gray's  Harbor. 
She  was  decorated  with  the  flags  of  all  nations.  A  large 
silk  flag  flew  from  her  main  mast,  bearing  the  inscription : 

"Columbia  Centennial— 1792-1892." 

The  entire  harbor  was  ornamented  with  bunting.  The 
Baltimore  and  Charleston  were  in  gala  dress,  and  all  boats 
were  profusely  decorated  with  National  colors.  The  "Co- 
lumbia," in  tow  of  the  tug  "Escort  Xo.  2,"  Capt. 
McVickar,  with  the  tug  "Puritan"  on  the  starboard,  com- 
manded by  Capt.  Hawes,  a  "Boston  man,"  with  Capt.  J. 
H.  D.  Gray,  Grand  Marine  Marshal,  proceeded  down  the 
river,  followed  by  all  the  steam  river  craft  of  any  size. 
He  was  assisted  by  Capt.  James  Walts  of  the  "Chehalis," 
Bar  Pilots  Matthews,  Woods,  Campbell  and  Capt.  Doig 
of  "Great  Republic"  fame;  Harbor  Master  Johnson,  Capt. 
Packard  and  Capt.  Robert  Tart  of  the  British  ship  "Foyles- 
dale,"  now  in  port.  Capt.  Woods  was  at  the  wheel.  On 
passing  the  United  States  cruisers  salutes  were  fired,  which 
were  recognized  by  the  "Columbia"  and  blowing  of  whis- 


ties.  The  steamer  "State  of  California"  passed  down  with 
the  parade  and  out  to  sea,  and  when  at  the  entrance  was 
met  by  the  "Oregon"  coming-  in.  About  11  o'clock,  when 
abreast  Fort  Stevens,  a  salute  from  its  guns  was  acknowl- 
edged. The  procession  then  made  a  detour  eastward  to 
Baker's  Bay,  and  the  "Columbia"  cast  anchor  at  the  spot 
as  nearly  as  could  be  determined  where  Capt.  Robert  Gray 
anchored  100  years  ago.  No  sooner  had  the  anchor  been 
dropped  than  several  canoes  loaded  with  Indians  pulled 
out  from  the  north  shore  to  meet  the  "Columbia"  and  wit- 
ness the  marine  parade.  They  were  delegations  from  the 
Chinook,  Shoalwater  Bay  and  Gray's  Harbor  Indians,  and 
their  appearance  was  a  great  surprise  to  all,  and  wholly 
unexpected,  yet  a  most  agreeable  surprise,  as  it  added 
greatly  to  the  interest  of  the  occasion  by  reason  of  the 
spectacular  appearance  of  the  Indians,  as  they  were  dressed 
with  bonnets  of  eagle  feathers  and  garments  of  buckskin, 
ornamented  with  colored  beads  worked  in  numerous  de- 

While  the  "Columbia"  was  lying  at  anchor  the  follow- 
ing exercises  took  place:  ^ 

Call  to  order  by  Dr.  Curtis  C.  Strong,  President  of  the 
Centennial  Celebration  Society. 

Prayer,  by  Rev.  Myron  Eells. 

Song,  "America." 

President  Strong  then  called  attention  to  the  National 
flag  which  he  held  by  referring  to  it  as  "A  flag  which 
had  never  been  dipped  in  disgrace,"  and  then  introduced 
Mrs.  Narcissa  White  Kinney,  who,  in  a  brief  address,  pre- 
sented it  to  Capt.  Simpson. 


Upon  returning  to  Astoria  the  marine  parade  passed 
near  the  cruisers  "Baltimore"  and  "Charleston,"  where- 
upon those  vessels  gave  a  salute  of  21  guns,  followed  with 
a  salute  by  a  battery  of  the  Fifth  Infantry  on  shore.  A 
corps  of  300  sailors  and  marines  from  the  cruisers  were 
on  barges  in  front  of  their  ships,  while  bands  on  different 
steamers  played  National  airs  and  cheers  from  thousands 
rent  the  air.  The  scene  was  one  never  to  be  effaced  from 
memory.  To  stand  upon  the  deck  of  one  of  the  vessels, 
to  hear  the  familiar  strains  of  the  songs  of  freedom,  to 
see  the  Red,  White  and  Blue  flapping  from  hundreds  of 
masts  and  to  view  the  mighty  guardians  of  this  mighty 
country,  glittering  with  the  most  efficient  "trappings  of 
war,"  and  eloquent  with  the  voices  of  power,  was  to  feel 
a  thrill  \yhich  seemed  to  electrify  the  vast  audience. 

The  literary  exercises  at  Ross'  Opera  House  began  at 
3:30  o'clock  P.  M.,  and  concluded  at  7,  as  follows: 

1.  Call  to  order,  by  President  Strong. 

2.  Music,  by  band. 

3.  Prayer,  by  Rev.  R.  B.  Dilworth. 

4.  E.  C.  Holden,  Corresponding  Secretary,  read  letters 
of  regret  from  Gov.  Sylvester  Pennoyer,  Vice-President 
Levi  P.  Morton,  Rt.  Rev.  Bishop  B.  Wistar  Morris,  D.  D., 
Col.  George  H.  Mendell.  Capt.  J.  H.  D.  Gray  read  a 
letter  from  Miss  Mary  E.  Bancroft  of  Boston,  a  grand- 
daughter of  Capt.  Robert  Gray,  prescntiBg  the  latter's  sea 
chest  and  mirror  to  the  Pioneer  and  Historical  Society  of 
Clatsop  County,  which  was  accepted  on  behalf  of  the  So- 
society  by  Silas  B.  Smith,  President.  (This  letter  appears 


5.  Original  poem  by  Mr.  A.  T.  Hawley.  Read  by 
Judge  J.  W.  Whalley. 

6.  Music,  by  band. 

7.  Oration  by  Dr.  John  Fiske  of  Cambridge,  Mass. 

8.  History  of  the  ship  "Columbia,"  by  Rev.  Edward  G. 
Porter  of  Boston.     Read  by  Col.  John  McCraken. 

9.  Brief  addresses  by  Hon.  Elwood  Evans,  represent- 
ing .Washington,  and  Lydell  Baker,  Esq.,  representing 
Oregon.  Idaho  was  not  represented  because  Gov.  Willcy, 
who  agreed  to  be  present,  did  not  appear  and  made  no  pro- 
vision for  another  speaker. 

Thursday,  May  12,  1892. 

The  day  was  spent  most  delightfully  by  small  excur- 
sion parties  to  different  points  up  and  down  and  across  the 
Columbia  River,  and  numerous  visits  were  made  to  the 
salmon  canneries,  as  the  fishing  season  was  at  its  height. 
The  regatta  of  the  boat  crews  of  the  '^Baltimore"  and 
"Charleston"  aroused  much  interest  and  the  contest  was 
sharp,  each  crew  winning  alternately  and  securing  hand- 
some prizes. 

In  the  evening  a  banquet  was  given  by  the  Columbia 
Club  to  the  officers  of  the  "Baltimore"  and  "Charleston" 
in  Fisher's  Hall,  which  was  especially  decorated  for  the 
occasion  with  National  colors.   The  guests  were  as  follows : 

From  the  "Baltimore" :  Capt.  William  Whitehead,  Lieut. 
Commander  A.  B.  Hillic,  Lieut.  Blockinger,  Medical  In- 
spector George  Cook,  Paymaster  W.  W.  Woodhull,  Chap- 


lain  J.  M.  Mclntyre,  Assistant  Surgeon  W.  R.  Piggott, 
Lieut.  James  H.  Sears,  Chief  Engineer  R.  Potts,  Lieut.  H. 
C.  Fisher. 

From  the  "Charleston :"  Capt.  Henry  F.  Picking,  Chief 
Engineer  F.  A.  Wilson,  Lieut.  Commander  W.  L.  Field, 
Lieut.  G.  M.  Strong,  Lieut,  (junior  grade)  J.  H.  Glennon, 
Past  Assistant  Surgeon  A.  S.  McCormick,  First  Lieut.  C. 
A.  Doyen. 

United  States  Marine  Corps:  Ensign  Fred  B.  Bassett, 
Ensign  H.  A.  Wiley,  Assistant  Engineer  H.  W.  Jones, 
Assistant  Engineer  Victor  Blue. 

United  States  cutter  ''Gedney:"  Lieirt.  W.  V.  Meyer, 
Lieut.  Jaynes,  Assistant  Surgeon  Berryhill. 

From  the  United  States  Army :  Capt.  Vogdes,  Assistant 
Surgeon  Carter,  Lieut.  Henry  C.  Cabell,  Lieut.  Hasbrouck, 
Lieut.  Jordan. 

The  others  at  the  tables  were: 

Allen,  C.  B.  Fulton,  C.  G. 

Barnes,  W.  H.  Fulton,  C.  W. 

Bean,  Judge  Robert  S.  George,  G.  H. 

Beverjdge,  W.  Y.  Groves,  John. 

Bross,  Ernest  Hanthorne,  J.  O. 

Bowlby,  J.  Q.  A.  Himes,  George  H. 

Chatten,  W.  T.  Hughes,  E.  C. 

Cherry,  P.  L.  Hume,  J.  F. 

Crosby,  Magnus  C.  Jordan,  Col. 

Edwards,  Capt.  E.  S.  Kellogg,  J.  B. 

Elmore,   Samuel.  Kinney,  Dr.  Alfred. 

Fisher,  William.  Loomis,  L.  A. 

Flavel,  Capt.  George.  Lord,  William  P. 
Foard,  Martin:                   "       Megler,  A.  J. 

Fox,  John.  Alegler,  G.  H. 

Fulton,  Dr.  A.  S.  McBride,  Judge  T.  A: 


McDermott,  Frank.  Strahan,  Judge  R.  S. 

McGovern,  J.  F.  Strong,  Dr.  C.  C. 

Nelson,  J.  M.  Tallant,  W.  E. 

O'Dwyer,  Wm.  M.  Taylor,   Ed.   A. 

Osburn,  K.  Taylor,  Frank  J. 

Page,   C.    H.  Thane,  H. 

Parker,  F.  L.  Thompson,    H.    C. 

Patterson,  Capt.  W.  H.  Trullinger,  J.  C. 

Prael,  Fred.  Tuttle,   Dr.  Jay. 

Prael,  W.  F.  Upshur,  C.  P. 

Reed,  A.  S.  Van  Dusen,  Brenham. 

Robb,  W.  S.  Van  Dusen,  H.  G. 

Runyon,  C.  E.  Walker,  M.  M. 

Sanborn,  G.  W.  Weather  ford,  J.  K. 

Stokes,  F.  P.  Wingate,  G. 

Smith,  Dr.  H.  C.  Young,  B.  M. 

Mr.  Samuel  Elmore  presided,  with  Capt.  Whitehead  on 
his  right  and  Capt.  Picking  on  his  left. 

Toasts  were  responded  to  as  follows : 

"The  President  of  the  United  States,"  Charles  W.  Ful- 

"United  States  Navy,"  Capt.  Whitehead. 

"Our  Modern  Cruisers,"  Capt.  Picking. 

"United  States  Army,"  Capt.  Vodges  and  Lieut.  Reilly. 

"The  Columbia  River  of  the  West,"  Frank  J.  Taylor. 

"The  Press,"  William  M.  O'Dwyer  and  Ernest  Bross. 

"The    Pioneers    of    Oregon,"   Judge    Thomas    A.    Mc- 

"The  State  of  Oregon,"  James  K.  Weatherford. 

"The  Marine   Corps;   Its  Use  in  the   Service,"  Lieut. 


Song,  "They  All  Love  Jack,"  W.  H.  Barker. 

"Time   Signal    Service;   Its    Benefit  to  the   Country," 
Ensign  . 

"Mother  of   States— Old  Virginia— Never  Tires,"  Dr. 
M.  M.  Walker. 

"Our  Arctic  Explorers/'  Lieut.  Strong. 

Song,  "Muldoon,  the  Solid  Man,"  Hon.  John  Fox. 

"Ordnance  of  the  Navy,"  Lieut.  Glennon. 

"The  Mother  Country  and  Amicable  Relations,"  P.  L. 
Cherry,  British  Consul. 

"The  Bench,"  Chief  Justice  R.  S.  Strahan. 

"Our  Merchant  Marine,"   C.   P.   Upshur. 

"The   Ladies — ^the    Country's    Hope    for   the    Future," 
Lieut.  Sears. 

"The  Medical  Profession,"  Dr.  J.  A.  Fulton. 

Song,  Mr.  John  Bills. 

"The  Bar,"  Hon.  C.  H.  Page. 


By  A.  T.  Hawley. 

Ulysses,  sailing  for  the  happy  isles, 
Not  knowing  v^hether  he  should  touch  their  shores. 
Though  pledged  to  keep  his  course  beyond  the  bounds 
Of  all  the  stars  that  grace  the  western  skies, 
Lives   regnant  in  the   poet's  glowing  page; 
And  the   grand  legend  holds   unchallenged  place 
In  man's  imagination  as  the  type 
Of  aims  heroic  and  of  purpose  high. 
Ihe   Grecian   fable,    unto   countless    men, 
Hath  proved  an  inspiration  age  by  age; 
Hath  been  incentive  unto  noble  deeds. 
But  oft  hath  lured  the  mariner  to  doom. 
Youth  hoists  the  sail  and  manhood  grasps  the  helm 
Of    argosies    sent   out    on    bootless   quests; 
They  falter,  rest  awhile,  and  sail  again 
To  waste  the  closing  hours  of  life's  brief  span. 
In  some  long  voyage  o'er   an   unknown  sea. 
To  that  dark  ocean  mortal  eye  ne'er  saw. 

What  boots  it  now,  that  challenge  to  the  sea. 

To  fate's  remorseless,  all>embracing  grasp, 

The  old  Greek  uttered  when  he  turned  his  prow 

To  waters  still   unvexed  by  blade  or  keel? 

Where  rise  the  islands  with  their  fronded  palms 

The  wanderer  in  his  solemn  visions  saw? 

Where  swell  the  songs  celestial  his  rapt  ears 

Heard  in  clear  dream  in  Summer  nights  in  Greece? 

The  insubstantial  vision  all  is  faded! 

The  men,  the  women  of  those  fabled  isles 

Are  shadows  all — so  come  and  so  depart. 

So  let  them  pass — pass  with  the  siren's  song. 

Better  the  lusty   man  who  bends  the  oar 

With  sinewy  arms  that  he  may  gain  the  port 

Wihere    waits    his  coming  the    rough   girl   of   Cos, 

While  wave  and  wind  fight  fierce  against  his  strength, 

Than  he  who  yields  and  scuds  before  the  wind, 

That  he  may  refuge  gain  and  be  at  ease 

On  lotus  banks  beneath  empurpled  skies. 

Then  pass,  Ulysses  of  a  vanished  age. 

Pass  with  the  phantoms  of  heroic  mold. 

Whose  vast  proportions  won  them  seem  as  gods 

Of  mortal  stature,  but  of  strange  renown. 

Of  splendor  which  the  centuries,  slow-wheeled. 

Through  time's  great  cycles  cannot  ever  dim. 


Awake,  O  Muse!  and  sing  the  later  birth 

Of  men  whose  galleons,  freighted  with  high  hoi>es, 

Strong  will  and  purposes  beneficent, 

Set  sail  for  distant  shores  on  chart'ess  seas; 

For  rugged  coasts,  rock-ribbed  and  forest  crowncd» 

The  pioneers  of  empires  yet  to  be. 

There  have  been  many  such.     The  Genoese, 

Great  Admiral  of  all  adventurous  f  eets, 

To  whom  the  Ultima  Thule  of  his  own  day 

Was  but  a  starting  point  to  vaster  fields 

Than  Carthcginian  phalanx  ever  trod, 

Or  Roman  legion  won  dominion  o'er. 

His  genius  saw  beyond  familiar  skies 

A  realm  magnificent;  he-  rested  not, 

Until  the  ship  that  bore  him  drove  her  prow 

Deep   in  the   sands   of   unknown  promontories. 

Him  others  followed  swift;  'twere  long,  indeed. 

To  name  the  sailors  who  from  him  took  heart 

And  lifted  high  their  banners  on  these  shores. 

They  live  on  written  and  on  printed  page, 

And  deep  engraved  on  pediment  and  tower 

The  record  of  their  deeds  will  aye  remain. 

Slow  wheel  the  circling  years;  the  centuries  pass; 

The  Old   World's  sluggish  blood  takes  on  new  life 

In  the  free  splendors  of  the  New  World's  charms. 

Great  cities  rise;  great  states  are  organized; 

The  East  is  parceled  out;  the  West  remains. 

Its  coast  unknown,  unchallenged,  fair  and  vast. 

Spain,  avid  of  dominion,  looks  afar. 

And  from  her  ports,  from  whence  the  Armada  sailed, 

Her  daring  captains  shape  their  devious  ways 

And  seek  the  northwest  passage,  or  new  lands 

To  serve  as  loyal  and  unquestioning  fiefs 

To  his  most  catholic  majesty,  the  king. 

Along  these  shores,  upon  these  high  behests, 

Sailed  swift  De  Haro,  Heceta,   Perez, 

And    pious    Cuadra.     Ask   for  their   monuments! 

Some  Spanish  names,  given  as  memorials 

To  stream  or  mountain,  smiling  bay  or  cape: 

Such  as  the  latter,  planting  a  great  cross, 

Gave  to  the  pleasant  port  of  Trinidad; 

Fidalgo  and  Rosario,   pleasant  sounds, 

And  tinging  with  the  halo  of  romance 

The  dull,  ptosaic  spirit  of  today; 

Or  fair  Port  Angeles,  on  the  southern  shore 

Of  that   vejced   strait   which  bears  the   old   Greek's  name. 

Such  is  the  heritage  these  sailors  left; 

To  that  proud  nation  'neath  whose  flag  they  sailed. 


No  rood  of  land  in  all  the  vast  Northwest 
Owns  Spain  as  suzerain.     More  fortunate 
The  flag  of  England;  for  it  floats  above 
A  splendid  empire  on  this  western  coast — 
P'loats  in  the  free  air  of  the  Occident — 
Long  wave  that  lustrous  flag  in  amity. 

Old  legends  link  the   heroic  name   of   Drake 

With  fleeting  glimpses  of  these  splendid  shores 

Two   centuries  later,   hence   the  Union  Jack, 

Flown   over   English  keels,   which  took  their  course 

As  signaled  by  Vancouver,  neared  the  land 

*'Where   rolls   the    Ortgon";    for  such   the    name 

The  broad  Columbia  bore  for  many  years. 

But    combing    bre.ikcrs    and    an    angry    ^ar — 

It  might  be  a  mysterious  Providence — 

Bade  him  stand  off,  nor  tempt  the  seething  floo<l. 

And  drove  him  further  north  in  his  vain  quest 

For  that  longsought-for,  fabled  water-way, 

Through    which    men    hoped    to    pass   to    furthest    Ind. 

And,  opening  fair  before  him,  spread  the  Straits 

Of  Fuca;  and,  beyond  that  inland  sea, 

Which  wears  the  name  of  Pugct,  parted  wide. 

And,  viewing  from  his  decks  those  snow-clad  peaks, 

Serene,   magnificent,   which  grace  the   land. 

He  gave  them  names  which  speak  of  English  homes — 

Hood,   Rainier,   Baker  and  St.  Helens — 

So  be  they  known  till  time  shall  be  no  more! 

But  while  the  flags  of  England  and  of  Spain, 

Both  flown  apeak,  were  skirting  these  fair  shores, 

Another  ensign  proud,  "full  high  advanced," 

The  first  of  a  young  nation  battle-born, 

To  sail  beneath  the  Magellanic  clouds. 

To  double  all  the  stormy  capes  unknown. 

To  touch  at  all  the  great  ports  of  all  lands, 

To  skirt  the  islands  hid  in  tropic  seas, 

To  sight  the  snow  and  ice  of  arctic  realms, 

From   its  long  voyage  round  the  rolling  world, 

Blown   hither-ward  by  kind,   auspicious  gales. 

Seemed  to  the  man   who  walked   the  deck,  beneath 

The  gr'^'idon  of  a  splendid  destiny. 

Obedient  to  her  helm,  the  stanch  old  ship 

Which  bore  this  guidon,  ensigfn,  what  you  will, 

Dared  breaker,  reef  and  rock  and  whatc'cr  else 

Of  unknown  danger  that  might  lurk  beyond 

The  tortuous    channel  that  the  master's   eye 

Saw  'twixt  the  lines  where  moaned  tlv*   treacherous  bar: 


With  all  sails  set,  safe  reached  the  stiller  stream, 

The  placid  stream,  the  River  of  the  West, 

Fabled  St  Roque,  the  quest  of  centuries. 

The  dream  of  mariner,  emperor  and  king. 

And  like  the  prophet  of  the  olden  days 

Who  stood  between  the  living  and  the  dead 

And  stayed  the  plague,  so  stood  our  dauntless  Gray, 

The  true  type  of  a  stalwart  Yankee  skipper. 

And,  lifting  high  the  banner  of  the  free, 

Proclaimed  a  truce  and   stayed   the  threatened  tide 

Of  war  between  two  mighty  opposites. 

'Twas  well  that  he  should  give  the  glorious  name 

His  good  ship  bore  unto  the  splendid  stream 

His  prowess  won  for  his  dear  native  land. 

Columbia  links  the  present  with  the  past; 

So  let  it  stand,  and  as  we  celebrate 

The  hundredth  anniversary  of  that  day 

When  first  the  flag  of  free  America 

Shone  meteor-like  above  these  pleasant  scenes. 

We  consecrate  ourselves  anew  to  fealty 

To  our  dear  country  and  its  starry  flag. 

Gray  sleeps,  his  task  accomplished;  not  for  him 

A  dream  voyage  over  Summer  seas. 

In  search  of  idle  rest  'neath  palm  and  vine, 

But  loyal  service  in  his  life's  great  work! 

No  worn  Ulysses  he,  but  a  true  man. 

His  days  and  strength  to  useful  labor  given. 

He  left   as   heritage  unto  his  race 

No  legend  floating  on  the  sea  of  myth. 

But  a  great  virile  fact,  serene  and  calm, 

A  landmark  to  the  ages;  a  great  deed. 

To  grow  resplendent  in  the  star-lit  crown 

Of  liberty  while  time  shall  garner  years; 

And  to  the  constellation  on  his  flag 

Two  glorious  jewels,  lustrous,  radiant. 

The  peers  unchallenged  of  their  sister  orbs — 

And  Oregon  and  Washington  today 

Pay  willing  homage  to  the  name  of  Gray. 

—May  11,  1892. 


By  Dr.  John  Fiske,  of  Cambridge,  Mass. 

'Friends  and  Fellow-Countrymen: — We  have  met  here  today 
on  a  most  auspicious  occasion,  to  celebrate  the  first  discovery 
by  white  men  of  the  magnificent  river  upon  the  bank  of  which 
we  are  assembled.  We  do  well  to  celebrate  that  event,  for  it 
was  an  affair  of  great  importance,  connecting  the  past  with 
the  future  in  more  ways  than  one.  In  a  certain  sense  it  may 
be  said  to  have  completed  the  discovery  of  America,  just 
three  centuries  after  that  discovery  was  fairly  inaugurated 
by  the  first  voyage  of  Columbus  across  the  Sea  of  Darkness. 

While  thus  closing  a  wonderful  chapter  of  past  history,  it 
played  an  important  part  in  opening  a  new  chapter  for  the 
future,  inasmuch  as  it  was  concerned  in  giving  to  the  peo- 
ple of  the  United  States  the  noble  country  drained  by  this 
mighty  stream— a  country  of  nothing  less  than  imperial  great- 
ness, when  we  consider  its  extent,  its  resources  and  its 
legitimate  prospects.  To  him  who  studies  the  history  of  the 
colonization  of  North  America  by  men  of  European  race, 
this  northwest  country  will  always  have  a  special  interest  as 
the  last  debatable  and  debated  territory  in  the  long  struggle 
for  possession — the  struggle  between  the  native  races  and  the 
invaders,  between  Spaniard  and  Frenchman,  between  Span- 
iard and  Englishman,  between  Frenchman  and  Englishman, 
and  finally  between  what  the  late  Mr.  Freeman  would  have 
called  those  sons  of  England  who  have  their  imperial  city 
upon  the  Thames  and  those  who  have  their  imperial  city  upon 
the  Potomac;  or,  as  red^skinned  orators  long  ago  learned  to 
phrase  it,  between  the  "King  George  men'*  and  the  "Bostons." 
Great  is  the  story  of  that  long  struggle,  appealing  as  it  does 
at  once  to  philosopher  and  to  poet,  illustrating  general  prin- 
ciples of  profound  importance,  and  filled  with  romantic  and 
thrilling  incidents  over  mountain  and  valley,  upon  river  and 
lake.  All  the  way  from  Quebec  to  Astoria,  the  history  of 
North  America — sometimes  thoughtlessly  called  dull — abounds 
in  materials  of  romance  awaiting  the  advent  of  some  spir- 
itual heir  of  Walter  Scott,  whose  wizard  touch  shall  make 
them  live  with  fresh  life  for  evermore. 


The  attention  of  the  present  generation  of  Americans  has 
been  gradually  drawn  toward  the  richjiess  of  their  history 
through  the  numerous  centennial  celebrations  of  the  past  sev- 
enteen years,  for  in  the  course  of  these  commemorative  oc- 
casions there  has  been  a  manifest  tendency  to  combine  broad 
principles  with  local  coloring;  to  illustrate  general  history  by 
the  aid  of  topical  history;  and  it  is  in  this  way  that  the  past 
comes  most  easily  and  naturally  to  seem  alive.  The  cen- 
tennial of  Lexington  in  1875  called  forth  swarms  of  pamphlets 
and  essays,  in  which  the  details  of  the  story  were  subjected 
to  strictest  scrutiny,  localities  were  carefully  identified  and  in 
many  cases  marked  with  monuments  or  tablets,  characters 
and  motives  were  impeached  and  sermons  printed,  family  reirin- 
iscences  drawn  upon,  until  the  whole  scene  was  made  to 
live  again  and  one  might  almost  feel  that  he  had  "been  there." 
So  it  has  been  done  in  other  parts  of  our  country,  as  the 
various  anniversaries  have  arrived;  and  the  result  has  been 
seen  in  a  manifold  quickening  of  interest  in  the  common  his- 
tory of  these  States,  both  old  and  new,  and  in  a  strengthening 
of  the  sense  of  brotherhood  and  union.  There  has  been  some- 
thing eminently  wholesome  in  these  centennial  occasions.  To 
acquire  a  due  sense  of  the  events  of  our  common  American 
history  and  their  significance,  is  to  become  impressed  with  the 
feeling  of  our  common  destiny  and  the  solemn  obligation  that 
lies  upon  each  of  us,  in  whatsoever  part  of  this  broad  Union 
he  may  have  his  home,  to  do  his  best  toward  shaping  that 
destiny  worthily.  It  is  well  for  us  from  time  to  time  to  pause 
and  take  some  account  of  what  we  have  done,  and  even  in  the 
moment  of  our  warm  felicitations  ask  ourselves  just  why  and 
how  we  have  come  to  what  we  are. 

I  said  a  moment  ago  that  the  discovery  of  the  Columbia 
River  a  hundred  years  ago  has  its  interest  for  us,  whether 
we  look  backward  or  forward  from  that  date;  whether  we  re- 
gard it  as  putting  the  finishing  touch  upon  the  discovery  of 
North  America,  or  as  prophetic  of  the  beginnings  of  the  three 
commonwealths,  Oregon,  Washington  and  Idaho.  Let  us  briefly 
consider  it  first  in  one  of  these  aspects  and  then  in  the  other. 


Our  custom  of  affixing  specific  dates  to  great  events  is  con- 
venient and  indispensable,  but  it  is  sometimes  misleading.  Thus 
we  speak  of  America  as  discovered  in  1492,  and  people  some- 
times unconsciously  argue  as  if  the  moment  Columbus  landed 
on  one  of  the  Bahama  islands,  somehtJw  or  other  a  full  out- 
line map  of  America  from  the  Arctic  Seas  to  Cape  Horn  sud- 
denly sprang  into  existence  in  the  European  mind.  In  point 
of  fact,  the  discovery  of  America  was  a  slow  and  gradual 
process,  requiring  the  labors  of  several  generations  of  hardy 
navigators  and  explorers,  among  whom  Columbus  was  first 
and  most  illustrious.  The  outline  of  South  America  was  known, 
with  a  fair  approach  to  correctness,  by  the  middle  of  the  six- 
teenth century,  though  Cape  Horn  was  not  doubled  until 
1616.  The  knowledge  of  North  America  progressed  much 
more  slowly.  After  the  death  of  Columbus  much  more  than 
a  century  elapsed  before  map-makers  could  delineate  correctly 
our  eastern  coast  from  Florida  to  Labrador.  It  took  still 
longer  time  to  learn  the  vast  breadth  of  the  continent. 

As  late  as  1609  we  find  Henry  Hudson  sailing  up  his  river 
under  the  shadows  of  the  Catskill  Mountains  in  search  of  a 
passage  into  the  Pacific  Ocean.  The  notions  of  map-makers 
and  of  navigators  were  as  various  as  vague.  Some  held  to  the 
original  idea  that  the  Atlantic  coast  of  this  continent  was  part 
of  the  eastern  coast  of  Asia.  In  1637  Thomas  Morton,  of  Mer- 
rymount,  seemed  to  think  there  was  some  connection  between 
New  England  and  Tartary.  Others,  again,  imagined  a  great 
archipelago  in  place  of  our  continent,  and  were  convinced  that 
somewhere  a  Northwest  Passage  into  Asiatic  waters  would  be 
found.  It  took  many  a  rough  voyage  among  Arctic  ice-floes 
and  many  a  weary  journey  on  foot  through  the  wilderness  to 
correct  these  erroneous  notions. 

By  the  middle  of  the  eighteenth  century  men's  ideas  of  the 
eastern  half  of  the  continent,  as  far  as  the  Rocky  Mountains, 
were  becoming  fairly  well  adjusted  to  the  facts,  at  least  so 
far  as  general  outlines  were  concerned.  New  Mexico  and  Cali- 
fornia were  also  regions  more  or  less  known  and  occupied, 
though  very  imperfectly  explored.  But  the  great  Northwest 
was  still  terra  incognita.     In  Del  'Isle's  map  of  1752  the  area 


of  Oregon,  Washington  and  Idaho,  with  that  of  Montana 
and  other  States,  is  usurped  by  a  huge  inland  sea  communi- 
cating with  the  Pacific  Ocean  by  two  narrow  straits  between 
the  fortieth  and  fiftieth  parallels,  and  some  five  degrees  fur- 
ther north  there  begins  a  chain  of  straits  and  lakes  through 
which  a  ship  might  sail  northeasterly  all  the  way  into  the 
upper  corner  of  Hudson's  Bay,  and  so  over  into  the  Atlantic. 
These  inland  waters  were  figments  of  the  imagination,  some- 
times devised  by  geographers  whose  wish  was  father  to  the 
thought,  sometimes  the  inventions  of  gross  exaggerations  of 
sailors  in  their  yarns. 

In  Jeffery's  map  of  1768  we  see  the  Strait  of  Fuca  enter- 
ing the  coast  at  about  the  forty-eighth  parallel,  and  continu- 
ing northeasterly  until  it  loses  itself  among  the  groups  of  straits 
and  islands  between  the  great  bays  of  Hudson  and  Baffin. 
The  implication  is  clear  that  one  might  sail  by  the  Straits  of 
Fuca  from  ocean  to  ocean.  The  origin  of  the  idea  is  to  be 
found  in  the  story  told  by  a  Greek  pilot  in  the  Spanish 
service  to  Dr.  Michael  Lok,  a  distinguished  English  geographer 
in  the  time  of  Queen  Elizabeth.  This  pilot's  name  was  Apos- 
tolos  Valerianos,  but  he  was  known  in  the  Spanish  marine  as 
Juan  de  Fuca.  He  said  that  in  1692  he  was  sent  out  from 
Acapulco  in  search  of  a  northeast  passage  into  the  Atlantic 
or  Arctic  Ocean,  and  found  it.  His  description  of  the  route 
was  vague,  and  it  has  even  been  doubted  if  any  such  voyage 
was  ever  made.  It  is  possible  that  he  may  have  entered  the 
strait  which  now  bears  his  name,  and  may  have  sailed  along 
into  the  archipelago  through  which  modern  excursion  steam- 
ers thread  their  way  to  Alaska.  Upon  most  old  maps  the  much 
desired  strait  connecting  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  Oceans  is 
given,  sometimes  bearing  the  name  of  the  Greek  pilot,  but 
more  of tei)  called  the  "Strait  of  Anian,"  a  name  of  which  the 
origin  is  doubtful. 

There  is  no  clear  and  satisfactory  evidence  of  any  voyage 
upon  the  Oregon  coast  by  European  ships  before  the  eight- 
eenth century.  Just  how  far  north  Sir  Francis  Drake  may 
have  come  in  1579  is  not  easy  to  determine.  He  was  the  first 
Englishman    to    thread    the    Strait    of    Magellan   and    sail    upon 


the  Pacific  Ocean.  His  errand  was  one  that  in  those  days 
used  to  be  called  ''singeing  the  King  of  Spain's  beard."  As 
often  as  occasion  offered  he  would  dash  into  a  Spanish  har- 
bor, burn  the  shipping  and  carry  off  such  treasure  as  he  could 
lay  hands  on.  When  he  had  reached  the  California  coast,  heav- 
ily laden  with  spoils,  it  occurred  to  him  to  seek  for  a  north- 
east passage  as  a  short  route  homeward.  But  after  sailing  for 
some  distance  up  the  coast,  which  he  called  New  Albion,  he 
changed  his  mind,  crossed  the  Pacific  and  went  home  by  way 
of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope,  circumnavigating  the  globe.  It  is 
probable  that  Drake  saw  a  portion  of  the  coast  of  Oregon, 
but  we  can  hardly  call  it  certain. 

In  the  eighteenth  century  the  first  impetus  to  discovery  in 
the  northern  waters  of  the  Pacific  was  given  by  the  Russians 
after  the  completion  of  their  conquest  of  Siberia.  In  1728  the 
great  navigator,  Vitus  Bering,  passed  through  the  strait  which 
bears  his  name,  into  the  Arctic  Ocean  without  seeing  the  Ameri- 
can coast,  and  four  years  later  a  Russian  officer,  Gvosdjeff, 
sailing  in  those  same  waters,  saw  both  sides  of  the  strait.  In 
1741  Bering  discovered  the  lofty  mountain  which  he  named 
St.  Elias,  and  farther  stretches  of  the  Alaska  coast,  besides  the 
Aleutian  Islands.  These  discoveries  aroused  an  interest  in 
seal  catching,  and  by  1766  various  Russian  companies  had  been 
organized  for  prosecuting  the  fur  trade  upon  our  Pacific  Coast. 
By  the  end  of  the  century  Russia  had  taken  possession  as  far 
down  as  the  fifty-fifth  parallel,  and  before  1820  scattered 
Russian  posts  had  been  established  even  upon  the  coast  of  Cali- 

It  seems  to  have  been  the  advance  of  the  Russians  that 
stimulated  Spain  to  new  efforts  toward  exploring  and  occupy- 
ing the  coast.  For  nearly  two  centuries  Spanish  energies  had 
been  stagnant,  but  with  the  reign  of  the  very  able  Charles 
III.,  who  came  to  the  throne  in  1759,  there  was  a  marked  re- 
vival. In  the  course  of  the  next  ten  years  the  occupation  of 
California,  from  San  Diego  up  to  San  Francisco,  was  com- 
pleted; and  in  1773  Juan  Perez  set  out  in  the  good  ship  San- 
tiago on  a  voyage  of  discovery.  He  kept  well  out  to  sea  and 
to   the   northward   until    he    struck   the    coast   of   Queen    Char- 


lottfe  Island,  in  latitude  51  degrees  42  minutes.  He  followed 
that  cdast  to  its  northern  extremity  and  tried  in  vain  to  make 
his  way  eastward  through  Dixon  Ehtrance,  with  its  power- 
ful adverse  currents.  Failing  in  this  attempt,  Juan  Perez  re- 
turned upon  his  course  down  the  outer  coast  of  Queen  Char- 
lotte Island,  and  presently  discovered  Vancouver  Island,  and 
anchored  for  a  while  in  an  inlet,  which  was  probably  Nootk.i 
Sound.  His  voyage  thence  down  to  Monterey  was  a  rough 
one,  and  much  vexed  with  rain  and  fog,  but  he  seems  to  have 
caught  sight  of  the  snow-capped  summit  of  Mount  Olympus 
and  of  a  good  many  points  on  the  Oregon  coast. 

In  1775  this  voyage  was  followed  up  by  an  expedition  of 
two  vessels,  the  Santiago,  commanded  by  Brurio  Heceta,  with 
Juan  Perez  for  his  pilot,  and  the  Sonora,  commanded  by  Juan 
de  Bodega  y  Cuadra.  They  landed  at  Point  Grenville,  now  on 
the  Washington  coast,  and  in  the  presence  of  the  astonished 
Indians  set  up  a  cross  and  took  possession  of  the  country  in 
due  form  for  the  King  of  Spain.  A  few  days  afterward  the 
two  ships  were  separated  in  a  storm  and  quite  lost  sight  of 
each  other,  and  their  subsequent  courses  were  different.  Cuadra, 
with  the  Sonora,  made  his  way  northward  as  far  as  Sitka  and 
took  formal  possession  of  that  coast;  but  by  the  time  Heceta, 
in  the  Santiago,  got  as  far  as  Nootka  Sound  his  crew  was  so 
thinned  by  scurvy  that  it  became  necessary  to  turn  home- 
ward. He  missed  the  Fuca  strait,  but  farther  to  the  south 
began  hugging  the  coast,  and  on  the  17th  of  August  discovered 
the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  River,  but  without  recognizing 
it  as  a  river's  mouth;  he  mistook  it  for  a  mere  bay  or  in- 
let, and  named  it  as  such  Bahia  de  la  Asuncion. 

By  these  explorations  of  Perez,  Heceta  and  Cuadra,  Spain 
clearly  established  a  claim  to  the  Northwest  Coast,  insofar 
as  the  mere  fact  of  discovery  was  concerned.  By  Borgia's  bulbs 
of  1493  and  1494,  Spain  was  entitled  to  whatever  heathen  ter- 
ritory she  might  discover  to  the  west  of  a  certain  arbitrary 
meridian  in  the  Atlantic  Ocean.  But  in  the  eighteenth  cen- 
tury little  heed  was  given  to  the  memory  of  Borgia  or  his 
bulbs,  and  discovery  without  actual  occupation  went  prac- 
tically but  little  way  in  giving  a  title  to  new  countries.    The 


Spanish  government  did  not  publish  any  account  of  these  ex- 
ploring voyages,  and  had  no  just  ground  of  complaint  if  other 
nations  visited  the  same  shores.  The  British  were  next  upon 
the  scene.  In  March,  1778,  Captain  James  Cook  was  on  his 
way  from  the  Sandwich  Islands  to  explore  the  Northwest  Coast 
and  see  if  any  practicable  passage  could  be  found  into  the 
Atlantic  Ocean.  He  first  saw  the  point  which  he  called  Cape 
Foulweather,  and  sailing  south  from  there  he  named  Capes 
Perpetua  and  Gregory.  Thence  he  turned  about  to  the  north- 
ward and  in  the  struggle  with  adverse  winds  was  carried 
well  out  to  sea,  so  that  the  next  land  which  he  saw  was  the 
point  which  he  named  Cape  Flattery.  "It  is  in  this  very 
latitude,"  said  Cook,  "that  geographers  have  placed  the  pre- 
tended strait  of  Juan  de  Fuca.  But  we  saw  nothing  like  it; 
nor  is  there  the  least  probability  that  ever  any  such  thing  ex- 
isted.*' He  crossed  the  mouth  of  the  strait  without  suspect- 
ing its  existence,  and  did  not  see  land  again  until  he  reached 
Nootka  Sound.  He  supposed  Vancouver  and  Queen  Charlotte 
Islands  to  be  part  of  the  continent.  Afterward  he  explored 
with  much  care  the  coast  of  Alaska  before  returning  to  the 
Sandwich  Islands,  where  a  tragic  fate  awaited  him. 

Several  English  voyages  followed  after  Cook's,  and  each 
one  added  something  to  the  knowledge  of  the  coast,  but  it 
is  not  necessary  to  specify  details.  Let  it  suffice  to  observe 
that  in  1788  Captain  Meares,  after  entering  the  strait  of  Juan 
de  Fuca  and  applying  that  name  to  it  in  honor  of  its  real  or 
alleged  original  discovery  by  the  Greek  pilot,  began  to  search 
the  coast  for  the  bay  visited  by  Heceta,  which  we  now  know 
to  have  been  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  River.  He  reached 
it  in  due  season,  and  it  is  extremely  curious  to  find  him  mak- 
ing almost  the  same  remark  that  Cook  had  made  about  the 
strait  of  Fuca.  Heceta  had  given  the  name  San  Roque  to  the 
ca,pe  just  north  of  the  bay,  and  it  had  somehow  been  ru- 
mored that  there  was  a  river  there,  perhaps  on  the  strength 
of  statements  made  by  Indians.  A  river  of  San  Roque  seems 
to  have  been  laid  down  upon  some  Spanish  sailing  charts, 
and  Captain  Meares  now  looked  for  it,  but  he  misinterpreted 
the  great  breakers  at  the  bar  and  decided   that  there  was  no 


river  here.  **We  can  now  safely  assert,"  said  he,  "tiiat  no 
such  river  as  that  of  Saint  Roc  exists."  Cape  San  Roque  he 
rechristened  Cape  Disappointment,  and  the  moutfy  of  the  great 
river  he  called  Deception  Bay.  A  tricksome  piece  of  water 
it  must  indeed  have  been,  thus  once  and  again  to  deceive  the 
sharp  eyes  of  those  experienced  old  seadogs! 

The  time  was  at  hand,  however,  when  the  deception  was  to 
be  exposed  and  the  mighty  river  was  to  surrender  its  secret. 
In  this  same  year,  1788,  the  Stars  and  Stripes  appeared  for 
the  first  time  in  these  Northern  Pacific  waters.  Those  were 
the  days  when  New  Englanders  were  truly  a  maritime  peo- 
ple and  vied  with  their  British  cousins  in  building  and  handling 
ships;  and  many  years  were  still  to  pass  before  the  suicidal 
legislation  in  Congress  which  has  well  nigh  driven  the  Ameri- 
can flag  from  the  ocean  and  left  us  in  some  danger  of  for- 
getting our  Viking  ancestry  and  its  glories.  New  England 
ships,  trimly  built,  swift  sailors  and  staunch  against  foul 
weather,  were  to  be  met  upon  every  sea;  and  it  was  quite 
in  the  natural  course  of  things  that  they  should  find  their 
way  to  these  waters,  fast  becoming  famous  for  their  wealth  of 
fur  seals  and  sea  otters.  The  first  expedition,  fitted  out  by 
Boston  merchants,  consisted  of  two  vessels,  the  ship  Colum- 
bia, commanded  by  John  Kendrick,  and  the  sloop  Lady  Wash- 
ington, commanded  by  Robert  Gray,  of  Boston,  who  had  served 
in  the  United  States  navy  during  the  War  of  Independence. 

After  wintering  at  Nootka  the  two  New  England  captains 
partially  explored  the  labyrinthine  archipelago  through  which 
the  Alaska  route  now  lies  and  they  did  some  pretty  profitable 
trading  with  the  Indians,  who  on  one  occasion  are  said  to 
have  eagerly  given  $8000  worth  of  sea  otter  skins  in  exchange 
for  a  second-hand  chisel.  Presently  the  two  ships  exchanged 
captains,  and  Kendrick  remained  in  these  waters  with  the 
Lady  Washington,  while  Gray,  in  the  Columbia,  carried  his 
furs  to  China,  bartered  them  for  a  cargo  of  tea,  and  returned 
to  Boston  by  way  of  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope.  This  was  the 
first  time  that  the  Stars  and  Stripes  were  carried  around  the 


On  the  28th  day  of  September,  1790,  the  Columbia  again  set 
sail  from  Boston,  and  in  the  following  June,  having  rounded 
Cape  Horn,  she  was  again  in  the  waters  about  Queen  Char- 
lotte Island.  In  the  course  of  1791  and  1792  more  than 
thirty  vessels  were  cruising  in  this  part  of  the  ocean,  includ- 
ing several  from  New  England.  Among  these  vessels  was 
the  British  twenty-gun  ship  Discovery,  Captain  George  Van- 
couver, with  her  consort  or  tender,  the  Chatham,  of  ten 
guns.  Lieutenant  Broughton.  Vancouver's  primary  purpose  was 
to  meet  the  Spanish  captain,  Cuadra,  as  commissioner  for 
carrying  out  the  terms  of  the  Nootka  convention  of  Octo- 
ber, 1790,  by  which  Spain  practically  relinquished  her  claim 
to  the  sovereignty  over  these  northwestern  islands  and  coasts. 
But  it  was  also  part  of  Vancouver's  business  to  follow  up 
the  explorations  of  Cook  and  Meares,  and  to  renew  the  search 
for  some  available  passage  into  the  Atlantic.  For  nearly  300 
miles  he  scrutinized  the  Oregon  coast  so  sharply  that  from 
his  masthead  the  surf  breaking  upon  the  shores  was  never 
once  lost  sight  of;  and  so  he,  too,  was  deceived  by  the  great 
river,  so  coy  of  detection,  for  he  mistook  the  breakers  on  its 
bar  for  coast  surf.  It  was  on  the  27th  of  April,  1792,  thai 
he  passed  it  and  identified  the  inlet  as  Captain  Meares'  De- 
ception Bay,  but  he  felt  sure  that  there  was  no  river  there. 
Now,  some  time  before,  but  just  how  long  it  is  not  quite  clear. 
Captain  Gray  had  reached  this  same  inlet,  and  believed  it 
to  be  the  mouth  of  a  river.  He  felt  so  strongly  convinced 
of  this  that  during  nine  days  he  made  repeated  efforts  to 
sail  in,  but  was  baffled  by  the  force  of  the  outcoming  waters. 
On  the  29th  of  April,  Gray  fell  in  with  Vancouver  near  Cape 
Flattery,  and  told  him  about  this  river.  The  British  captain 
at  once  recognized  the  spot  described.  It  was  no  doubt,  he 
said,  the  opening' passed  by  him  the  day  before  yesterday,  but 
Captain  Gray  must  be  mistaken  in  regarding  it  as  a  river; 
the  difficulty  in  entering  was  not  due  to  a  powerful  current, 
but  simply  to  the  fury  of  the  breakers.  **I  was  thoroughly 
convinced,"  writes  Vancouver  in  his  narrative,  "as  were  also 
most  persons  of  observation  on  board,  that  we  could  not  pos- 
sibly have  passed  any  safe  navigable  opening,  harbor,  or  place 
of  security  for  shipping  on  this  coast,  from   Cape   Mendocino 


to  the  promontory  of  Classett."  Gray  was  headed  to  the 
south  when  this  discussion  took  place,  and  doubtless  it  added 
a  piquant  zest  to  his  determination  to  effect  an  entrance  at 
the  disputed  spot.  On  the  7th  of  May  we  find  him  dis- 
covering and  entering  the  bay  still  known  as  Gray's  Har- 
bor. On  the  11th  he  reached  Deception  Bay,  and  seizing  a 
favorable  wind,  ran  in  under  crowded  canvas,  forced  his  way 
through  the  breakers,  and  dropped  anchor  some  ten  miles  up 
stream.  After  a  halt  of  three  days,  to  fill  his  water  casks 
and  trade  with  the  natives,  he  ran  up  fifteen  miles  further, 
but  mistook  the  channel  and  got  into  shoal  water.  Never- 
theless, he  felt  sure  that  the  river  must  be  navigable  for  more 
than  a  hundred  miles.  There  could  hardly  be  a  doubt  that 
so  great  a  stream  must  extend  a  long  way  into  the  coun- 
try and  drain  a  very  large  extent  of  territory;  and  after  sat- 
isfying himself  as  to  the  decisive  character  of  his  discovery. 
Captain  Gray  turned  his  prow  toward  the  ocean  again  and 
sailed  out  over  the  bar  on  the  20th.  The  river  he  named 
after  his  good  ship,  the  Columbia,  and  curious  enough  it  is 
that  in  this  roundabout  way  and  quite  accidentally  the  name 
of  Christopher  Columbus  should  have  come  to  furnish  a 
name  to  a  river  flowing  into  an  ocean,  of  which  he  never 
so  much  as  suspected  the  existence;  a  river  the  discovery  of 
which  was  the  last  important  event  in  the  era  begun  by  him 
when  he  landed  among  the  Bahamas  three  centuries  before. 
The  name  of  Cape  Disappointment  Gray  changed  to  Cape 
Hancock;  and  the  opposite  promontory  to  the  south  of  the  en- 
trance he  named  Point  Adams.  The  latter  name  seems  to 
have  been  more  successful  than  the  former  in  keeping  its 
place  upon  the  map.  When  the  names  Hancock  and  Adams 
are  coupled  in  this  way,  the  reference  is  naturally  understood 
to  be  Samuel  Adams,  the  man  who  was  .perhaps  more  than 
any  other  the  father  of  American  independence,  and  it  is 
indeed  interesting  to  find  the  name  of  that  sturdy  states- 
man thus  recorded  at  a  longer  distance  from  his  native  Bos- 
ton than  that  which  separates  the  Old  South  Meetim?  House 
from  Westminster  Abbey.  It  is  like  meeting  s\\c',\  names  as 
Portland  Salem  and  Albany,  coupling  oldest  East  with  the 
new  West  by  pleasant  links  of  association. 


On  the  20th  of  September  following  this  discovery  Gray 
met  Vancouver  again  at  Nootka  Sound  and  told  him  about 
it;  and  in  October,  on  the  way  to  San  Francisco,  the  British 
captain  sent  Lieutenant  Broughton,  with  one  of  Gray's  own 
charts,  to  verify  the  facts.  Broughton  went  up  the  river  more 
than  a  hundred  miles  as  far  as  a  place  which  he  named  Point 
Vancouver,  but  did  not  see  the  mouth  of  that  great  tributary, 
the  Willamette,  just  opposite.  He  spent  three  weeks  in  sur- 
veying the  river,  and  gave  to  different  places  more  than  thirty 
local  names.  He  also  took  formal  possession  of  the  river  and 
the  country,  in  the  name  of  George  III,  because,  as  he  said, 
he  had  "every  reason  to  believe  that  the  subjects  of  no  other 
civilized  nation  or  state  had  ever  entered  this  river  before." 
Under  the  circumstances  this  may  seem  rather  an  odd  re- 
mark for  Lieutenant  Broughton  to  make,  but  his  ingenuity 
was  at  no  loss  for  a  justification.  According  to  him,  the  water 
as  far  as  ascended  by  Gray,  ought  properly  to  be  called  a 
bay  and  not  a  river,  so  that  the  American  captain  had  not 
really  made  an  entrance,  after  all!  Considering  the  dogmatic 
assurance  with  which  the  British  officers  had  maintained  that 
there  was  no  river  there,  until  Gray  furnished  them  with 
positive  information,  but  for  which  Broughton  would,  in  all 
probability,  never  have  made  his  reconnaissance,  there  is  a 
coolness  about  this  argument  that  on  a  sultry  day  would 
be   quite   refreshing! 

These  events  owe  their  interest  to  the  fact  that  in  after 
times  the  government  of  the  United  States  based  upon  them 
its  claim  to  the  territory  drained  by  the  Columbia  River  by 
right  of  discovery.  Viewed  in  itself,  it  can  not  for  a  mo- 
ment be  pretended  that  there  was  anything  grand  or  thrilling 
in  Captain  Gray's  achievement.  It  was  indeed  highly  credit- 
able to  Captain  Gray's  sagacity  that  he  saw  the  mouth  of 
a  river  where  so  many  tried  old  salts  had  persisted  in  see- 
ing only  an  inward  inflection  of  the  coast,  but  that  is  about 
as  far  as  we  can  go  in  glorifying  the  event  in  itself.  It  is  a 
good  illustration  of  an  historical  truth  too  often  overlooked 
or  slighted,  that  the  importance  of  events  generally  depends 
far  more  upon  their  casual  relations  to  other  events  than  upon 
their  own  intrinsic  magnitude. 


Captain  Gray's  discovery  became  clothed  with  importance 
by  what  happened  afterward.  It  was  a  principle  of  interna 
tional  law,  or  international  usage,  more  or  less  recognized 
since  the  time  when  France  and  Spain  began  to  jostle  one 
another  in  North  America,  that  the  discovery  of  a  river  car- 
ries with  it  at  least  an  inchoate  title  to  the  territory  drained 
by  it.  But,  as  a  general  thing,  very  little  heed  has  been  paid 
to  such  inchoate  titles  unless  they  have  been  completed  and 
reinforced  by  actual  settlement  or  occupation.  A  nation  can 
not  go  about  the  world  and  lay  claim  to  unappropriated  do- 
mains simply  by  putting  its  fingers  on  them,  as  children 
"bony**  postage  stamps.  It  must  take  possession  really  as 
well  as  symbolically.  Now,  in  1792  the  western  boundary  of 
the  United  States  was  the  Mississippi  River,  and  as  long  as 
it  remained  so  there  was  not  much  likelihood  of  American  citi- 
zens occupying  the  valley  of  the   Columbia. 

In  1792  the  vast  Louisiana  territory,  extending  from  the 
Mississippi  River  to  the  crest  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  was 
the  acknowledged  property  of  Spain,  but  in  1800  Spain  ceded 
it  to  France,  and  in  1803  Napoleon  sold  it  to  the  United  States. 
It  has  sometimes  been  contended  that  this  Louisiana  purchase, 
of  itself,  gave  the  United  States  some  further  claim  to  Ore- 
gon, as  a  kind  of  appurtenance  to  the  Louisiana  territory,  on 
the  assumption  that  Spain  virtually  turned  over  to  France,  in 
the  cession  of  1800  her  old  claims  to  the  Northwest  Coast; 
but  this  view  seems  hardly  defensible.  With  more  plausible- 
ness  it  has  been  argued  that  in  the  treaty  of  1819,  when  Spain 
surrendered  Florida  to  the  United  States,  there  was  a  clause 
that  included  in  the  cession  all  Spanish  claims  to  the  North- 
west Coast,  so  that  the  United  States  became,  with  regard  to 
this  territory,  the  successor  and  legal  representative  of  Spain. 
Such  questions  have  a  certain  interest  of  their  own,  as  part 
of  the  metaphysical  region  in  international  law.  In  meta- 
physics a  sufficient  exercise  of  ingenuity  will  enable  us  to 
reach  a  conclusion  that  seems  unshakable  until  our  antag- 
onist with  similar  ingenuity  reaches  a  conclusion  exactly  op- 
posite and  apparently  just  as  well  supported. 

oufiON  noNmt  association.  48 

It  has  long  seemed  to  me  that  metaphysics  are  of  precious 
little  use,  only  one  needs  to  know  them  in  order  to  refute 
other    metaphysics  1     The    case    is    scnaewhat    dK    sane    with 

sundry  wire-drawn  discussions  in  the  old  law  of  real  estate, 
and  with  much  of  the  maze  of  diplomatic  argument  concern- 
ing valid  titles  to  territory.  One  often  needs  to  know  it  in 
order  to  refute  somebody,  but  otherwise  there  is  more  vexa- 
tion of  soul  in  it  than  of  profit  to  the  understanding. 

With  regard  to  our  present  subject,  it  may  safely  be  said 
that  neither  the  purchase  of  1803,  nor  that  of  1819,  would 
have  gone  far  toward  giving  Oregon  to  the  United  States 
unless  the  shadowy  metaphysical  claims  had  been  supple- 
mented by  the  solid  facts  of  occupation  and  possession. 

After  this  explanation  there  is  little  risk  of  being  misun- 
derstood in  saying  that  the  Louisiana  purchase  carried  the 
United  States  a  long  way  toward  the  possession  of  Oregon 
— all  the  way  from  the  Mississippi  River  to  the  great  divide 
between  the  sources  of  the  Missouri  and  those  of  the  Colum- 
bia. It  at  once  became  possible  for  exploring  parties  to  cross 
the  mountains  and  advance  to  the  Pacific  Coast  without 
crossing  foreign  territory.  President  Jefferson,  who  had  long 
been  interested  in  exploring  the  wilderness,  seized  the  oppor- 
tunity without  a  moment's  delay,  and  in  May,  1804,  the  fa- 
mous expedition  of  Captains  Meriwether  Lewis  and  William 
Clark  started  from  St.  Louis.  Nothing  was  heard  from  them 
until  the  autumn  of  1806,  when  they  returned  to  this  fron- 
tier city,  after  having  followed  the  Columbia  River  from 
the  upper  waters  of  its  Snake  branch  to  its  mouth.  Within 
the  next  two  years  the  American  Fur  Company  was  organ- 
ized, with  headquarters  at  St.  Louis.  Two  years  more  had 
scarcely  elapsed  when  the  ship  Albatross,  from  Boston,  com- 
manded by  Nathan  Winship,  ascended  the  Columbia  River 
about  forty  miles,  and  the  crew  began  building  a  blockhouse, 
but  were  driven  away  by  the  Indians.  In  the  next  year,  1811, 
came  the  founding  of  Astoria.  The  eminent  New  York  mer- 
chant, John  Jacob  Astor,  a  most  enthusiastic  dealer  in  furs, 
had  for  some  years  carried  on  the  trade  by  way  of  the  Great 
Lakes,   over  the   time-honored   routes   that   had   been   followed 


since  the  days  of  Marquette  and  Joliet.  He  was  quick  to 
perceive  the  value  of  a  trading  station  at  the  mouth  of  the  Co- 
lumbia, half  way  between  New  York  and  China,  which  fur- 
nished such  a  market  for  furs.  President  Madison's  gov- 
ernment felt  an  interest  in  Mr.  Astor's  venture,  for  the  Rus- 
sians at  Sitka  had  made  a  serious  complaint  against  the 
Yankee  skippers  on  whom  they  largely  depended  for  supplies. 
These  Yankees  were  altogether  too  reckless  in  selling  rum 
and  rifles  to  the  Indians,  thus  sowing  seeds  of  strife  and  mur- 
der. Mr.  Astor  organized  the  Pacific  Fur  Company  with  the 
view  of  monopolizing  the  fur  trade  on  this  coast  and  also  se- 
curing the  whole  business  of  supplying  the  Russian  forts,  so 
as  to  deprive  the  rum-selling  skippers  of  their  occupation.  The 
mouth  of  the  Columbia  River  was  an  admirably  chosen  center 
for  the  trade  between  New  York,  Sitka  and  Canton,  and  the 
whole  scheme  was  marked  by  rare  boldness  and  breadth  of 
view.  It  heralded  the  era  in  which  mercantile  enterprises  were 
to  assume  imperial  dimensions. 

But  Oregon  was  in  those  days  a  long  way  from  the  Atlan- 
tic Coast.  She  is  now  scarcely  a  week  removed  from  it;  she 
was  then  more  than  a  year.  A  party  of  about  sixty  persons, 
about  half  of  Astor*s  party,  started  overland  from  St.  Louis; 
the  other  half  started  from  New  York  on  the  voyage  by  way 
of  Cape  Horn.  The  overland  party  arrived  at  the 
mouth  of  the  Columbia  River  after  a  terrible  journey  of 
fifteen  months;  in  the  course  of  which  several  of  their 
number  had  perished,  and  they  found  that  the  Cape  Horn  party 
had  arrived  some  time  before  them.  No  sooner  had  Astoria 
been  built  and  fortified  when  the  war  with  Great  Britain  broke 
out  in  1812,  and  soon  ruined  the  enterprise.  Unfortunately, 
Mr.  Astor  had  included  among  his  partners  of  the  Pacific 
Fur  Company  certain  men  who  had  formerly  been  connected 
with  the  Northwest  Company,  of  Montreal,  a  British 
concern  which  already  had  its  outposts  as  far  west  as  the 
Fraser  River;  and  in  1813  these  partners  treacherously  sold 
out  the  Astoria  property,  for  about  one-fifth  of  its  value,  to 
the  Northwest  Company.  Soon  afterward  a  British  squadron 
entered   the    Columbia,   with  intent   to   destroy   the   settlement, 


but,  finding  it  already .  in  British  hands,  there  was  nothing 
left  for  them  to  do  but  run  up  their  flag,  change  the  name 
of  the  place  to  Fort  George,  and  go  on  their  way. 

In  the  treaty  of  Ghent,  which  ended  that  war  with  Great 
Britain,  it  was  agreed  that  all  "territory,  places  and  posses- 
sions whatever,  taken  by  either  party  from  the  other  during 
the  war,  shall  be  restored  without  delay."  President  Mon- 
roe, accordingly,  proposed  to  take  back  Astoria,  but  the  Brit- 
ish government  objected  on  the  ground  that  it  had  not 
been  captured,  but  simply  sold  from  one  party  to  another, 
and  that  it  stood  upon  British  territory,  since  possession  of 
that  country  had  long  ago  been  taken  in  His  Majesty's  name. 
The  reference  was,  of  course,  to  Lieutenant  Broughton,  who 
had  ascended  the  river  after  its  American  discoverer  had 
shown  him  the  way!  In  1818  a  temporary  adjustment  of  the 
question  was  effected.  As  a  temporary  makeshift  there  was 
a  joint  occupation  of  Oregon  by  the  two  governments.  For  a 
time  this  arrangement  seemed  practically  equivalent  to  a 
British  occupation.  The  British  Northwest  Company  be- 
ing in  possession  of  Astoria,  built  a  strong  stockade  fort 
there,  with  a  garrison  of  sixty  men  and  an  armament  of 
twenty  cannon,  as  a  menace  to  all  intruders. 

For  several  years  after  the  peace  of  1815  it  seemed  as  if 
there  was  but  a  sorry  chance  for  Americans  in  the  region 
drained  by  the  Columbia,  and*  especially  in  1821,  when  the 
Northwest  Company  was  absorbed  by  the  great  Hudson's  Bay 

But  in  spite  of  this  dismal  prospect  certain  laws  of  the 
universe,  laws  that  work  quietly  but  surely,  were  working  in 
favor  of  the  Americans.  It  was  only  a  question  of  time  when 
the  westward  overflow  of  population  should  reach  the  Pacific 
Coast.  But  much  might  be  done  by  the  action  of  the  two 
governments  in  hastening  or  Relaying  that  time;  and  here,  Si-i 
so  commonly  happens,  the  action  of  the  governments  had 
unforeseen  results  much  more  important  than  those  that  were 
contemplated.  By  the  terms  of  the  treaty  for  joint  occupa- 
tion  it  was  agreed   that  any  country  westward   of  the   Rocky 


Mountains  that  might  be  claimed  by  either  of  the  two  powers 
should  be  free  and  open  to  the  vessels  and  the  citizens  of 
both.  For  the  moment  the  practical  result  of  this  seemed  to 
be  to  leave  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  in  the  possession  of 
the  country  and  in  the  monopoly  of  the  fur  trade,  for  that 
company  seemed  quite  competent  to  look  after  its  own,  in- 
terests, and  to  keep  out  intruders.  What,  then,  was  the  Hud- 
son's Bay  Company?  It  must  rank,  with  the  English  and 
Dutch  East  India  companies,  among  thq^  most  colossal  cor- 
porations ever  created  by  a  government.  Its  founder  was  that 
merry  monarch  "who  never  said  a  foolish  thing  and  never  did 
a  wise  one."  Every  student  of  American  history  has  occasion 
to  observe  how  lavish  Charles  II.  used  to  be  with  his  grants 
of  lands  and  privileges  in  the  American  wilderness.  It  was 
an  easy  way  to  pay  off  old  debts  and  to  return  favors  done 
him  by  his  friends;  and  there  was  such  a  delightful  vague- 
ness about  American  geography  that  it  was  as  easy  to  give 
away  an  empire  as  a  farm.  Thus  did  George  Monk  and  Ed- 
ward Hyde  obtain  the  Carolinas;  thus  did  the  great  Quaker 
get  Pennsylvania,  and  in  similar  fashion  did  Charles  in.  1670 
grant  to  his  cousin,  Prince  Rupert,  and  several  other  noble- 
men, "the  sole  trade  and  commerce  of  all  those  seas,  straits, 
bays,  rivers,  lakes,  creeks  and  sounds  lying  within  the  en- 
trance of  Hudson's  Straits,  with  all  the  lands,  countries  and 
territories  upon  the  coasts  and  confines"  of  the  same.  This 
act  created  the  Hudson's  Bay*  Company,  and  handed  over  to 
it  a  territory  larger  than  the  whole  of  Europe  to  exploit  for 
its  own  use  and  behoof.  This  country  was,  and  is,  the  natural 
home  of  otters  and  martens,  muskrats  and  beavers,  sables  and 
lynxes,  moose  and  buffalo,  bears,  deer,  foxes  and  wolves.  It 
was  the  object  of  that  company  to  keep  this  country  forever 
a  grand  preserve  of  fur-bearing  animals,  and  to  this  end  it 
discouraged  all  attempts  ,at  settlement.  To  introduce  farms 
and  villages  would  scare  away  the  game  .and  diminish  the 
value  of  the  monopoly. 

Accordingly,  until  recent  years,  Rupert's  Land,  as  it  used 
to  be  called  on  the  maps,  has  maintained  its  character  of 
primeval  wilderness,  and  it  is  only  lately  that  we  see  civilized 


States,  like  Manitoba  and  others,  coming,  into  existence  along 
its  southern  frontiers.  A  superficial  glance  at  the  map  might 
lead  one  to  attribute  this  backwardness  to  severity  of  climate; 
but  commercial  monopoly  has  doubtless  had  far  more  to  do 
with  it.  It  was  the  policy  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  to 
keep  its  own  government  uninformed  as  to  the  nature  and 
resources  of  the  vast  and  noble  country  that  lies  between 
Lake  Winnipeg  and  the  Pacific  Coast.  Nothing  must  be  suf- 
fered to  interfere  with  furs;  and  nobody  not.  connected  with 
the  company  had  a  legal  right  to  visit  the  country,  or  to  catch 
a  wild   animal,  or  to   buy  or   sell  its   skin. 

Seventy  years  ago  this  grreat  corporation  threw  its  long 
arms  southward  even  as  far  as  Salt  Lake,  while  it  held 
Astoria  in  its  clutches  and  had  posts  in  Idaho.  A  strange  life 
in  that  vast  wilderness,  with  its  dog  sledges  making  their  win- 
ter journey  of  3000  miles  from  Fort  Garry  to  the  lower 
Mackenzie  and  the  upper  Yukon,  carrying  a  mail  that  has 
come  to  be  a  year  old  before  its  delivery!  A  vague,  shad- 
owy land,  little  changed  since  the  great  glaciers  receded  many 
thousand  years  ago — a  land  shut  up  by  a  huge  monopoly  and 
slow  to  become  known. 

In  the  race  for  the  possession  of  Oregon — the  race  that  must 
sooner  or  later  terminate  the  joint  occupation  in  favor  of  the 
one  or  the  other  party  exclusively,  England  was  heavily  handi- 
caped  by  her  Hudson's  Bay  Company.  To  the  south  of  the 
boundary  between  British  America  and  the  United  States  the 
waves  of  population  were  steadily  advancing  westward,  and 
it  was'  not  merely  a  march  of  trappers  and  hunters.  It  was 
a  movement  that  kept  creating  new  homes;  a  movement  in 
which  towns  were  built  and  the  wilderness  made  to  bloom 
like  a  garden.  It  was  a  movement,  moreover,  that  represented 
private  enterprise  and  not  a  giant  monoply  created  by  govern- 

The  difference  between  the  trapper  and  the  farmer  is  by  no 
one  more  keenly  appreciated  than  by  the  red  man.  The  trap- 
per may  be,  and  often  is,  the  Indian's  ally,  but  the  farmer  is 
naturally  his  foe.    The  one  draws  his  sustenance  from  the  wil- 


derness  and  is  interested  in  preserving  it;  the  other  transforms 
the  wilderness  and  spoils  it  for  the  Indian's  needs.  Where 
plows  and  oxen  come,  the  forlorn  red  man  feels  no  longet*  at 
home.  Hence  the  French  pioneers  in  Canada  found  it  so  much 
easier  to  fraternize  with  Indians  than  the  English  colonists 
found  it;  and  hence  the  British  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company 
had  so  much  less  trouble  with  the  Indians  than  the  people  of 
the  United  States. 

It  was  not  until  the  middle  of  the  last  century  that  the 
shriek  of  the  iron  horse  was  heard  upon  the  banks  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi, and  naturally,  during  the  early  part  of  the  century, 
.  the  remote  Pacific  Coast  aroused  but  little  interest.  Yet  we 
need  not  regret  that  the  founding  of  this  western  empire  owes 
so  little  to  direct  aid  and  encouragement  from  the  govern- 
ment of  Washington.  In  the  long  run  those  enterprises  thrive 
best  which  spring  up  spontaneously  and  with  which  govern- 
ment meddles  least.  In  the  settlement  of  Oregon  we  see  the 
people  whose  government  had  the  less  care  for  the  ultimate 
result  prevailing  over  the  other,  whose  governmental  policy 
defeated  its  own  ends.  With  the  result  as  it  has  been  worked 
out  we  have  reason  to  be  satisfied. 

To  the  earliest  approaches  of  American  settlers  towards 
Oregon  during  the  period  of  joint  occupation  a  brief  allusion 
must  suffice.  The  expedition  of  Ashley  in  1823  and  the  fol- 
lowing years  did  much  to  stimulate  the  American  fur  trade, 
with  its  headquarters  at  St.  Louis,  and  led  to  the  founding  of 
the  Rocky  Mountain  Company.  The  adventures  of  Captain 
Bonneville,  and  the  expedition  from  Cambridge,  Mass.,  under 
the  lead  of  Nathaniel  Wyeth,  in  1832,  in  the  course  of  which 
Fort  Hall  was  founded  upon  the  Snake  River,  had  in  them 
much  that  was  interesting  and  romantic,  but  need  not  detain 
us  here.  All  these  expeditions  had  their  use  in  familiarizing 
a  certain  number  of  people  with  these  vast  stretches  of  west- 
ern country.  As  fast  as  well  could  be  expected  in  those  diys 
before  railroads,  the  region  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  was 
ceasing  to  be  an  unknown  land. 

In  that  same  year  (1832)  four  Flathead  Indians  made  a  pil- 
grimage   to    St.    Louis,    we   are    told,    in    search    of   the    white 


man's  Book  of  Salvation.  What  manner  of  patent  medicine 
their  savage  heads  may  have  fancied  the  sacred  volume  to 
contain,  whether  it  would  give  them  ample  hunting  grounds  or 
ward  off  the  dreaded  tomahawk  and  still  more  dreaded  incan- 
tations of  the  next  hostile  tribe,  it  would  be  hard  to  say.  But 
the  incident  attracted  the  attention  of  some  religious  enthusi- 
asts, and  the  vague  plea  of  the  Indians  for  help  was  put  into 
a  simple  yet  touching  appeal  for  teachers  to  make  known  to 
them  the  white  man's  Book  of  Salvation.  This  appeal  made  a 
great  impression  upon  two  of  the  religious  organizations  of 
the  country,  the  Methodists  and  the  Presbyterians.  The  Meth- 
odists were  the  first  to  take  action,  and  under  the  lead  of  Jason 
Lee,  a  type  of  the  religious  missionary  and  states-building 
pioneer,  a  Methodist  mission  was  established  in  the  Wil- 
lamette Valley  in  1834.  In  1835  the  American  Board  of  Commis- 
sioners for  Foreign  Missions,  the  great  missionary  organization 
of  the  Congregationalists,  Presbyterian  and  Dutch  Reformed 
Churches — an  organization  which  has  exerted  a  powerful  influ- 
ence in  the  evangelization  of  the  "waste  places"  of  the  earth — 
became  interested  in  the  spiritual  welfare  of  the  Oregon  In- 
dians and  despatched  the  Rev.  Samuel  Parker  and  Dr.  Marcus 
Whitman  on  an  overland  tour  of  exploration  and  observation 
to  the  Oregon  territory. 

Before  they  reached  the  territory  they  fell  in  with  some  re- 
turning traders  and  explorers,  whose  stories  of  Oregon  and  the 
Indians  satisfied  Parker  and  Whitman  of  the  great  need  of  a 
mission  there;  and  for  its  more  speedy  establishment  it  was 
decided  that  Parker  should  go  forward  and  locate  the  region 
of  the  mission,  while  Whitman  should  return  to  the  East  for 
helpers,  and  should  endeavor  to  bring  out  some  families,  in 
order  to  make  the  home  the  nucleus  for  practical  missionary 
work.  Early  in  1836  we  therefore  find  Dr.  Whitman  back  in 
the  East,  accompanied  b}^  two  Indian  boys,  earnestly  engaged 
in  spreading  information  in  regard  to  the  missionary  field  in 
Oregon,  setting  forth  the  great  need  of  helpers,  urging  peo- 
ple to  engage  in  the  work  as  one  of  the  highest  forms  of  Chris- 
tian service,  and  making  clear  the  ways  and  means  of  getting 


His  plea  was  the  more  effective  in  that  a  young  woman  of 
culture  a;id  deep  religious  feeling,  Miss  Narcissa  Prentiss,  of 
Prattsburg,  New  York,  had  consented  to  become  his  wife  and 
to  share  with  him  all  the  privations  and  experiences  of  his 
missionary  labors.  He  also  secured  as  co-workers  the  Rev. 
Henry  H.  Spalding  and  his  young  bride,  both  of  whom  joy- 
fully accepted  the  call  to  service  in  Oregon  as  a  call  to  the 
service  of  Christ,  and  under  conditions  that  would  have  ap- 
palled persons  of  worldly  minds.  These  two  young  couples, 
with  the  two  Indians  boys,  were  joined  at  Liberty;  Missouri, 
by  W.  H.  Gray,  assistant  missionary,  and  a  sort  of  practical 
worker;  and  these  seven  persons,  all  moving  under  the  auspices 
of  the  American  Board  for  Foreign  Missions,  joined  in  May, 
1836,  an  expedition  of  the  American  Fur  Company  on  their 
way  to  the  Oregon  territory,  and  resolutely  set  their  faces 
towards  the  Columbia  River. 

The  incidents  of  this  journey  were  many,  and  are  of  inter- 
est as  records  of  personal  experiences  in  encountering  and 
overcoming  great  difficulties  and  dangers.  These  must  not  de- 
tain us  further  than  to  note  that  at  Fort  Hall  the  party  gave 
up  their  wagons,  as  they  were  told  that  it  was  impossible  to 
get  wheeled  vehicles  through  and  over  the  mountains.  The 
observations  of  Dr.  Whitman,  however,  on  this  journey,  con- 
vinced him  that  it  was  possible  to  take  wagons  through  to 
the  Columbia — a  conviction  that,  later,  he  was  to  see  made  a 
reality.  In  September  the  little  party  reached  the  Colum- 
bia River,  bringing  to  the  Oregon  territory  the  Christian  home 
with  all  its  sacred  and  tender  associations. 

On  the  arrival  of  Whitman  and  Spalding  at  Walla  Walla, 
a  trading  post  and  also  a  fort  on  a  small  tributary  of  the  Co- 
lumbia, they  were  hospitably  received,  and  they  found  that 
Dr.  Parker,  their  precursor  of  the  year  before,  had  looked 
the  field  over  and  had  designated  Waiilatpu  {the  place  of  rye 
and  grass)  as  the  proper  place  for  the  mission.  This  was  situ- 
ated about  twenty-five  miles  from  Fort  Walla  Walla,  in  the 
midst  of  a  beautiful  and  fertile  section  of  the  country.  The 
Indians  roundabout  were  friendly. 


It  is  not  m]'  purpose,  nor  is  this  the  occasion,  to  enter  upon 
the  discussion  of  the  value  of  the  services  rendered  to  the 
building  up  oi*  civil  government  in  these  imperial  common- 
wealths by  the  devoted  Methodist  and  American  Board  mis- 
sionaries, who  in  advance  of  the  great  tide  of  immigration  which 
rolled  into  the  territory  from  1842  to  1846,  had  settled  and  made 
their  homes  in  the  beautiful  valleys  of  the  Willamette  and 
Walla  Walla.  They  were  indeed  an  heroic  little  band  in  this 
great  wilderness 

"Where   rolls  the   Oregon,  and  hears  no  sound 
Save    his    own    dashings." 

In  1839  the  number  of  persons  connected  with  the  Metho- 
dist mission  was  seventy-seven,  and  the  number  connected  with 
the  other  missions  was  sixteen,  with  twenty  more  on 
the  way.  Jn  1842  the  latter  had  broadened  its  work  to  three 
stations — V/aiilatpu,  Lapwai  and  Chemakane.  P'ew  as  were  the 
missionaries  in  numbers,  the  missions  themselves  were  radiat- 
ing points  from  whiclw  went  forth  steady  streams  of  infor- 
mation to  the  people  of  the  East  in  regard  to  the  attractive 
climate,  the  wonderful  fertility  of  the  soil  and  the  great  beauty 
of  physical  aspect.  Then,  too,  when  the  great  tide  of  immi- 
gration set  in,  the  missions  became  welcoming  stations,  sweet 
havens  of  rest  to  the  hardy  pioneers  after  their  perilous  jour- 
neys across  the  plains  and  over  the  mountains.  If  in  their 
religious  zeal  the  missionaries  seemed  to  overlook  the  child- 
ish imperfections  of  the  Indian's  mind,  and  tried  to  give  him 
theological  doctrines  that  were  beyond  his  comprehension, 
the  while  presenting  him  with  a  system  of  Christian  ethics 
which  they  were  openly  violating  bj'  taking  to  themselves 
his  choicest  lands,  let  is  pass.  The  day  of  scientific  ethnology 
had  not  come,  and  the  proper  way  to  civilize  aboriginal  man 
was  not  yet  comprehended.  With  all  their  shortcomings,  we 
well  may  honor  these  devoted  servants  of  Christ  who,  brav- 
ing every  privation  and  danger  that  they  might  spread  the 
gospel  of  salvation  as  they  understood  it,  to  the  Indians, 
brought  hither  the  Christian  home  and  the  school,  and  became 
no  inconsiderable  factors  in  wresting  this  fair  and  bounteous 
region  from  the  hands  of  a  giant  monopoly. 


It  is  in  evidence  that  about  1839  the  Catholics  made  their 
presence  felt  among  the  Indians  and  the  few  Canadian  set- 
tlers in  the  territory.  The  mystic  rites  of  the  Catholic  service 
specially  appealed  to  the  Indian;  and  the  priests,  by  the  sim- 
plicity of  their  lives  and  by  evidencing  no  disposition  to  take 
possession  of  the  country  for  the  benefit  of  white  settlers,  easily 
ingratiated  themselves  with  the  Indians,  thereby  arousing  the 
hostility  of  the  missionaries;  and  thus  there  was  injected  into 
the  early  settlement  of  the  territory  somewhat  of  the  religious 
strife  between  Catholics  and  Protestants  which  for  centuries  has 
been  the  disgrace  of  Christendom.  The  incidents  of  this  strife 
need  not  detain  us  further  than  to  remark  that  the  Indians 
for  whose  spiritual  good  both  parties  were  ostensibly  striving, 
were  more  or  less  demoralized  by  the  un-Christian  conduct 
of  their  teachers;  and  if  in  some  instances  they  showed  pref- 
erence for  the  Catholics,  it  must  be  considered  that  the  Catho- 
lics were  not  appropriating  their  lands. 

During  this  period  neither  the  people  nor  the  government 
of  the  United  States  were  ignorant  of,  or  idle  in  regard  to,  their 
interests  in  the  Oregon  territory.  The  report  of  the  Lewis  and 
Clark  expedition,  the  diplomatic  correspondence  with  England, 
the  report  of  Commodore  Wilkes,  who  visited  the  territory 
in  1840,  on  his  return  from  Japan;  the  quite  elaborate  report 
of  T.  J.  Farnham,  who  made  extensive  explorations  in  the 
territory  in  1840  in  behalf  of  proposed  immigration  from  Illi- 
nois, the  discussions  in  Congress  and  the  letters  of  the  mis- 
sionaries, all  had  made  known  the  exceeding  richness  of  the 
territory  and  had  aroused  a  widespread  interest  in  it;  and  it 
was  only  waiting  for  the  government  to  establish  its  author- 
ity in  the  territory  by  some  understanding  or  treaty  with 
England,  for  a  great  tide  of  immigration  to  get  in  motion  for 
the  region  on  the  Columbia  River. 

It  has  been  often  stated,  and  by  persons  who  should  have 
known  the  facts  in  the  case,  that  in  1842,  when  the  Webster- 
Ashburton  treaty  took  place  between  England  and  the  United 
States  with  reference  to  our  northeastern  boundary,  the  north- 
western boundary  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  to  the  Pacific  Coast 
was  deliberately   put   aside   as   of   little   consequence,   and   that 


our  government  then  was  so  indifferent  to  the  whole  question 
that  it  stood  ready  to  trade  away  our  rights  to  the  better  por- 
tions of  the  Oregon  territory  for  some  fishery  considerations 
on  the  Atlantic  Coast.    Let  us  look  at  the  facts. 

It  is  a  matter  of  common  knowledge  that  between  nations 
possessing  extensive  unexplored  regions  of  coterminous  ter- 
ritory and  enjoying  much  commercial  intercourse,  there  fre- 
quently arise  international  issues  of  varying  degrees  of  impor- 
tance, which  through  prolonged  negotiation  get  diplomatically 
grouped  as  a  distinct  and  interrelated  body  of  issues.  The 
first  treaty  between  England  and  the  United  States,  in  1783, 
which  had  to  be  very  general  along  main  lines,  left  a  number 
of  questions  of  minor  importance  to  be  settled  by  the  "logic 
of  events*'  in  the  future  intercourse  between  the  two  peoples 
who  were  henceforth  to  be  independent  of  one  another.  Among 
the  unsettled  or  undefined  questions  were:  A  defitiite  boundary 
line  between  the  Northern  States  and  Canada;  the  rights  of 
sovereignty  on  land  and  sea  as  between  the  two  nations;  the 
rendition  of  fugitives  from  justice;  fishery  rights  alonjjj  the  At- 
lantic Coast;  the  right  of  search  on  board  each  other's  ships, 
etc.  These  were  prolific  sources  for  disputes,  and  for  over 
fifty  years — in  fact,  from  the  very  beginning  of  our  govern- 
ment— some  of  the  disagreements  had  existed,  until  the  dip- 
lomatic intercourse  between  the  two  nations  had  become  ?o 
completely  befogged  with  the  various  projects  and  counter 
projects  for  their  adjustment,  that  at  the  beginning  of  the  ad- 
ministrations of  Presidents  Harrison  and  Tyler,  in  1841,  our 
foreign  relations  were  in  a  very  critical  condition.  Daniel  Web- 
ster was  Secretary  of  State.  Wise,  practical  statesman  that  he 
was,  he  saw  that  the  only  way  to  a  peaceful  adjustment  wa-s 
by  the  balancing  of  equivalents;  that  is,  by  giving  and  taking 
on  both  sides.  To  this  end  he  reduced  the  related  issues  to 
the  fewest  number,  and  these  to  their  vital  points.  He  found 
the  Oregon  boundary  among  questions  at  issue.  He  saw  that 
this  was  an  issue  wholly  unrelated  to  the  other  and  more  press- 
ing ones,  that  it  could  afford  to  wait  until  its  consideration 
could  be  taken  up  entirely  independent  of  other  issues  and  set- 
tled on  its  own  merits;  that  its  introduction  alongside  the  older 


and  more  pressing  ones  would  inevitably  lead  to  some  unfavor- 
able compromise  on  ithe  Oregon  issue  itself,  or  com- 
pel an  unfavorable  compromise  on  the  other  issues  in  its  be- 
half. He  therefore  rejected  it  entirely  from  consideration,  and 
subsequent  events  fully  justified  his  action  in  doing  so.  He 
was  completely  successful  in  adjusting  the  other  issues  in  the 
memorable  treaty  of  1842;  and  four  years  later,  when  the  Ore- 
gon Treaty  came  before  the  Senate,  amicably  proposing  the 
forty-ninth  parallel  as  the  boundary  line  of  the  two  govern- 
ments in  the  territory,  Mr.  Webster  was  there  as  Senator 
from  Massachusetts  to  give  the  treaty  his  hearty  support.  The 
history  of  the  diplomatic  negotiations  between  England  and 
the  United  States  over  the  Oregon  boundary  question  shows 
that  our  government  from  the  beginning  maintained  that  the 
forty-ninth  parallel  was  the  proper  boundary  line,  and  that 
the  key-note  of  Mr.  Webster's  policy  was  this  line  and  nothing 
else.  The  people  of  the  region  of  the  Columbia,  therefore,  owe 
a  special  debt  of  gratitude  to  Mr.  Webster  for  his  wisdom  in 
keeping  the. Oregon  question  distinct  from  the  unrelated  issues 
with  which  he  had  to  deal  in  the  perplexing  negotiations  of 

It  would  be  pleasant  on  this  occasion,  if  time  permitted,  to 
dwell  upon  some  of  the  incidents  and  experiences  of  that  great 
immigration  into  this  territory  which  took  place  between  1841 
and  1S46,  when  the  sovereign  title  to  this  fair  domain  passed 
peacefully  and  permanently  into  the  hands  of  the  United  States. 
One  of  the  most  picturesque  scenes  in  the  early  history  of 
New  England  is  the  migration  of  Thomas  Hooker  and  his 
church,  in  June,  1635,  from  Cambridge  to  the  banks  of  the  Con- 
necticut River,  where  they  forthwith  made  the  beginnings  of 
the  town  of  Hartford.  The  picture  of  that  earnest  party  in 
pursuit  of  a  lofty  purpose,  a  party  of  husbands  and  wives  with 
their  children,  taking  with  them  their  cattle  and  their  house- 
hold goods  and  led  by  their  sturdy  pastor,  the  great  founder  of 
American  democracy,  is  a  very  pleasant  one.  Mrs.  Hooker 
being  in  poor  health,  was  carried  all  the  way  on  a  litter.  That 
was  a  pilgrimage  of  something  more  than  one  hundred  miles, 
through  a  country  not  hard  to  traverse,  under  June  skies.    This 


Massachusetts  pilgrimage  in  behalf  of  civil  and  religious  lib- 
erty has  long  been  a  theme  on  which  historians  and  liberal- 
minded  people  have  loved  to  dwell.  Kut  how  insigniticant  it 
appears  in  comparison  with  the  great  pilgrimage  to  Oregon, 
which  took  place  in  1843,  and  which  virtually  determined  the 
destiny  of  this  great  region  for  all  time  to  come!  The  story 
of  this  pilgrimage  is  yet  to  be  told.  It  comprised  an  organiza- 
tion  of  nearly  a  thousand  persons  gathered  principally  from 
the  States  bordering  on  the  Mississippi.  It  was  made  up  largely 
of  families  with  their  children,  taking  with  them  their  house- 
hold goods  and  large  numbers  of  horses  and  cattle.  The  jour- 
ney was  one  of  over  two  thousand  miles  across  arid  plains, 
broad  and  rapid  rivers  and  over  almost  impassable  mountains. 
Viewed  in  its  historic  aspect  this  was  not  merely  a  move- 
ment of  individuals  intent  upon  bettering  their  material  con- 
dition. It  was  all  this  and  more.  It  was  the  carrying  of  social 
and  political  organization  from  the  region  of  the  Mississippi 
to  the  region  of  the  Columbia,  and  laying  the  foundations  for 
civil  government  in  the  three  imperial  commonwealths  that  were 
to  be. 

This  great  movement  has  suffered  in  its  historic  importance 
by  being  presented,  not  as  the  legitimate  outgrowth  of  the  so- 
cial and  political  activity  of  the  time  which  was  carrying  the 
"Star  of  Empire'*  westward,  but  rather  as  the  result  of  the  po- 
litical labors  of  the  American  Board  missionary — Dr.  Marcus 
Whitman — that  it  was  in  fact  but  the  culmination  of  his  wise, 
far-seeing  labors  to  save  the  territory  from  becoming  exclusive- 
ly a  British  posession  through  the  machinations  of  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company  and  the  Catholics.  So  much  has  been  written 
upon  the  "Saving  of  Oregon''  by  Dr.  Whitman  that  a  brief 
statement  of  his  identification  with  the  settlement  of  the  terri- 
tory and  the  establishment  of  the  sovereignty  of  the  United 
States  to  it,  is  admissible  here. 

Wc  have  seen  that  Dr.  Whitman  and  Mr.  Spalding,  acting 
under  the  auspices  of  the  American  Board  of  Commissioners  for 
Foreign  Missions,  established  a  mission  to  the  Indians  in  the 
Walla  Walla  Valley  in  1836.  It  is  evident  that  early  in  1842 
the    Board   was    seriously    exercised    over    the    future    of    their 


mission.  The  Board  was  apprised  of  some  dissensions  within 
the  mission  itself,  and  of  serious  dangers  surrounding  it,  aris- 
ing from  the  growing  hostility  of  the  Indians,  which  it  was 
alleged  was  secretly  abetted  by  the  Catholic  priests  as  well 
as  by  the  roving  trappers  and  adventurers  in  the  territory. 
Then,  too,  the  discussion  of  the  Oregon  question  in  Congress 
and  by  the  press  was  bringing  the  settlement  of  the  terri- 
tory, the  establishment  of  civil  government  and  the  treatment 
of  the  Indians  therein,  into  the  political  arena,  where  it  was 
felt  that  the  mission  had  no  place.  Accordingly,  the  officers 
wisely  decided  to  curtail  the  mission,  with  the  evident  pur- 
pose of  withdrawing  it  altogether.  In  the  Spring  of  1842  in- 
structions were  sent  to  Dr.  Whitman  to  give  up  two  of  his 
stations,  to  have  Mr.  Spalding  return  to  the  East,  and  to  con- 
centrate the   remaining  mission    force  at  one   station. 

Dr.  Whitman  received  these  instructions  in  the  latter  part  of 
September,  1842.  He  was  greatly  exercised  over  them.  He  at 
once  called  a  council  of  his  co-workers  and  laid  before  them 
the  instructions  of  the  board.  The  majority  were  at  first  in 
favor  of  complying  with  the  orders  of  the  Board,  but  Dr. 
Whitman  took  decided  ground  against  such  action.  The  peo- 
ple in  Boston  did  not  understand  the  situation.  Great  efforts 
and  sacrifices  had  been  made  to  establish  the  missions,  and  it 
was  never  so  much  needed  as  now,  with  the  Papists  active 
among  the  Indians,  trying  to  undo  the  work  that  had  been 
done,  and  the  tide  of  immigration  that  was  to  control  the  des- 
tiny of  the  territory  just  setting  in.  The  force  of  the  mis- 
sion should  be  increased  rather  than  diminished;  it  should  have 
an  additional  preacher,  with  the  addition  of  five  to  ten  Chris- 
tian laymen,  the  latter  to  look  after  the  material  or  business 
interests  of  the  mission  in  dealing  with  the  Indians  and  the 
immigrants.  Dr.  Whitman  was  a  resolute,  forceful  man.  He 
closed  the  discussion  by  announcing  his  purpose  to  start  at 
once  to  Boston  to  present  his  views  to  the  Board  before  any 
definite  action  was  taken  upon  the  instructions.  His  a'sso- 
ciates,  seeing  his  determination,  reluctantly  acquiesced  in  his 
plan,  which  involved  a  perilous  Winter  journey  over  the  moun- 
tains.   This  did  not  dishearten  the  resolute  Doctor,  and  on  the 


3d  of  October,  1842,  he  set  out  on  his  journey.  It  was  one 
of  great  privations  and  many  hair-breadth  escapes.  He  reached 
Boston  the  last  of  March,  1843.  There  is  some  question  as  to 
the  manner  of  his  reception  by  the  officers  of  the  Board.  It 
would  appear  that  his  disobedience  of  orders  and  his  crossing 
the  continent  to  challenge  in  person  the  wisdom  of  the  Board 
was  not  regarded  with  entire  favor.  It  is  said  that  his  recep- 
tion was  chilly  and  that  the  Board  refused  to  pay  the  expenses 
of  the  trip.  Be  that  as  it  may,  he  succeeded  in  getting  a  sus- 
pension of  the  order  recalling  Mr.  Spalding  and  curtailing  the 
mission  stations,  and  he  was  authorized  to  secure  additional 
Christian  laymen  to  assist  in  the  practical  work  of  the  mis- 
sion, providing  this  could  be  done  "without  expense  to  the 
Board  or  any  connection  with  it."  It  Ooes  not  appear  that  he 
succeeded  in  getting  any  addition  to  the  missionary  force. 

While  m  the  East  Dr.  Whitman  visited  Washington.  In  view 
of  the  very  great  interest  in  Oregon,  his  evident  purpose  was 
to  lay  before  the  proper  authorities  his  conclusions,  derived 
from  his  experience,  as  to  the  practicability  of  a  wagon  route 
to  the  Columbia;  and  also  to  urge  the  desirability  of  the  gov- 
ernment establishing  a  mail  route  from  the  Missouri  to  the 
Columbia,  with  government  posts  or  stations  along  the  way, 
not  only  for  protecting  and  aiding  the  immigrants,  but  also 
for  the  purpose  of  extending  a  measure  of  civil  government 
over  the  vast  region  between  these  two  rivers.  In  returning 
Dr.  Whitman  joined,  in  May,  1843,  the  great  immigrant  expe 
dition  to  which  I  have  referred  and  which  he  found  com- 
pletely organized  and  on  its  way  when  he  reached  the  Missouri 
River.  That  he  freely  rendered  valuable  assistance  to  this 
expedition  as  pilot  and  counsellor  during  its  long  and  arduous 
journey  is  not  questioned.  Such  service  was  entii'ely  consistent 
with  his  robust  Christian  character.  But  the  claim  put  for- 
ward, many  years  after  his  death,  that  this  whole  expedition 
was  the  direct  outgrowth  of  his  efforts  to  save  Oregon,  that  he 
organized  it  and  heroically  led  it,  with  all  its  impedimenta 
of  horses,  cattle  and  wagons,  that  he  might  demonstrate  to  a 
doubting  government  at  Washington  the  entire  feasibility  of 
such  an   undertaking,   is   wholly   a    fiction    of   the   imagination. 


This  expedition  was  the  outgrowth  of  the  westward  movement 
of  the  American  people  in  the  development  of  their  social  and 
political  life,  and  it  would  have  occurred  just  as  it  did  had  Dr. 
Whitman  never  been   born. 

The  .trip  of  Dr.  Whitman  to  the  East  was  not  without  its 
difeful  effects  upon  Dr.  Whitman  himself.  His  return,  accom- 
panied by  such  an  army  of  occupation  to  appropriate  their 
lands,  aroused  to  greater  fury  than  ever  the  bitter  fury  of 
the  Indians.  He  became  a  marked  man  for  vengeance.  His 
God  could  not  b|  on  the  Indians'  side.  In  spite  of  sullen  dis- 
content and  warnings,  he  and  his  devoted  wife  struggled  val- 
iantly at  their  post  for  four  long  years,  when  they  were  bru- 
tally murdered  by  the  very  Indians  they  were  endeavoring  to 
uplift  and  to  save,  and  the  mission  came  to  an  end. 

We  do  well  on  this  commemorative  occasion  to  honor  the 
faithful  missionary  who  endured  severe  privations,  braved  great 
dangers  and  fell  a  martyr  to  the  missionary  work  to  which 
he  had  devoted  his  life.  But  we  should  do  him  great  injus- 
tice to  ascribe  to  him  projects  of  empire  for  which  neither 
his  words  nor  his  acts  give  any  warrant,  which  necessitate 
the  appropriation  to  him  of  the  labors  of  others  and  require 
an  entire  itiisreading  of  our  diplomatic  history  in  regard  to  the 
territory  of  Oregon. 

To  return  to  the  immigration  of  1843.  After  four  months' 
arduous  journey,  this  vanguard  of  the  great  army  of  occu- 
pation that  was  to  follow,  with  its  convoy  of  horses  and  cattle, 
reached  Oregon,  and  its  numbers  spread  themselves  over  the 
valleys  of  the  lower  Columbia  and  immediately  set  to  work 
in  true  American  fashion  to  establish  homes  and  schools  and 
to  organize  a  provisional  government  of  their  own.  Among 
them  were  a  number  of  persons  of  great  force  of  character, 
who  gave  the  impress  of  their  personalities  upon  the  religious, 
industrial  and  political  development  of  the  territory.  Having 
shown  the  way,  and  having  demonstrated  the  complete  feasi- 
bility of  an  overland  route  to  Oregon,  they  were  followed  by 
other  liardy  pioneers  from  the  States,  and  before  three  more 
years   had   passed   there    was.  an    American  population  in  the 


territory  of  over  twelve  thousand  persons — no  miscellaneous 
rabble  of  adventurers,  but  >taunch  and  self-ri>i>ecting  men  and 
women,  come  to  build  up  homes— the  sturdy  >tuft  of  which  a 
nation's  greatness   is  made. 

Here  we  come  to  the  end  of  the  story,  for  the  title  of  the 
American  people  to  the  possession  of  the  Oregon  territory 
which  was  originated  in  the  movements  df  the  good  ship  Colum- 
bia a  century  ago  was  practically  consummated  by  the  rush  of 
immigrants  half-way  between  that  time  and  the  present.  Title  (in 
fiill  measure)  by  occupation  was  thus  added  to  title  by  discovery, 
and  when  in  1846  the  question  of  sovereignty  again  came  up 
for  consideration  between  Great  Britain  and  the  United  States 
the  great  territory  was  amicably  divided  and  we  had  little  dif- 
ficulty in  keeping  for  ourselves  the  land  upon  which  to  erect 
the  three  goodly  States  of  Oregon,  Washington  and  Idaho,  be- 
sides the  section  that  fills  out  the  contour  of  Montana  and 

Perhaps  no  one  who  ha^  not  visited  this  glorious  country 
can  adequately  feel  the  signitkance  of  these  beginnings  of  its 
history.  When  one  has  spent  some  little  time  in  this  cli- 
mate— unsurpassed  in  all  America — and  looked  with  loving  eye 
upon  scenery  rivaling  that  of  Italy  and  Switzerland;  when  one 
has  sufficiently  admired  the  purple  mountain  ranges,  the  snow- 
clad  peaks,  the  green  and  smiling  valley?,  the  giant  forests; 
when  one  has  marvelled  at  the  multifarious  and  boundless  eco- 
nomic resources  and  realizes  how  all  this  has  been  made  a  part 
of  our  common  heritage  as  Americans,  one  feels  that  this  latest 
chapter  in  the  discovery  and  occupation  of  our  continent 
is  by  no  means  the  least  important.  All  honor  to  the  saga- 
cious mariner  who  first  sailed' upon  these  waters  a  century  ago! 
And  all  honor  to  the  brave  pioneers  who^c  labors  and  suffer- 
ings crowned  the  work  I  Through  long  ages  to  come,  theirs 
shall  be  a  sweet  and  shining  memory. 


Brief  Biographical  Sketch  of  Dr.  John  Fiske,  of  Cambridge, 


John  Fiske,  who  delivered  the  oratioti  at  the  Columbia  Cen- 
tennial Celebration  at  Astoria,  was  born  in  Hartford,  Conn., 
March  30,  1842.  He  was  the  only  child  of  parents  who  traced 
their  ancestral  lines  to  the  fine  old  Philadelphia  Quakers  on  the 
father's  side,  and  on  the  mother's  to  Puritans  who  came  from 
Suffolk  to  America  in  1641.  At  the  age  of  11  years  he  had  not 
only  read  all  of  Shakespeare,  a  large  part  of  Milton,  Bunyan, 
Pope,  Gibbon,  Prescott,  Robertson  and  most  of  Froissart,  but 
was  well  up  in  mathematics,  in  which  he  delighted,  and  had 
made  marked  progress  in  Latin  and  Greek.  At  13  he  was  more 
than  ready  for  college,  and  read  Herodotus  and  Plato  at  sight. 
He  was  also  passionately  fond  of  outdoor  sports,  in  which  he 
excelled.  At  the  age  of  18  he  entered  college,  joining  the 
sophomore  class  at  Harvard,  having  spent  the  intervening  years 
in  studying  Hebrew,  Sanskrit  and  all  the  so-called  modern  lan- 
guages, besides  making  himself  familiar  with  the  works  of  La- 
place, Cuvier,  Lamarck,  Agassiz,  Darwin  and  a  host  of  other 
thinkers.  While  in  college  he  was  so  independent  in  his  studies 
of  the  daily  recitations  that  his  standing  in  the  class  was  ludi- 
crously poor.  He  gave  his  time  chiefly  to  ancient  mediaeval  his- 
tory and  philosophy,  comparative  philology  and  modern  litera- 
ture, adding  Icelandic,  Gothic,  Danish,  Swedish,  Dutch  and 
romance  to  his  store  of  languages,  also  making  a  beginning  in 

In  the  North  American  Review  for  October,  1863,  appeared 
his  essay  on  the  "Evolution  of  Language,*'  which  attracted  wide 
attention.  His  "Mr.  Buckle's  Fallacies"  drew  the  attention  of 
Herbert  iSpencer  and  led  to  a  warm  and  lasting  friendship. 

Upon  graduating  from  college  in  1863  Mr.  Fiske  entered  the 
Harvard  Law  School,  and  the  following  year  was  admitted  to 
the  Suffolk  bar,  although  he  remained  in  the  law  school  until 
1865.  While  pursuing  all  the  courses  in  law  he  devoted  much 
time  to  a  study  of  the  Arabs,  Moors  and  Turks,  and  their  rela- 
tions to  European  history.  During  this  period  he  was  happily 
married.     After  leaving  the  law  school  he  opened  a  law  office 


in  Boston,  but  abandoned  it  after  six  months,  perceiving  that 
he  was  better  fitted  for  literary  pursuits. 

Since  leaving  Harvard  as  a  student  he  has  been  connected 
with  it  as  temporary  instructor  in  history,  as  a  lecturer  on 
philosophy,  as  assistant  librarian,  and  serving  as  overseer  dur- 
ing two  consecutive  terms  from  1879  to  1891.  In  1884  Mr.  Fiske 
was  elected  university  professor  of  American  History  of  the 
Washington  University  of  St.  Louis,  Mo.,  a  position  which  he 
has  held  ever  since,  going  there  every  year  to  give  his  course 
of  lectures  from  his  home  at  Cambridge.  One  of  Mr.  Fiske's 
most  important  works  has  just  been  issued  in  two  volumes  from 
the  Riverside  Press,  entitled  "The  Discovery  of  America."  Thi.s 
had  been  preceded  by  "The  Beginnings  in  New  England,"  in  one 
volume;  "The  American  Revolution,"  in  two;  "The  Critical 
Period  of  American  History,'*  in  one.  He  is  still  working  on 
American  history,  and  hopes  of  course  some  time  to  fill  out  the 
intervals  between  and  after  these  epochs  so  as  to  make  a  com- 
plete work  on  American  history. 


MASS.,  MAY  11,  1792. 

The  First  American  Vessel  to  Circumnavigate  the  Globe. 
By  Rev.  Edward  G.  Porter,  Boston. 

The  First  Voyage. 

Few  ships,  if  any,  in  our  merchant  marine,  since  the  or- 
ganization of  the  repubHc,  have  acquired  such  distinction  as 
the  Columbia.  By  two  noteworthy  achievements,  a  hundred 
years  ago,  she  attracted  the  attention  of  the  commercial  world 
and  rendered  a  service  to  the  United  States  unparalleled  in 
our  history.  She  was  the  first  American  vessel  to  carry  the 
Stars  and  Stripes  around  the  globe;  and  by  her  discovery  of 
"The  Great  River  of  the  West,"  to  which  her  name  was  given, 
she  furnished  us  with  the  title  to  our  possession  of  that  mag- 
nificent domain  which  today  is  representcfl  by  the  flourishing 
young  states  of  Oregon,  Washington  and  Idaho,  and  in  addi- 
tion, those  parts  of  Montana  and  Wyoming  west  of  the  Rocky 

The  famous  ship  was  well-known  and  much  talked  about 
at  the  time,  but  her  records  have  mostly  disappeared  and  there 
is  very  little  knowledge  at  present  concerning  her. 

The  Executive  Board  of  the  Columbia  River  Centennial 
Celebration  Society,  through  Mr.  George  H.  Himes,  Secretary, 
(who  applied  to  me  six  years  ago  for  a  sketch  of  the  Colum- 
bia), for  the  centennial  observance  at  Astoria  of  the  Colu'n- 
bia's  exploit,  having  applied  to  the  writer  for  information 
upon  the  subject,  in  which  they  are  naturally  so  much  inter- 
ested, he  gladly  responds  by  giving  an  outline  of  the  facts, 
gathered  mainly  from  private  sources,  and  illustrated  with 
original  drawings  made  at  the  time  on  board  the  ship,  and 
hitherto  not  known  to  the  public. 


The  publication  in  1784  of  Captain  Cook*s  journal  of  his 
third  Toyage  awakened  a  widespread  interest  in  the  possibility 
of  an  important  trade  on  the  Northwest  Coast.  In  Boston 
there  were  a  few  gentlemen  who  took  up  the  matter  seriously 
and  determined  to  embark  in  the  enterprise  on  their  own 
account.  The  leading  spirit  among  them  was  Joseph  Barrell, 
a  merchant  of  distinction,  wh<ise  financial  ability,  cultivated 
tastes  and  wide  acquaintance  with  affairs,  gave  him  a  position 
of  acknowledged  influence  in  business  and  social  circles.  As- 
sociated with  him,  in  close  companionship,  was  Charles  Bul- 
finch,  a  recent  graduate  of  Harvard,  who  had  just  returned 
from  pursuing  special  studies  in  Europe.  His  father,  Dr. 
Thomas  Bulfinch,  lived  in  Bowdoin  Square  and  often  enter- 
tained at  his  house  the  friends  who  were  inclined  to  favor  the 
new  project.  They  read  together  Cook's  report  of  an  abundant 
supply  of  valuable  furs  offered  by  the  natives  in  exchange 
for  beads,  knives  and  other  trifles.  These  sea  otter  skins,  he 
said,  were  sold  by  the  Russians  to  the  Chinese  at  from  $16  to 
$20  each.  "Here  is  a  rich  harvest,"  said  Mr.  Barrell,  "to  be 
reaped  by  those  who  go  in  first." 

Organizers  of  the   Expedition. 

Accordingly,  in  the  year  1787,  they  made  all  the  necessary 
arrangements  for  fitting  out  an  expedition.  The  other  patrons 
were  Samuel  Brown,  a  prosperous  merchant;  John  Derby,  a 
shipmaster  of  Salem;  Captain  Crowell  Hatch,  a  resident  of 
Cambridge,  and  John  Marden  Pintard,  of  the  well-known 
New  York  house  of  Lewis,  Pintard  &  Co. 

These  six  gentlemen  subscribed  over  $50,000,  dividing  the 
stock  into  fourteen  shares,  and  purchased  the  ship  Columbia 
or,  as  it  was  after  this  often  called,  the  Columbia  Rediviva. 
She  was  built  in  1773  by  James  Briggs,  at  Hobart's  Landing, 
on  the  once  busy  little  stream  known  as  North  River,  the 
natural  boundary  between  Scituate  and  Marshfield.  One  who 
sees  it  today,  peacefully  meandering  through  quiet  meadows 
and  around  fertile  slopes,  would  hardly  believe  that  over  a 
thousand  sea-going  vessels   have  been   built  upon  its   banks. 


The  Ship  Columbia. 
The  Columbia  was  a  full-rigged  ship,  eighty-three  feet  long, 
of  212  tons  burden.  She  had  two  decks,  a  figure-head  and  a 
square  stern,  and  was  mounted  with  ten  guns.  (A  piece  of 
oak  taken  from  the  Columbia  in  1801,  when  she  was  broken  up, 
has  been  given  to  the  writer  for  presentation  to  the  Oregon 
Pioneer  Association.  It  is  probably  the  only  piece  in  ex- 
istence.) A  consort  was  provided  for  her  in  the  Washington, 
or  Lady  Washington,  as  she  was  afterwards  called — a  sloop 
of  ninety  tons — designed  especially  to  collect  furs  by  cruising 
among  the  islands  and  inlets  of  the  coast  in  the  expected  trade 
with  the  Indians.  These  vessels  seem  ridiculously  small  to  us 
of  the  present  day,  but  they  were  stanchly  built  and  manned 
by  skillful  navigators. 

As  master  of  the  Columbia  the  owners  selected  Captain 
John  Kendrick,  an  experienced  officer  of  about  forty-five  years 
of  age,  who  had  done  considerable  privateering  in  the  Revolu- 
tion, and  had  since  been  in  charge  of  several  vessels  in  the 
merchant  service.  His  home  was  at  Wareham,  where  he  had 
built  a  substantial  house  and  reared  a  family  of  six  children. 
The  venerable  homestead  may  still  be  seen,  shaded  by  trees 
which  the  captain  planted. 

For  the  command  of  the  sloop  a  man  was  chosen  who  had 
been  already  in  the  service  of  two  of  the  owners,  Messrs. 
Brown  and  Hatch,  as  master  of  their  ship  Pacific,  in  the  South 
Carolina  trade,  Captain  Robert  Gray,  an  able  seaman,  who  had 
also  been  an  officer  in  the  Revolutionary  navy,  and  who  was  a 
personal  friend  of  Captain  Kendrick. 

Captain  Gray. 
Gray  was  a  native  of  Tiverton,  R.  I.,  and  a  descendant  of 
one  of  the  early  settlers  of  Plymouth.  After  his  marriage  in 
1794,  his  home  was  in  Boston,  on  Salem  street,  where  he  had 
a  family  of  five  children.  His  great  grandson,  Mr.  Clifford 
Gray  Twombly,  of  Newton,  has  inherited  one  of  the  silver 
cups,  inscribed  with  the  initials  "R.  G.,"  which  the  captain 
carried  with  him  around  the  world. 


Sea  letters  were  issued  by  the  Federal  and  state  govern- 
ments for  the  use  of  the  expedition,  and  a  medal  was  struck 
to  commemorate  its  departure.  Hundreds  of  these  medals,  in 
bronze  and  pewter,  were  put  on  board  for  distribution  among 
the  people  whom  the  voyagers  might  meet,  together  with  a 
much  larger  number  of  the  new  cents  and  half-cents  which 
the  State  of  Massachusetts  had  coined  that  year.  Several  of 
these  medals  and  coins  have  since  been  found  on  the  track 
of  the  vessels,  among  Indians,  Spaniards  and  Hawaiians.  A 
few  in  silver  and  bronze  are  preserved  in  the  families  of  some 
of  the  owners.  The  projectors  of  this  great  enterprise  spared 
neither  pains  nor  expense  to  give  these  vessels  a  complete 
outfit.  The  cargo  consisted  chiefly  of  the  necessary  stores 
and  a  good  supply  of  hardware,  useful  tools  and  utensils — to  be 
exchanged  for  furs  on  the  coast.  There  were  also  numerous 
trinkets  to  please  the  fancy  of  the  natives,  such  as  buttons, 
toys,  beads  and  necklaces,  jewsharps,  combs,  ear-rings,  look- 
ing-glasses, snuff  and  snuff-boxes. 

The  writer  has  full  lists  of  the  officers  and  crew.  Ken- 
drick's  first  mate  was  Simeon  Woodruff,  who  had  been  one  of 
Cook's  officers  in  his  last  voyage  to  the  Pacific.  The  second 
mate  was  Joseph  Ingraham,  who  was  destined,  later  on,  to  be 
a  conspicuous  figure  in  the  trade  which  he  helped  to  inaugu- 
rate. The  third  officer  was  Robert  Haswell,  the  son  of  a  lieu- 
tenant in  the  British  navy,  who  for  some  years  had  lived  at 
Nantasket,  now  Hull. 

Haswell  was  an  accomplished  young  officer  and  kept  a  care- 
ful record  of  the  expedition,  from  which  much  of  our  most 
accurate  information  is  derived.  He  was  also  a  clever  artist, 
and  made  some  of  the  sketches  of  the  vessel 

Next  to  him  was  John  B.  Cordis,  of  Charleston.  Richard  S. 
Howe  was  the  clerk;  Dr.  Roberts,  the  surgeon,  and  J.  Nutting, 
the  astronomer — or  schoolmaster,  as  he  was  sometimes  called. 
Mr.  Treat  shipped  as  furrier,  and  Davis  Coolidge  as  first  mate 
on  the  sloop. 


On  the  30th  of  iSeptember,  1787,  the  two  vessels  started  on 
their  long  voyage.  Many  friends  accompanied  them  down  the 
harbor  and  bade  them  farewell. 

The  owners  had  given  each  commander  minute  instructions 
as  to  the  route  and  the  manner  of  conducting  their  business. 
They  were  to  avoid  the  Spaniards,  if  possible,  and  always 
treat  the  Indians  with  respect,  giving  them  a  fair  compensa- 
tion in  trade.  The  skins,  when  collected,  were  to  be  taken  to 
Canton  and  exchanged  for  teas,  which  was  to  form  the  bulk 
of  the  cargo  back  to  Boston. 

Voyage  of  the   Columbia  and  Consort. 

They  had  a  good  run  to  the  Cape  Verde  Islands,  where 
they  remained  nearly  two  months  for  some  unexplained  cause. 
The  delay  occasioned  much  discontent  among  the  officers,  and 
Woodruff  and  Roberts. left  the  ship.  At  the  Falkland  Islands 
there  was  no  Wood  to  be  had,  but  plenty  of  geese  and  ducks, 
snipe  and  plover.  They  lingered  here  too  long,  and  Kendrick 
was  inclined  to  wait  for  another  season  before  attempting 
the  passage  around  Cape  Horn;  but  he  was  induced  to  pro- 
ceed, and  on  the  28th  of  February,  1788,  they  resumed  their 
voyage,  Haswell  having  been  transferred  to  the  sloop  as 
second  mate. 

They  soon  ran  into  heavy  seas,  and  for  nearly  a  month  they 
encountered  severe  westerly  gales,  during  which  the  Columbia 
was  thrown  upon  her  beam  ends  and  the  little  Washington  was 
so  completely  swept  by  the  waves  that  all  the  beds  and  cloth- 
ing on  board  were  completely  drenched,  and  with  no  oppor- 
tunity to  dry  them. 

Early  on  the  morning  of  April  1st,  the  vessels  lost  sight 
of  each  other  in  latitude  57  degrees,  57  minutes  south,  and 
longitude  92  degrees,  40  minutes  west.  It  was  intensely  cold, 
and  a  hurricane  was  raging.  The  crews  were  utterly  exhausted, 
and  hardly  a  man  was  able  to  go  aloft. 

At  last,  on  the  14th,  the  skies  brightened  and  they  had 
their  first  welcome  to  the   Pacific;   but  they  could  no  longer 


tee  anything  of  each  other,  and  so  each  vessel  proceeded  inde- 
pendently the  rest  of  the  way.  The  sloop  lay  off  the  island 
of  Masafuero,  but  the  surf  was  so  heavy  they  could  not  land. 
Xt  Ambrose  Island  they  sent  a  boat  ashore  and  found  plenty 
of  fish  and  seals,  but  no  fresh  water,  so  they  were  obliged  to 
put  themselves  on  a  short  allowance.  Almost  every  day  they 
saw  dolphins,  whales,  sea-lions  and  grampuses.  In  June  they 
caught  the  northeast  trade  wind,  and  on  August  2d,  to  their 
inexpressible  joy,  they  saw  the  coast  of  New  Albion  in  lati- 
tude 41  degrees,  near  Cape  Mendocino.  A  canoe  came  off 
with  ten  natives,  making  signs  of  friendship.  They  were 
mostly  clad  in  deerskins.  Captain  Gray  gave  them  some  pres- 
ents, and  now  for  a  time  our  mariners  enjoyed  a  little  well- 
earned  rest  and  feasted  their  eyes  upon  the  green  hills  and 
forests  as  they  cruised  leisurely  along  the  coast.  The  large 
Indian  population  was  revealed  by  the  camp-fires  at  night  and 
the  columns  of  smoke  by  day.  Many  of  them  came  paddling 
after  the  sloop,  waving  skins  and  showing  the  greatest  eager- 
ness to  get  aboard.  Others  were  evidently  frightened  and 
fled  to  the  woods.  In  latitude  44  degrees,  20  minutes,  they 
found  a  harbor  which  they  took  to  be  "the  entrance  of  a  large 
river,  where  great  commercial  advantages  might  be  reaped." 
This  was  probably  the  Alsea  River,  in  Oregon,  which  is  not 
as  large  as  they  thought.  The  natives  were  war-like,  and 
shook  long  spears  at  them  with  hideous  shouts  and  an  air  of 
defiance.  Near  Cape  Lookout  they  "made  a  tolerably  commo- 
dious harbor"  and  anchored  half  a  mile  off.  Canoes  brought 
out  to  them  delicious  berries  and  crabs  ready  boiled,  which  the 
poor  seamen  gladly  bought  for  buttons,  as  they  were  already 
suffering  from   scurvy. 

A  Fight  With  Indians. 

The  next  day  some  of  these  men  were  sent  ashore  in  the 
boat  with  Coolidge  and  Haswell  to  get  some  grass  and  shrubs 
for  their  stock.  The  captain's  boy,  Marcos,  a  black  fellow  who 
shipped  at  St.  lago,  accompanied  them;  and  while  he  was 
carrying  grass  down  to  the  boat  a  native  seized  his  cutlass, 
which  he  had  carelessly  stuck  in  the  sand,  and  ran  off  with  it 


toward  the  village.  Marcos  gave .  chase,  shouting  at  the  top 
of  his  voice.  The  officers  at  once  saw  the  peril,  and  hastened 
to  his  assistance,  but  it  was  too  late.  Marcos  had  the  thief  by 
the  neck,  but  the  savages  crowded  around  and  soon  drencfied 
their  knives  in  the  blood  of  the  unfortunate  youth.  He  re- 
laxed his  hold,  stumbled,  rose  again  and  staggered  toward  his 
friends,  but  received  a  flight  of  arrows  in  his  back  and  fell 
in  mortal  agony. 

The  officers  were  now  assailed  on  all  sides,  and  made  for 
the  boat  as  fast  as  possible  shooting  the  most  daring  of  the 
ringleaders  with  their  pistols  and  ordering  the  men  in  the 
boat  to  fire  and  cover  their  retreat.  One  of  the  sailors  who 
stood  near  by  to  help  them  was  totally  disabled  by  a  barbed 
arrow,  which  caused  great  loss  of  blood.  They  managed, 
however,  to  get  into  the  boat  and  push  off,  followed  by  a 
swarm  of  canoes.  A  brisk  fire  was  kept  up  till  they  ncared  the 
sloop,  which  discharged  several  swivel  shot  and  soon  scattered 
the  enemy.  It  was  a  narrow  escape.  Captain  Gray  had  but 
three  men  left  aboard  and  if  the  natives  had  captured  the  boat's 
crew,  as  they  came  so  near  doing,  they  could  easily  have  made 
a  prize  of  the  sloop.  Murderers'  Harbor  was  the  appropriate 
name  given  to  the  place.  Haswell  thought  it  must  be  "the 
entrance  of  the  River  of  the  West,*'  though  it  is  by  no  means, 
he  said,  "a  safe  place  for  any  but  a  very  small  vessel  to  enter.'* 
This  was  probably  near  Tillamook  Bay.  Some  of  the  rriaps  of 
that  time  had  vague  suggestions  of  a  supposed  great  river, 
whose  mouth  they  placed  almost  anywhere  between  the  Straits 
of  Fuca  and  California.  When  Gray  was  actually  near  the 
river,  which  he  afterward  discovered,  he  had  so  good  a  breeze 
that  he  "passed  a  considerable  length  of  coast"  without  stand- 
ing in — otherwise  the  centennial  of  Oregon  might  have  been 
celebrated  in  1888  instead  of  1892.  How  slight  a  cause  may  af- 
fect the  whole  history  of  a  nation. 

Further  north  they  saw  "exceeding  high  mountains  covered 
with  snow"  (August  21).  Evidently  Mount  Olympus.  A  few 
days  later  the  painstaking  mate  writes:  "I  am  of  the  opinion 
the  Straits  of  Juan  de  Fuca  exist,  though  Captain  Cook  posi- 
tively asserts  they  do  not." 


Passing  up  the  west  shore  of  the  island,  now  bearing  Van- 
couver's name,  they  found  a  good  sheltered  anchorage,  which 
they  named  for  the  governor  nnder  whose  patronage  they 
sailed.  This  was  in  Clayoquot  Sound  where,  on  the  next  voy- 
age, they  spent  a  Winter. 

At  last,  on  the  10th  of  August,  1788,  the  sloop  reached  its 
destined  haven  in  Nootka  Sound.  Two  English  vessels  from 
Macao,  under  Portuguese  colors,  were  lying  there,  the  Felice 
and  the  Iphigenia,  commanded  by  Captains  Meares  and  Doug- 
las, who  came  out  in  a  boat  and  offered  their  assistance  to  the 
little  stranger. 

The  acquaintance  proved  to  be  friendly,  although  there  were 
evidences,  later  on,  of  a  disguised  jealousy  between  them. 

Three  days  later  the  English  launched  a  small  schooner, 
which  they  named  "Northwest  America" — the  first  vessel  ever 
built  on  the  coast.  It  was  a  gala  day.  fittingly  celebrated  by 
salutes  and  festivities  in  which  the  Americans  cordially  joined. 
The  Washington  was  now  hauled  up  on  the  ways  for  graving, 
and  preparations  began  to  be  made  for  collecting  furs. 

One  day,  just  a  week  after  their  arrival,  they  saw  a  sail 
in  the  offing  which,  by  their  glasses,  they  soon  recognized  as 
the  long  lost  Columbia.  Great  was  their  eagerness  to  know 
what  had  befallen  her.  As  she  drew  near  it  became  evident 
that  her  crew  was  suffering  from  scurvy,  for  her  topsails  were 
reefed  and  her  topgallant  masts  were  down  on  deck,  although 
it  was  pleasant  weather.  Captain  Gray  immediately  took  the 
long  boat  and  went  out  to  meet  her,  and  shortly  before  sun- 
set she  anchored  within  forty  yards  of  the  sloop. 

A  Rough  Experience. 

The  Columbia  had  lost  two  men  by  scurvy  and  many  of  the 
crew  were  in  an  advanced  stage  of  that  dreaded  disease.  After 
parting  off  Cape  Horn  they  encountered  terrific  gales  and 
suffered  so  much  damage  that  they  had  to  put  in  at  Juan  Fer- 
nandez for  help.  They  were  politely  received  by  the  governor, 
Don  Bias  Gonzales,  who  supplied  them   with  everything  they 


needed.  The  kind  governor  had  to  pay  dearly  for  this,  for 
when  his  superior,  the  captain-general  of  Chili,  heard  of  it, 
poor  Gonzales  was  degraded  from  office,  and  the  viceroy  of 
Peru  sanctioned  the  penalty.  Jefferson  afterward  interceded 
for  him  at  Madrid,  but  he  was  never  reinstated.  Who  would 
have  believed  that  a  service  of  simple  humanity  to  a  vessel  in 
distress  would  cause  such  a  hubbub? 

By  her  cruel  censure  of  an  act  of  mercy  toward  the  first 
American  ship  that  ever  visited  her  Pacific  dominions,  Spain 
seems  to  have  been  seized  with  a  kind  of  prophetic  terror,  as 
if  anticipating  the  day  when  she  would  have  to  surrender  to 
the  Stars  and  Stripes  a  large  share  of  her  supremacy  in  the 

After  tarrying  at  Juan  Fernandez  seventeen  days,  the  Colum- 
bia continued  her  voyage,  without  further  incident,  to  Nootka. 
Captain  Kendrick  now  resumed  the  command  of  the  expedition. 
In  a  few  days  occurred  the  anniversary  of  their  departure 
from  Boston,  and  they  all  observed  it  heartily.  The  officers 
of  all  the  vessels  were  invited  to  dine  on  board  the  Columbia, 
and  the  evening  was  spent  in  festive  cheer — a  welcome  change 
to  those  home-sick  exiles  on  that  dreary  shore. 

It  was  decided  to  spend  the  Winter  in  Friendly  Cove, 
Nootka  Sound,  and  a  house  was  built  large  enough  for  the  en- 
tire crew. 

They  shot  an  abundance  of  game,  prepared  charcoal  for 
their  smiths  and  worked  their  iron  into  chisels,  which  were  in 
good  demand  among  the  natives.  To  their  surprise  one  morn- 
ing they  found  that  the  Indians  had  landed  and  carried  off 
fifteen  water  casks  and  five  small  cannon,  which  Captain  Doug- 
las had  given  them.  This  was  a  heavy  loss,  and  as  the  mis- 
creants could  not  be  found,  the  coopers  had  to  go  to  work  to 
make  a  new  set  of  casks.  In  March,  1789,  the  Washington 
was  painted  and  sent  on  a  short  cruise,  while  the  Columbia 
was  removed  a  few  miles  up  the  sound  to  a  place  which  they 
named  Kendrick's  Cove,  where  a  house  was  built  with  a  forge 
and  battery.     In  May  the  sloop  started  out  again  for  furs  and 


met  the  Spanish  Corvette  Princesa,  whose  commander.  Mar- 
tines,  showed  great  kindness  to  Gray,  driving  him  supplies  of 
brandy,  wine,  hams  and  sugar,  but  he  said  he  should  make  a 
prize  of  Douglas  if  he  found  him. 

A  Good  Bargain. 

At  one  place  a  large  fleet  of  canoes  came  off  in  great  parade 
and  offered  their  sea-otter  skins  for  one  chisel  each.  Our  men 
readily  bought  the  lot— 2(H)  in  number— worth  from  $6000  to 
$8000.  This  was  the  best  bargain  they  ever  made  as  they 
could  seldom  get  a  good  skin  for  less  than  six  or  ten  chisels. 
An  average  price  was  one  skin  for  a  blanket;  four  for  a  pistol, 
and  six  for  a  musket. 

Gray  then  stood  to  the  southward  and  went  into  Hope  Bay 
and  later  into  a  place  called  by  the  natives  Chickleset,  where 
there  was  every  appearance  of  a  good  harbor.  He  then  vis- 
ited the  islands  of  the  north  and  gave  names  to  Cape  Ingra- 
ham,  Pintard  Sound,  Hatch's  Island,  Derby  Sound,  Barrell's 
Inlet  and  Washington's  Islands,  now  known  as  Queen  Char- 
lotte's, whose  mountain  tops  were  covered  with  snow,  even  in 
Summer.  It  is  a  pity  that  most  of  the  names  given  by  our 
explorers  in  that  region  have  been  changed,  so  that  it  is  not 
eaay  to  identify  all  the  places  mentioned  by  them. 

Returning  to  Nootka,  they  found  the  Spaniards  claiming 
sovereignty  over  all  that  region,  detaining  the  English  vessels 
and  sending  the  Argonaut  with  her  officers  and  crew  as  pris- 
oners to  San  Bias.  The  schooner  Northwest  America,  which 
Meares  had  built,  was  seized  and  sent  on  a  cruise  under  the 
command  of  Coolidgc,  and  her  crew  and  stores  were  put  on 
the  Columbia  to  be  taken  to  China.  Serious  complications  be- 
tween England  and  Spain  grew  out  of  these  high-handed  pro- 
ceedings, resulting  in  the  "Nootka  Convention,**  the  famous 
treaty  of  October,  1790,  by  which  war  was  averted  and  a  new 
basis  of  agreement  established  between  the  two  powers. 

Another  important  change  now  took  place.  Captain  Ken- 
drick  concluded  to  put  the  ship's  property  on  board  the  sloop 
and  go  on  a  cruise  in  her  himself,  with  a  crew  of  twenty  men, 


while  Gray  should  take  the  Colunit>ia,  reinforced  by  the  crew 
of  the  prize  schooner,  to  the  Sandwich  Islands,  and  get  pro- 
visions for  the  voyage  to  China,  and  ther«  dispose  of  the  skins. 
Ingraham  and  Haswell  decided  to  go  with  Gray  while  Cordis 
remained  with  Kendrick.  And  so  the  two  vessels  parted  com- 
pany. •     . 

The  Return  to  Boston. 
The  Columbia  left  Clayoquot  July  30,  1789,  and  spent  three 
weeks  at  the  Hawaiian  Islands,  laying  in  a  store  of  fruits, 
yams,  potatoes  and  hogs.  They  were  kindly  received  there,  and 
a  young  chief,  Attoo,  sometimes  called  the  crown  prince,  was 
consigned  to  Captain  Gray's  care  for  the  journey  to  Boston, 
under  the  promise  that  he  should  have  an  early  opportunity  to 
return.  They  had  a  good  run  to  China,  and  reached  Whampoa 
Roads  on  the  16th  of  November.  Their  agents  at  Canton  were 
the  newly-established  Boston  firm  of  Shaw  &  Randall,  who 
also  attended  to  consular  duties. 

It  was  an  unfavorable  season  for  trade,  and  their  thousand 
sea  otter  skins  had  to  be  sold  at  a  sacrifice.  The  ship  was 
repaired  at  great  expense  and  made  ready  for  a  cargo  of  teas. 
The  following  bill  of  lading  should  have  a  place  here: 

"Shipped  by  the  grace  of  God,  in  good  order  and  condition, 
by  Shaw  &  Randall,  in  and  upon  the  good  ship  called  the 
Columbia,  whereof  is  master  under  God  for  this  present  voy- 
age Robert  Gray,  and  now  riding  at  anchor  at  Whampoa  and 
by  God's  grace  bound  for  Boston,  in  America — to  say,  220 
chests  Bohea  tea,  170  half-chests  do,  144  quarter-chests  do — 
to  be  delivered  unto  Samuel  Parkman,  Esq.,  or  to  his  assigns; 
and  so  God  send  the  good  ship  to  her  desired  port  in  safety. 
Amen.  Dated  in  Canton,  February  3,  1790.  (Signed)  Robert 

Kendrick  reached  Macao  January  26,  with  his  sails  and  rig- 
ging nearly  gone;  and,  being  advised  not  to  go  up  to  Canton, 
he  went  over  to  "Dirty  Butter  Bay,"  a  lonely  anchorage  near 
the  mouth  of  the  "Outer  Waters,"  and  there  waited  for  an  op- 
portunity to  dispose  of  his  500  skins,  and  perhaps  also  sell  the 

oiEGOjr  noNsn  ASsoaATioif.  7S 

The  Coltimbia  pa^^sed  down  the  river  February  12,  on  her 
homeward  voyaf?c,  but  a  Rale  of  wind  prevented  her  feeing  her 
old  contort. 

A  Rouitng  Reception. 

Between  Canton  and  Koston  the  Columbia  took  the  usual 
route  by  the  Cape  of  Go^mI  Hope,  callinK  at  St.  Helena  and 
Ascension  I  stand  !i.  She  reached  her  «lestination  on  the  10th  of 
August,  1700,  havinK  sailed,  by  her  Ior,  about  50.000  miles. 
Her  arrival  wa^  greeted  with  >alvo^  (»f  artillery  and  repeated 
cheers  from  a  great  concour>e  of  citizens.  Governor  Hancock 
gave  an  entertainment  in  honor  of  the  ofticers  and  owners.  A 
procession  was  formed,  and  Captain  Gray  walked  arm-in-arm 
with  the  Hawaiian  chief — the  first  of  h's  race  ever  seen  in  Bos- 
ton. He  was  a  fine-looking  youth  and  wore  a  helmet  of  gay 
feathers,  which  glittered  in  the  sunlight,  and  an  exquisite  cloak 
of  the  same  yellow  and  scarlet  plumage.  The  governor  enter- 
tained the  company  with  fitting  hospitality,  and  many  were  the 
congratulations  extended  on  all  sides  to  the  men  who  had 
planned  and  those  who  had  executed  this  memorable  voyage. 
It  must  be  said  that  financially  the  enterprise  was  not  of  much 
profit  to  the  owners,  two  of  whom  sold  out  their  interest  to 
others,  but  nevertheless,  it  was  an  achievement  to  be  proud  of, 
and  it  prepared  the  way  for  a  large  and  remunerative  trade  in 
subsequent  year-^.  Indeed,  so  hopeful  were  the  remaining  own- 
ers regarding  it  that  they  immediately  projected  a  second  voy- 

The  Second  Voyage. 

No  sooner  had  the  Columbia  discharged  her  cargo  than  she 
was  taken  to  a  shipyard  and  thoroughly  overhauled  and  fur- 
nished w'ith  new  masts  and  spars  and  a  complete  outfit  as  expe- 
ditiously as  possible. 

An  important  sea-letter  was  granted  by  the  President,  and 
another  by  Governor  Hancock,  and  still  others  by  the  foreign 
consuls  resident  in  Boston. 

The  owners  prepared  specific  instructions  for  Captain  Gray, 
directing  him  to  proceed  with  all  dispatch,  to  take  no  unjust 

74  TWEmnsMi  annual  reunion 

advantage  of  the  natives,  to  build  a  sloop  on  the  coast  during 
the  Winter,  to  visit  Japan  and  Pekin,  if  possible,  for  the  sale 
of  his  furs.  He  was  not  to  touch  at  any  Spanish  port  nor  trade 
with  any  of  the  subjects  of  his  Catholic  majesty  '*for  a  single 
farthing."  He  was  charged  to  offer  no  insult  to  foreigners,  nor 
to  receive  any  "without  showing  the  becoming  spirit  of  a  free, 
independent  American.'*  And  he  was  to  be  as  a  father  to  his 
crew.  He  was  not  to  stop  till  he  reached  Falkland  Islands,  and 
then  only  for  a  short  time. 

The  officers  under  Captain  Gray  were  assigned  in  the  fol- 
lowing order:  Robert  Haswell,  of  whom  we  have  heard  so 
much  already;  Joshua  Caswell,  of  Maiden;  Owen  Smith;  Abra- 
ham Water,  who  had  served  as  seaman  on  the  previous  voyage, 
and  John  Boit.  The  clerk  was  John  Hoskins,  who  had  been  in 
the  counting  house  of  Joseph  Barrell,  and  who  afterwards  be- 
came partner  of  his  son.  George  Davidson,  of  Charlestown, 
shipped  as  painter,  and  that  he  was  an  artist  as  well  is  evident 
from  the  interesting  drawings  which  he  made  on  the  voyage 
and  which,  through  the  kindness  of  his  descendants  and  those 
of  Captain  Gray,  are  given  with  this  narrative,  though  of  neces- 
sity  somewhat  reduced   in   size.* 

The  Hawaiian,  Jack  Attoo,  went  back  as  cabin  boy.  The 
sturdy  carpenter  of  the  ship  was  'Samuel  Yendell,  of  the  old 
North  End,  of  Boston.  He  had  served  on  the  frigate  Tartar 
when  a  mere  boy  and  he  helped  to  build  the  famous  Constitu- 
tion. He  lived  to  be  the  last  survivor  of  the  Columbia's  crew, 
dying  at  the  ripe  age  of  92  years  in  1861.  He  was  always  known 
as  an  upright,  temperate  and  industrious  man.  The  present 
governor  of  Massachusetts,  William  Eustis  Russell,  is  his  great- 
grandson,  and  evidently  inherits  the  faculty  of  navigating  the 
ship  of  state. 

The  Columbia  left  Boston  on  the  28th  of  September,  1790, 
calling  only  at  the  Falkland  Islands,  and  arrived  iit  Clayoquot 
June  4,  1791,  a  quicker  passage  by  nearly  four  months  than 
the  previous  one.  Obedient  to  his  instructions,  the  captain 
soon  went  on  a  cruise  up  the  coast,  passing  along  the  east 
Note. — *Illustrations  omitted. 


side  of  Washington's  Islands  (Queen  Charlotte*s),  and  explor- 
ing the  numerous  channels  and  harbors  of  that  picturesque  but 
lonely  region. 

Three  Men  Massacred. 

On  the  20th  of  August  he  had  the  great  misfortune  to  lose 
three  of  his  men — Caswell,  IJarncs  and  Folger — who  were 
cruelly  massacred  by  the  savages  at  a  short  distance  from  the 
ship  in  the  jolly  boat.  He  succeeded  in  recovering  the  body  of 
Caswell,  which  he  took  over  to  Port  Tempest  and  buried  with 
fitting  solemnity.  It  was  a  sad  day  for  the  Columbia's  crew. 
They  named  the  spot  Massacre  Cove,  and  the  headland  near 
by  Murderers*  Cape. 

Treacherous  Natives. 

Another  instance  of  the  treacherous  character  of  the  natives 
occurred  while  Captain  Kendrick  was  trading  with  the  Wash- 
ington in  this  same  region.  Knowing  their  pilfering  habits,  he 
took  care  to  keep  all  portable  articles  out  of  sight  when  they 
were  around,  and  he  had  a  rule  that  more  than  two  of  them 
should  never  be  allowed  on  board  at  once.  He  kept  a  large 
chest  of  arms  on  deck,  near  the  companionway,  and  wore  a 
brace  of  pistols  and  a  long  knife  conspicuously  in  his  belt,  and 
then  he  would  fire  a  gun  to  let  the  Indians  know  that  he  was 
ready  to  trade.  On  this  occasion,  they  did  not  seem  disposed 
to  come  any  nearer,  and  so  he  went  into  the  cabin  to  talk  with 
his  clerk.  While  there,  he  suddenly  heard  a  native  laugh  on 
deck.  He  sprang  up  and  found  a  whole  row  of  them  crouch- 
ing all  around  the  sides  of  the  vessel.  Turning  to  the  arms- 
chest,  he  saw  the  key  was  gone,  and  at  once  demanded  it  of 
the  nearest  Indian,  who  said  in  reply:  "The  key  is  mine,  and 
the  ship  is  mine,  too."  Kendrick,  without  further  ceremony, 
seized  the  fellow  and  pitched  him  overboard.  A  moment  more 
and  the  whole  set  had  disappeared.  They  all  jumped  into  the 
water  without  waiting  for  the  captain's  assistance. 

It  was  near  this  shore,  also,  while  cruising  in  the  Wash- 
ington, that  Kendrick's  son,  Solomon,  was  killed  by  the  natives. 
The    father    demanded    redress    of    the    chief,    who    denied    all 


knowledge  of  the  deed.  Meanwhile  Kendrick-s  men  found  the 
son's  scalp,  with  its  curly,  sandy  hair,  and  there  was  no  mistake 
about  its  identity.  The  chief  relented  and  gave  up  the  murderer 
to  Kendrick,  who,  in  indignation,  was  prompted  to  shoot  him 
on  the  spot.  But  pausing  a  moment,  the  captain  wisely  con- 
cluded that  the  future  safety  of  white  men  would  be  better 
promoted  by  a  different  course.  He  therefore  handed  over 
the  culprit  to  be  punished  by  the  chief  in  the  presence  of  a 
large  assembly  of  his  tribe.  There  v;as  a  well-known  song, 
commemorating  this  event,  quite  popular  with  sailors.  It  was 
afterwards  printed  and  bore  the  title,  "The  Bold  Nor'  West- 
man."     The  first  lines  were: 

"Come  all  ye  noble  seamen 
Who  plow  the  raging  main." 

It  gave  very  pathetically  the  story  of  the  murder  and  of 
the  father's  grief. 

Aften  the  burial  of  Caswell,  the  Columbia  sailed  around  to 
the  north  side  of  Washington's  Islands  and  found  a  fine,  nav- 
igable stream,  which  they  called  Hancock's  River.  The  native 
name  was  Masset,  which  it  still  bears.  Here  they  were  glad 
to  meet  the  Boston  brig  Hancock,  Captain  Crowell,  with 
later  news  from  home.  Returning  to  Clayoquot,  they  found 
Kendrick  in  the  harbor  and  gave  him  three  cheers.  He  told 
them  that  after  the  tedious  sale  of  his  skins  at  Macao,  he 
began  to  make  the  sloop  into  a  brig.  This  took  so  much 
time  that  h^  lost  the  season  on  the  coast  and  stayed  at  Lark's 
Bay  till  the  spring  of  '91,  when  he  sailed  in  company  with 
Douglas,  and  touched  at  Japan,  and  was  the  first  man  to 
unfurl  the  American  flag  in  that  land.  He  sought  to  open 
a  trade,  but  was  ordered  off,  as  might  be  expected  had  he 
known  the  rigidly  exclusive  policy  of  the  Japan  of  that  time. 

Kendrick  had  called  at  Nootka,  where,  he  said,  the  Span- 
iards treated  him  kindly  and  sent  him  daily  supplies  of  "greens 
and  salmon."  He  had  come  down  to  Clayoquot  to  haul  up 
the  Lady  Washington,  now  a  brigantine,  to  grave  at  a  place 
which  he  had  fortified  and  named  Fort  Washington. 


Purchaae  of  Lands. 

Daring  this  sojourn  Keiulrick  purchased  of  the  principal 
chiefs  several  large  tracts  of  land,  for  which  he  paid  mostly 
in  arms  and  ammunition.  The  lands  were  taken  possession 
of  with  much  ceremony,  the  United  States  flag  hoisted  and 
a  bottle  sunk  in  the  ground. 

Kendrick  sailed  for  China  September  29,  taking  with  him 
the  deeds,  which  were  duly  registered,  it  was  said,  at  the 
consulate  in  Canton.  Duplicate  copies  were  prepared,  one  of 
which  was  sent  to  Jefferson  and  filed  in  the  State  Department 
at  Washington.  The  orijrinals  were  signed  by  the  chiefs  (as 
documents  are  signed  by  the  people  who  can  only  make  their 
"mark'*)  and  witnessed  by  several  of  the  officers  and  crew  of 
the  vessel.  These  deeds  ran  somewhat  as  follows:  **In  con- 
sideration of  >ix  muskets,  a  boat  sail,  a  quantity  of  powder 
and  an  Amrcican  flag  (they  being  articles  which  we  at  pres- 
ent stand  in  need  of.  and  are  of  great  value),  we  do  bargain, 
grant  and  sell  unto  John  Kendrick,  of  Boston,  a  certain 
harbor  in  said  Ahesset,  in  which  the  brig  Washington  lay 
at  anchor,  on  the  fifth  day  of  August,  1791,  latitude  49  de- 
grees 50  minutes,  with  all  the  lands,  mines^  minerals,  rivers, 
bays,  harbors,  sounds,  creeks  and  all  islands  with  all  the 
produce  of  land  and  sea,  being  a  territorial  distance  of  eighteen 
miles  square,  to  have  and  to  hold,"  etc.,  etc. 

The  names  of  some  of  the  signing  chiefs  were  Maquinna, 
Wicananish,   Narry   Yonk   and  Tarrasone. 

It  was  Captain  Gray's  intention  to  go  into  winter  quarters 
at  Naspatee,  in  Bulfinch  Sound,  and  he  hastened  that  way,  but 
being  thwarted  by  contrary  winds,  they  put  in  at  Clayoquot, 
and  finding  excellent  timber  for  the  construction  of  the  pro- 
posed sloop,  he  decided  to  remain  there. 

The  ship  was  made  as  snug  as  possible  in  a  well-sheltered 
harbor,  which  they  called  Adventure  Cove.  The  sails  were 
unbent,  the  topgallant  topmasts  and  yards  were  unrigged 
and  stored  below.  A  space  was  cleared  on  shore  and  a 
log  house  built;  the  crew  all  working  with  a  will.     One  party 


went  out  cutting  plank, /another  to  shoot  deer  and  geese. 
The  carpenters-  soon  put  up  a  very  substantial  building  to 
accommodate  a  force  of  ten  men,  containing  a  chimney,  forge, 
workshop,  storeroom  and  sleeping  bunks.  It  served  also  the 
purpose  of  a  fort,  having  two  cannon  mounted  outside,  and 
one  inside  through  a  porthole.  All  around  there  were  loop- 
holes  for   small   arms. 

This  they  called  Fort  Defiance;  here  they  lived  like  civil- 
ized and  Christian  men.  The  log  reports:  "On  Sunday  all 
hands   at   rest   from   their  labors.     Performed   divine    service." 

The  keel  of  the  sloop  was  soon  laid,  and  the  work  went 
bravely  forward.  The  sketch  of  this  scene  shows  Captain 
Gray  conferring  with  Mr.  Yendell  about  the  plan  of  the  sloop. 
The  days  grew  short  and  cold,  the  sun  being  much  obscured 
by  the  tall  forest  trees  all  around  them.  Some  of  the  men 
were  taken  ill  with  cold  and  rheumatic  pains,  and  had  to  be 
removed  aboard  ship.  The  natives  of  the  adjoining  tribe 
became  quite  familiar.  The  chiefs  and  their  wives  visited  the 
fort  and  the  ship  almost  every  day,  coming  across  the  bay 
in  their  canoes.  The  common  Indians  were  not  allowed  to 
land,  a  sentinel  being  always  on  guard,  night  and  day. 

Captain  Gray  was  disposed  to  be  very  kind  to  the  natives. 
He  often  visited  their  villages,  carrying  drugs,  rice,  bread  and 
molasses  for  their  sick  people.  Going  one  day  with  his  clerk, 
Hoskins,  they  persuaded  a  woman  to  have  her  face  washed, 
when  it  appeared  that  she  had  quite  a  fair  complexion  of  red 
and  white,  and  "one  of  the  most  delightful  countenances," 
says  Hoskins,  "that  my  eyes  ever  beheld.  She  was,  indeed, 
a  perfect  beauty."  She  got  into  her  canoe  and  soon  after 
returned  with  her  face  as  dirty  as  ever.  She  had  been  laughed 
at  by  her  companions  for  having  it  washed.  It  was  a  com- 
mon practice  among  some  of  the  tribes  for  both  sexes  to 
slit  the  under  lip  and  wear  in  it  a  plug  of  bone  or  wood,  fitted 
with   holes   from  which   they  hung  beads. 

A  Plot  to  Capture  the  Ship. 

On  the  eighteenth  of  February  several  chiefs  came  over  as 
usual,   among   them   Tototeescosettle.     Alas!   for   poor   human 

ougon  pioneer  association.  79 

nature — he  was  detected  stealing  the  boatswain's  jacket.  Soon 
after  he  had  gone,  Attoo,  the  Hawaiian  lad,  informed  the  cap- 
tain of  a  deep-laid  plot  to  capture  the  ship.  The  natives,  he 
said,  had  promised  to  make  him  a  great  chief  if  he  would  wet 
the  ship's  firearms  and  give  them  a  lot  of  musket  balls.  They 
were  planning  to  come  through  the  woods  and  board  the  ship 
from  the  high  hank  nearby  and  kill  every  man  on  board  ex- 
cept Attoo.  Gray's  excitement  can  easily  be  imagined.  All 
of  his  heavy  guns  were  on  shore,  but  he  ordered  the  swivels 
loaded  at  once  and  the  ship  to  be  removed  away  from  the 
bank.  Haswell  put  the  fort  in  a  good  state  of  defense,  re- 
loaded all  the  cannon,  and  had  the  small  arms  put  in  order. 
The  ship's  people  were  ordered  aboard.  At  dead  of  night 
the  war-whoop  was  heard  in  the  forest.  The  savages  had 
stealthily  assembled  by  hundreds,  but  finding  their  plan 
frustrated   they    reluctantly   went   away. 

On  the  twenty-third  of  February  the  sloop  was  launched 
and  taken  alongside  the  Columbia.  She  was  named  the  "Ad- 
venture," and  reckoned  at  forty-four  tons,  and  when  properly 
fitted  received  her  cargo  and  stores  and  was  sent  northward 
on  a  cruise  under  Haswell.  She  was  the  second  vessel  ever 
built  on  the  coast,  and  proved  to  be  a  good  sea  boat,  and 
could   even   outsail   the   Columbia. 

An  Important  Cruise. 

Gray  soon  after  took  his  ship  on  a  cruise  which  was  des- 
tined to  be  the  most  important  one  of  all — one  that  will  be 
remembered  as  long  as  the  United  States  exist.  On  the 
twenty-ninth  of  April,  1792,  he  fell  in  with  Vancouver,  who 
had  been  sent  from  England  with  three  vessels  of  the  Royal 
Navy  as  commissioner  to  execute  the  provisions  of  the  Nootka 
treaty  and  to  explore  the  coast.  Vancouver  said  he  had 
made  no  discoveries  as  yet,  and  inquired  if  Gray  had  made 
any.  The  Yankee  captain  replied  that  he  had;  that  in  lati- 
tude 46  degrees  10  minutes  he  had  recently  been  off  the  mouth 
of  a  river  which  for  nine  days  he  tried  to  enter,  but  the  out- 
set was  so  strong  as  to  prevent.     He  was  going  to  try  it  again, 


linw«*V0r.  VMiU'oHVfr  kmUI  tltlfi  tnufii  lmv«  lirrit  tho  (iimnhm 
pUNimd  by  hliti  Iwo  dMyM  tii'forvi  wliiuli  lir  Hiouifht  ittiMitt  hi 
"m  Mnull  rivri*/'  ltmfi*tfiiiilli)(«  mt  uui'iiitni  nf  ilii«  ImtmIkm*  m 
Irndlnif  MiTofm  It.  lli«  Iftiiil  luthjiul  not  InillcutliiK  it  t^  !<«  oi 
miy  KfcMt  •HtftH.  "Nol  I'liMMldnrliiif  IhU  opriiiiiM  wnriliy 
nf  inrntliin/*  wn»ir  VMiivottvtir  In  IiIh  Journnli  "1  rdiHIniird 
our  luirKull  in  iliv  tuirtliwrnl."  WIml  h  tufti  In  (lii«  ildr  nl 
rviMiU  WMii  tlmlt  Hud  ilii^  hrliUlt  tuivlicNtor  f«*Mlly  nff^t  ili* 
rivnr,  it  would  tivrlMinly  Ihivi<  \m\  iiiiidltrf  UMwr  itnd  uuoIIiim 

(iniy  pui'MUrd  tdn  "pufnult"  to  tlir  fioutlu*Hiiti  wttitlici'  tlii*  iImi 
of  hid  rli*(ititiy  wiiN  dIfrt'tliiK  ititn  Oii  thr  Tth  of  Mny  Im*  «nw 
nil  riitMtiM'r  in  hitltndi*  40  tlt^yfrt^pn  AM  nilnutftM,  "wlilrli  hnd  • 
vi'i'y  Kood  HpprjHttiH'i'  of  /t  Inirhoi*,"  nnd,  ohnrrvliiK  from  iIm- 
inudlliriMl  u  piixKMK^*  lM<iw(«rn  thr*  mind  Inifd,  In*  tiofr  iiwnv 
Mild  iMti  III.  'I'liU  Im<  nilh'd  t4ulfhMdi  Ihirhor,  thonifh  h  w<m 
viMy  donii  iiflcr  cHlh'd,  hk  m  dmrfvcd  conipllnirnti  (iiiiy't  Mmi 
hiH'i  till'  iiiinir  wlilrh  It  utill  luMifd.  Ilcrr,  on  m  niooiilluhi 
nlKht,  III'  wild  MttiO'krd  hy  tin*  initlvr«  from  tin*  vllhitfc  of  Chhl* 
\rnt*\,  and  ohliK(*d  in  «rlf  di«fi<n«(<  to  flri<  upon  tliriii,  wMli  oi'ilntn 
ir«nMt>     jhividiou'd  dniwinK  Klvri  ii  wrird  vh*w  of  tlif<  mcnf 

On  till*  rvi'iiliiM  of  Miiy  KMh  Oiiiy  ifdunird  lii«  loin^c  !<• 
Ihi'  dotith,  Mild  Mt  dMyhiraJt  (Hi  th«!  I  Mil  lif  kuw  "tin*  fiiliMm' 
nt  hU  dfdlM'd  pint*'  M  loiiK  vvity  off,  An  ln<  drew  iirMi«  mImmm 
M  ii'i'ltnU,  hi'  hotr  itvvMy  wllli  mII  dMiU  ni't,  Mild  Mill  In  hclwi'fMi 
thf  hicMlirio.  'In  liU  Ki^'iit  didlKJit,  In*  fnimd  hhimrlf  In  »i 
hiiK*'  fivrr  of  irri^U  w«tt«f',  up  wlili'h  In*  dlmtf*  \pu  mtlrn  'I  hrfi 
wi'rt*  IndlMti  vilhiKi't)  Ml  inli'rvHU  mIoiik  tin*  ItMiikd,  mimI  nnoiv 
rMiioi'D  rMini*  oiil  ot  iimpcrt  ihi'  HtifttiKr  vUllot. 

Into  th«  Columblft  Klvfr. 

'I  lu«    t^lilp   fMini'   If)  iiiii  hfif   Ml    I    o'lhii-li    III   irn   futhonm   n\ 
WMtn,  luilf  M  mih*  IfMin  thi'  notlhiMii  tthot'r  mimI  two  inilfn  Mini  <i 
luilt  tinm  iIm'  t-.oiilJK'Mi,  Ihi'  iivn  hfiiiK  thu'c  ot  font  nnh««  wi<h- 
ull  Ihi'  WMv  ulotifj.    Ili'tr  llu'v  nmiMliifd  ihtff  tluy^,  hii<))lv  tnol 
ItiM  Mild  tuKliiu  In  wmU'I 

Oti   tlu'    l-tlh   he   t}|iMid   lip  Ihf   tivct-    ininc   fifUTit   mlh*^   /mi 
thri,  "Mild  donhh'd  nni  ii  w/u  miviKMhh'  iipwMiiU  of  m  hundii'H  " 

oncoN  noNUB  association.  61 

He  found  the  channel  on  that  side,  however,  so  very  narrow 
and  crooked  that  the  ship  grounded  on  the  sandy  bottom,  but 
they  backed  off  without  difficulty.  The  jolly  boat  was  sent 
out  to  sound  the  channel,  but  finding  it  still  shallow.  Gray  de- 
cided to  return,  and  on  the  15th  he  dropped  down  with  the 
tide,  going  ashore  with  his  clerk  to  take  a  short  view  of  the 
country.  On  the  lOth  he  anchored  off  the  village  of  Chinook, 
whose  population  turned  out  in  great  numbers.  The  next  day 
the  ship  was  painted,  and  all  hands  were  busily  at  work.  On 
the  19th  they  landed  near  the  mouth  of  the  river  and  formally 
named  it  after  the  ship  Columbia,  raising  the  American  flag 
and  planting  coins  undi-r  a  large  pine  tree,  thus  taking  posses- 
sion in  the  name  of  the  United  States.  The  conspicuous  head- 
land near  by  was  named  Cape  Hancock,  and  the  low  sand  spit 
opposite,  Point  Adam^. 

The  writer  is  well  aware  that  the  word  •*discovery"  may  be 
taken  in  different  >ense>.  When  it  is  claimed  that  Captain 
Gray  discovered  this  river  the  meaning  is  that  he  was  the  first 
white  man  to  cross  its  bar  and  sail  up  its  broad  expanse  and 
give  it  a  name. 

Undoubtedly  Carver,  to  whom  the  word  Oregon  is  traced, 
may  have  heard  of  the  river  in  1707  from  the  Indians  in  the 
Rocky  Mountains;  and  Heceta  in  1775  was  near  enough  to  its 
mouth  to  believe  in  its  existence;  and  Meares  in  1788  named 
Cape  Disappointment  and  Deception  Bay,  but  none  of  these 
can  properly  be  said  to  have  discovered  the  river.  Certainly 
Meares,  whose  claim  England  maintained  so  long,  showed  by 
the  very  names  he  gave  to  the  cape  and  the  "bay"  that  he  was 
after  all  deceived  about  it;  and  he  gives  no  suggestion  of  the 
river  on  his  map.  O'Aguilar  was  credited  with  finding  a  great 
river  as  far  back  as  1603,  but  according  to  his  latitude  it  was 
not  this  river;  and  even  if  it  was,  there  is  no  evidence  that  he 
entered  it.  The  honor  of  discovery  must  practically  rest  with 
Gray.  His  was  the  first  ship  to  cleave  the  waters;  his  the  first 
chart  ever  made  of  its  shores;  his  the  first  landing  ever  effected 
there  by  a  civilized  man;  and  the  name  he  gave  it  has  been 
universally  accepted.  The  flag  he  there  threw  to  the  breeze 
was  the  first  ensign  of  any  nation  that  ever  waved  over  those 


unexplored  banks.  And  the  ceremony  of  occupation,  under 
such  circumstances,  was  something  more  than  a  holiday  pas- 
time. It  was  a  serious  act  performed  in  sober  earnest,  and 
reported  to  the  world  as  soon  as  possible. 

And  when  we  remember  that  as  a  result  of  this  came  the 
Lewis  and  Clark  expedition  of  1804-5  and  the  settlement  at 
Astoria  in  1811,  to  say  nothing  of  our  diplomatic  acquisition  of 
the  old  Spanish  rights,  then  we  may  safely  say  that  the  title 
of  the  United  States  to  the  Columbia  River  and  its  tributaries 
becomes  incontestible.  Such  was  the  outcome  of  the  Oregon 
question  in  1846. 

On  leaving  the  river  May  80  the  Columbia  sailed  up  to 
Naspatee,  where  she  was  obliged  to  use  her  guns  to  check  the 
hostile  demonstration  of  the  savages.  And  soon  after  in  going 
up  Pintard's  Sound  she  was  again  formidably  attacked  by  war 
canoes  and  obliged  to  open  fire  upon  them  with  serious  results. 

In  a  cruise  soon  after  the  ship  struck  on  a  rock  and  was  so 
badly  injured  that  she  returned  to  Naspatee  and  underwent 
some  repairs,  and  then  sailed  for  Nootka,  and  on  July  23  re- 
ported her  condition  to  the  governor,  Don  Cuadra,  who  gen- 
erously offered  every  assistance,  allowed  them  his  storehouses 
for  their  cargo,  gave  up  the  second  best  house  in  the  settlement 
for  the  use  of  Captain  Gray  and  his  clerk  ,and  insisted  upon 
having  their  company  at  his  own  sumptuous  table  at  every 
meal.  Such  politeness  was  of  course  very  agreeable  to  the 
weary  voyagers,  and  was  held  in  such  grateful  remembrance  in 
subsequent  years  that  Captain  Gray  named  his  first  born  child 
Robert  Don  Cuadra  Gray  for  the  governor  as  well  as  himself. 
It  was  during  this  visit  that  Gray  and  Ingraham  wrote  their 
joint  letter  to  the  governor,  which  was  often  quoted  in  the 
course  of  the  Anglo-Spanish  negotiations.  In  September,  Gray 
sold  the  little  sloop  Adventure  to  Cuadra  for  seventy-five  sea 
otter  skins  of  the  best  quality,  and  transferred  the  officers  and 
crew  to  the  Columbia. 

Homeward  Bound. 

As  he  sailed  away  he  saluted  the  "Spanish  flag  with  thirteen 
guns  and  shaped  his  course  for  China.     As  the  season  was  late 


and  the  winds  unfavorable,  he  abandoned  the  project  of  visiting 
Japan,  which  the  owners  had  recommended.  Great  was  the  joy 
of  the  crew  when  they  found  themselves  homeward  bound. 
They  had  an  easy  run  to  the  Sandwich  Islands,  where  they  took 
in  a  supply  of  provisions  and  fruits,  sailing  again  November  3 
and  reaching  Macao  Roads  December  7  in  a  somewhat  leaky 
condition.  The  .skins  were  sent  to  Canton,  and  the  ship  was 
repaired  near  Whampoa  and  duly  freighted  with  tea,  sugar, 
chinawarc  and  curios. 

On  the  3d  t)f  February  the  Columbia  sailed  for  Boston. 
While  at  anchor  near  Bocca  Tigris  her  cable  was  cut  by  the 
Chinese  and  she  drifted  slowly  ashore,  almost  unobserved  by 
the  officer  of  the  watch.  This  proved  to  be  the  last  of  her 
tribulations,  as  it  was  also  one  of  the  least.  In  the  Straits  of 
Snnda  they  met  a  British  fleet  escorting  Lord  Macartney,  the 
ambassador,  to  Pekin.  Captain  Gray  took  dispatches  for  him 
as  far  as  St.  Helena. 

At  last,  after  all  her  wanderings,  the  good  ship  reached 
Boston  July  29,  1793,  and  received  another  hearty  welcome. 
Although  the  expectations  of  the  owners  were  not  realized,  one 
of  them  wrote,  "She  has  made  a  saving  voyage  and  some  profit.'* 
But  in  the  popular  mind  the  discovery  of  the  great  river  was 
sufficient  "profit"  for  any  vessel,  and  this  alone  will  immortalize 
the  owners,  as  well  as  the  ship  and  her  captain,  far  more  indeed 
than  furs  or  teas  or  gold  could  have  done. 

It  remains  only  to  add  that  in  a  few  years  the  ship  was 
•worn  out  and  taken  to  pieces,  and  soon  her  chief  officers  all 
passed  away.  Kendrick  never  returned  to  America.  After  open- 
ing a  trade  in  sandal  wood  he  was  accidentally  killed  at  the 
Hawaiian  Islands,  and  the  Lady  Washington  was  soon  after 
lost  in  the  Straits  of  Malacca.  His  Nootka  lands  never  brought 
anything  to  the  captain  or  his  descendants,  or  to  the  owners 
of  the  ship.  In  fact,  the  title  was  never  confirmed.  Gray  com- 
manded several  vessels  after  this  and  died  in  1806  at  Charleston, 
S.  C.  Ingraham  became  an  officer  in  our  navy,  but  went  down 
with  the  ill-fated  brig  Pickering  in  1800.  The  same  year  David- 
son was  lost  on  the  Rover  in  the  Pacific.  Haswell  sailed  for 
the  last  time  in  1801  and  was  also  lost  on  the  return  voyage. 


Their  nnmeii,  however,  will  alwiiyi  he  nmiociiited  with  the 
«hipi  they  Merved  io  well;  and  ui  loiitf  an  the  broad  "River  uf 
the  Weit*'  flow*  on  in  itM  courie  no  lontf  will  the  Columbia 
be  gratefully  remembered  by  the  people  of  America.  ThiH  in 
the  year  of  Orcgon'H  fimt  centennial;  and  the  enthuHiaum  it  liuit 
awakened  clearly  HhowM  that  the  highest  honor  on  that  ioumI 
will  hereafter  be  given  to  the  heroic  diNCovererx  who  prepared 
the  way  for  pionccm  and  McttlerM,  and  thun  added  a  finv  group 
of  stateH  to  our  federal  union. 


Uy   Mr»,    Franceii   Fuller  Victor, 

Oh.  beautiful  Columbia t    Tliv  wiit«rt,  dark  and  (Ifrp. 

Sptak  to  tny  heart  of  mynUsrht  i»o  infiniCfly  awert, 

I  fain  would  lave  beneath  the  wave  who»e  deffthv  thy  /rwtfl  kt'r'ii. 

I  yearn  to  pierce  thy  accret.  the  aecret  of  thy  power, 
That  giveth  thee  Huch  grandeur,  and  doth  thy  aoul  untUt^tr 
With  Htrength  to  brave,  undaunted,  the  Htorni'king'ii  darkr«t  hiuir, 

I  long  to  learn  the  leiMon  that  flooda  thy  nouI   with  »<>ng. 
Until  thy  joyouN  caacadert  leap  merrily  along, 
All  ub»tacle»  tturmounting,  no  jubilant  and  Htrong. 

Anon  thy  placid  waterit  invite  my  mouI  to  retit; 

Thy  mirrwed  ittar»  allure  me.  to  float  uimn  thy  l»rtaNt; 

Heaven'a  ehoice»t  giftd  Merm  hidden  beneath  thy  wave*    wiiiir  crmf. 

The  clif fa  that  tower  above  thee  look  upward  from  thy  hr/trt; 
The   ttentineU  that  guard   thee  unbidden   Neeni  to  «tart 
From  out  thy  dcept.  hh  of  thy  life  they  were  with  ('n)t\  a  part, 

<)U,  dttsti,  my»t«rioui  watera!     From  whence  thy  tource  and  lifer 
Oh,  darkly  turbid  watem,  heaving  in  angry  Mtrife, 
Thy  undertow  reveal*  thee  freighted  with   human  life. 

Thou  grand  and  mighty  river.  »o  dowered   with  life  dlvinr 
That  from  thy  Htarlit  water*  angelic  face*  tthine, 
Froclaiming  tlit-e  immortal,  with  the  myttic  tea  of  time. 

The  liunmn  life  above  thee  from  dinVu  b;ve  draw*  ita  ftin'i", 
The  hidrlen  liff  within  thee  ii  from  the  Mme  grand  voiirtr 
The  infinite  doth  guide  thee  in  all  thy  winding  course. 

From  rock-bound  mfMintain  fa»tne»«  where,  like  a  little  ihild 
With  witrieti  Utt,  tli/m  tfli«le»t  from  aweet  Hpring  un^kfiled, 
Through  lotiely  gorge  and  deep  ravine  and  fore»t»  d«rn«i'  and   wild. 

Through  fieaceful  vale*  und  meadow  •  land*.  thr^Mjgh  panto r***  grrro  uui\  fair, 

Hy  rural  h'miea.  fteriuevtered  Irttm  all  the  world'*  *«*1  care, 

Or  racing  with  the  iron  hor*e,   who*^  wild  nhrirk*  pirrcr  tlir  ult. 

Wher  Vr  thy  iumrttr  CukI  guide*  the**  until,  thy   wao'lerlng*  o'er, 
'Ib'Mj  rrgch**t  the  grand  old  fteeun,  thy  lumie  fm  eyermore, 
To  mingle  nith  it*  watera  and  kUa  the  immortal  vhora. 

Thus  liuman  life  i«  guided  if.  like  QuMtn  Naturt'a  child, 
We  trunt   the  light  within   u»  and  know  we're  deified. 
Through    ('hri*t^»   divine    humanity,    b/ve,  fHire   and   undtfllcd. 


I  ^t^/mUi  >*«.-  !/*♦:.  «'/.•■  V/  *vt'.«i  ■.'*  •♦'.'iir.jj  tipt  article*  for 
tlMT  '■•'Ult^ati'/ti  »«•:<.;»  ♦*ri;»"'  A-  it  «-.  1  hav*  htsrhed  very 
tnmrh,  acM  tnr'!  n^^r!/  ail  ^^^y  to  firM  Mr.  PrjTitr,  to  vfaom 
I  luiij  Irfft  fr*/  |/i'tur«-«  ari'J  Kf^'*'!^^^^'''''*'*  pap«r«.  but  ha%-e  had 
IK/  Mj/:ce«t,  and  now  tik.^  »«rjt  h:rri  ;&  tcltKram  asking  him  to 
fofwArd  th^  |/i'tuf«fe  ^ar'>  romorrow  morn^nitr  that  I  may  *end 
tbrm  with  ih*-  rnkXrrut  m  th«-  '.he»t,  Hf:  hve^t  out  of  Boston, 
<#r  f  ftb//uM  not  hav^^  ha'J  >»o  mu^h  trouhir,  ::nd  could  I  have 
d^mts  auythinic  in  tf.«  rnattrr  be/ore  last  Saturday.  I  should 
ffKH  bavr  ft-h  *.o  hurr:«-d  but  since  >ou  have  tx-en  -►o  kind 
jit/o*it  th^  «'x|/r«'«^aK''.  1  'irn  anxiou*;  to  h^nd  you  all  that  can 
Imt  %pkrrt\,  €,T  J*  avaiUhl'-,  for  ^o  many  thiiijc  have  been  given 
to  dfffr.r«'Dt  rrirriibrr*  of  Mir  family  it  ir*  rather  difficult  to 
collert  th«-rii  So  I  thought  I  would  ri-k  waiting  over  one  day 
for  the  ^'dVf  iti  *-«'Miring  the  i>af>#T*.  a*-  they  promise  me  at  the 
National  hxitr*-*^.  offiri-.  that  th«r  che-t  would  arrive  in  eight 
day*  at  th*-  v«Ty  farlhevt,  but  probably  in  U--s  time  than  that. 
f  have  wrilt«-n  afid  sen'l  with  the  cht-st  the  opinion  of  a  sca- 
fiian  who  han  fxarnine'l  it  with  gr^at  interest,  and  will  also 
crM'loM'  it  in  this  Iclt'rr  that  you  may  be  sure  to  have  it,  bc- 
caiinr  it  lends  inten*st  to  tliat  artirlc  which,  from  our  child- 
htuM,  has  rxritrri  oiir  imaginations  and  inspired  us  to  be  as 
hravr  and  advcrjtiiroiis  as  our  grandfather  was,  I  thank  you 
much  for  tlu-  Astoria  papers,  they  give  mc  such  a  good  idea 
iti  tUr  plan*,  and  make  mc  f<-el  almost  acquainted  with  the 
people.  I  ri-rtainly  hope  to  be  able  to  visit  Oregon  some  time, 
and  to  have  to  givi-  it  up  now  is  a  great  di.sappomtnient,  al- 
though I  can  not  doubt  it  is  all  right.         Yours  truly, 

Miss    Bancroft    also    sent    the   following   memorandum    rela- 
tive to  the  cover  of  thi-   chest:   "The  chalk  figures.  39.38 — 27.49 


—81^49,  on  the  inside  of  the  lid  are  supposed  to  have  been  his 
latitude  and  longitude  at  some  time.  The  other  chalk  figures, 
176.43 — 219,  are  suppose^  to.  have  been  the  day's  sailing — 176 
miles  on  one  tack  or  course,  and  43  miles  on  another,  which 
added  together  would  give  his  day's  work  or  distance  sailed. 
"The  circle  on  the  lid  was  made  by  a  pair  of  dividers,  as 
also  the  first  initial  of  his  name — 'R/  The  piece  of  line  was 
used  for  hanging  on  a  hook  to  prevent  the  lid  from  falling 
down  too  far  (when  open)  and  breaking  the  hinges.  The 
hinges  are  very  odd,  but  were  common  one  hundred  years 
ago  ^nd  in  general  use.  The  compartment  at  the  end  was 
called  a  *till,'  and  used  for  keeping  small  articles  in.  The 
handles  were  called  'bickets,'  and  were  probably  made  on  ship- 
board by  some  sailor,  or  possibly  by  the  captain  himself.  The 
two  wire  staples,  one  on  the  lid,  and  the  other  on  the  body  of 
the  chest,  were  for  some  purpose  unknown.  In  all  probability 
the  chest  was  made  by  some  ship  carpenter,  or  by  Captain 
Gray  himself." 


"To  All  Emperors,  Kings,  Sovereign  Princes,  State  and  Re- 
gents and  to  Their  Respective  Officers,  Civil  and  Mil- 
itary, and  to  All'  Others  Whom  it  May  Concern: 

I,  George  Washington,  President  of  the  United  States  of 
America,  do  make  known  that  Robert  Gray,  captain  of  a  ship 
called  the  Columbia,  of  the  burden  of  about  230  tons,  is  a 
citizen  of  the  United  States,  and  that  the  said  ship  which  he 
commands  belongs  to  the  citizens  of  the  United  States;  and 
as  I  wish  that  the  said  Robert  Gray  may  prosper  in  his  lawful 
affairs,  I  do  request  all  the  before  mentioned,  and  of  each  of 
them  separately,  when  the  said  Robert  Gray  shall  arrive  with 
his  vessel  and  cargo,  that  they  will  be  pleased  to  receive  him 
with  kindness  and  treat  him  in  a  becoming  manner,  etc.,  and 
thereby  I  shall  consider  myself  obliged. 

September  16,  1790,  New  York  City. 
(Seal,  U.  S.) 
Thomas  Jefferson,  GEO.  WASHINGTON, 

Secretary  of   State.  President." 



May  7th,  1792,  A.  M.— Being  within  six  miles  of  the  land, 
saw  an  entrance  in  the  same,  which  had  a  very  good  appear- 
ance of  a  harbor;  lowered  away  the  jolly-boat,  and  went  in 
search  of  an  anchoring  place,  the  ship  standing  to  and  fro, 
with  a  very  strong  weather  current.  At  one  P.  M.  the  boat 
returned,  having  found  us  a  place  where  the  ship  could  anchor 
with  safety;  made  sail  on  the  ship;  stood  in  for  the  shore.  We 
soon  saw,  from  our  mast-head,  a  passage  in  beween  the  sand- 
bars. At  half-past  three,  bore  away,  and  ran  in  north-east 
by  east,  having  from  four  to  eight  fathoms,  sandy  bottom; 
and,  as  we  drew  in  nearer  between  the  bars,  had  from  ten  to 
thirteen  fathoms,  having  a  very  strong  tide  of  ebb  to  stem. 
Many  canoes  came  alongside.  At  five  P.  M.  came  to  in  five 
•  fathoms  water,  sandy  bottom,  in  a  safe  harbor,  well  sheltered 
from  the  sea  by  long  sand-bars  and  spits.  Our  latitude  ob- 
served this  day  was  40  degrees  58  minutes  north. 

May  10th.-— Fresh  breezes  and  pleasant  weather;  many  na- 
tives alongside;  at  noon,  all  the  canoes  left  us.  At  one  P.  M. 
began  to  unmoor;  took  up  the  best  bower-anchor  and  hove 
short  on  the  small  bower-anchor.  At  half-past  four  (being 
high  water),  hove  up  the  anchor,  and  came  to  sail  and  a  beat- 
ing down  the  harbor. 

May  nth. — At  half-past  seven  we  were  out  clear  of  the 
bars,  and  directed  our  course  to  the  southward,  along  shore. 
At  eight  P.  yi.  the  entrance  of  Bulfinch's  Harbor  bore  north, 
distance  four  miles;  the  southern  extremity  of  the  land  bore 
south-south-east  half  east,  and  the  northern  north-north-west; 
sent  up  the  main-top-gallant-yard  and  set  all  sail.  At  four 
A.  M.  saw  the  entrance  of  our  desired  port  bearing  east-south- 
east,   distance    six    leagues,    in    steering    sails,    and    hauled    our 


Wind  in  'shorei  At  eigKt 'Ar  iM-.^eifl^  "a  iiti\t*io  windward  of 
the  entrftlice^  bf  the  hathot,  bore!  .^^ay^iahd^rtm  in  east-north- 
east \^etwecn ,  the  ^r«aker^,  ha^ng^lfpfq;r^  seven  fathoms 
of  ,i^er.  -When  we  were  ov^r  ^  this  to  be  a 
large  river  ol  fresh  water,  up  whiclT  we  steered.  Many  canoes 
came  alongside^  At  one  P.  M'  cJimet6' 'with 'the  small  bower 
in  ten  fathoms  black  and  white  sand.  The  entrance  between 
the  bars  bore  west-south-west,  distant  ten  miles;  the  north 
side  of  the  river  a  half  mile  distant  from  the  ship;  the  south 
side  of  the  same  two  and  a  half  miles  distant;  a  village  on 
the  north  side  of  the  river  west  by  north,  distant  three- 
quarters  of  a  mile.  Vast  numbers  of  natives  came  alongside; 
people  employed  in  pumping  the  salt  water  out  of  our  water- 
casks,  in  order  to  fill  with  fresh,  while  the  ship  floated  in. 
So   ends. 

May  12th.— 'Many  natives  alongside;  noon;  fresh  wind;  let 
go  the  best  bower-anchor  and  veered  out  on  both  cables; 
sent  down  the  main-top-gallant-yard;  filled  up  all  the  water- 
casks  in  the  hold.  The  latter  part,  heavy  gales,  and  rainy, 
dirty  weather. 

May  13th. — Fresh  winds  and  rainy  weather;  many  natives 
alongside;  hove  up  the  best  bower-anchor;  seamen  and  trades- 
men at  their  various  departments. 

M,ay  14th — Fresh  gales  and  cloudy;  many  natives  alongside; 
at  noon  weighed  and  came  to  sail,  standing  up  the  river  north- 
east by  east;  we  found  the  channel  very  narrow.  At  four  P 
M.  we  had  sailed  upwards  of  twelve  or  fifteen  miles,  when 
the  channel  was  so  very  narrow  that  it  was  almost  impossible 
to  keep  in  it,  having  from  three  to  eighteen  fathoms  of  water, 
sandy  bottom.  At  half-past  four  the  ship  took  ground,  but  she 
did  not  stay  long  before  she  came  off,  without  any  assistance. 
We  backed  her  off,  stern  foremost,  into  three  fathoms,  and 
let  go  the  small  bower,  and  moored  ship  with  kedge  and 
hawser.  The  jolly-boat  was  sent  to  sound  the  channel  out, 
but  found  it  not  navigable  any  farther  up;  so,  of  course,  we 
must  have  taken  the  wrong  channel.  So  ends,  with  rainy 
weather;   many  natives   alongside. 


May  15th. — Light  airs  and  pleasant  weather;  many  natives 
from  different  tribes  came  alongside.  At  ten  A.  M.,  unmoored 
dropped  down  with  the  tide  to  a  better  anchoring  place; 
ditht  and  other  tradesmen  constantly  employed.  In  the 
afternoon  Captain  Gray  and  Mr.  Hoskins,  in  the  jolly-boat, 
went  on  shore  to  take  a  short  view  of  the  country. 

May  16th. — Light  airs  and  cloudy.  At  four  A.  M.  hove  up 
the  anchor,  and  towed  down  about  three  miles,  with  the  last 
of  the  ebb  eide;  came  into  six  fathoms,  sandy  bottom,  the 
jolly-boat  sounding  the  channel.  At  ten  A.  M.  a  fresh  breeze 
came  up  river.  With  the  first  of  the  ebb  tide  we  got  under 
way  and  beat  down  river.  At  one  (from  its  being  very 
squally),  we  came  to,  about  two  miles  from  the  village 
(Chinouk),  which  bore  west-south-west;  many  natives  along- 
side; fresh  gales  and  squally. 

May  17th. — Fresh  winds  and  squally;  many  canoes  along- 
side; calkers  calking  the  pinnace;  seamen  paying  the  ship's 
sides  with  tar;  painter  painting  ship;  smiths  and  carpenters 
at   their  departments. 

May  18th. — Pleasant  weather.  At  four  in  the  morning  be- 
gan to  heave  ahead  at  half-past,  came  to  sail:  standing  down 
river  with  the  ebb  tide;  at  seven  (being  slack  water  and  the 
wind  fluttering),  we  came  to  in  five  fathoms,  sandy  bottom; 
the  entrance  between  the  bars  bore  south-west  by  west,  distant 
three  miles.  The  north  point  of  the  harbor  bore  north-west, 
distant  two  miles;  the  south  bore  south-east,  distant  three  and 
a  half  miles.  At  nine  a  breeze  sprtmg  up  from  the  eastward; 
took  up  the  anchor  and  came  to  sail,  but  the  wind  soon  came 
fluttering  again;  came  to  with  the  kedge  and  hawser;  veered 
ont  fifty  fathoms.  Noon,  pleasant.  Latitude  observed;  46 
degrees  17  minutes  north.  At  one,  came  to  sail  with  the  first 
of  the  ebb  tide,  and  drifted  down  broadside,  with  light  airs 
and  strong  tide;  at  three-quarters  past,  a  fresh  wind  came 
from  the  northward;  wore  ship,  and  stood  into  the  river  again. 
At  four,  came  to  in  six  fathoms;  good  holding-grounds  about 
six  or  seven  miles  up;  many  canoes  alongside. 


May  19th. — Fresh  wind  and  clear  weather.  Early  a  number 
of  canoes  came  alongside;  seamen  and  tradesmen  employed 
in  their  various  departments.  Captain  Gray  gave  this  river 
the  name  of  Columbia's  River,  and  the  north  side  of  the  en- 
trance Cape  Hancock;  the  south,  Adam's   Point. 

May  20th. — Gentle  breezes  and  pleasant  weather.  At  one 
P.  M.  (being  full  sea),  took  up  the  anchor,  and  made  sail, 
standing  down  river.  At  two,  the  wind  left  us,  we  being  on 
the  bar  with  a  very  strong  tide,  which  set  on  the  breakers;  it 
was  now  not  possible  to  get  out  without  a  breeze  to  shoot  her 
across  the  tide;  so  we  were  obliged  to  bring  up  in  three  and 
a  half  fathoms,  the  tide  running  five  knots.  At  three-quarters 
past  two  a  fresh  wind  came  in  from  seaward;  we  immediately 
came  to  sail,  and  beat  over  the  bar,  having  from  five  to  seven 
fathoms  water  in  the  channel.  At  five  P.  M.  we  were  out, 
clear  of  all  the  bars,  and  in  twenty  fathoms  water.  A  breeze 
came  from  the  southward;  we  bore  away  to  the  northward; 
set  all  sail  to  the  best  advantage.  At  eight,  Cape  Hancock 
bore  south-east,  distant  three  leagues;  the  north  extremity  of 
the  land  in  sight  bore  north  by  west.  At  nine,  in  steering 
and   top-gallant    sails.      Midnight,    light   airs. 

May  21st. — At  six  A.  M.  the  nearest  land  in  sight  bore  east- 
south-east,  distant  eight  leagues.  At  seven  set  top-gallant- 
sails  and  light  stay-sails.  At  eleven  set  steering-sails,  fore 
and  aft.  Noon,  pleasant,  agreeable  weather.  The  entrance  of 
Bulfinch's  Harbor  bore  south-east  by  east  half  east,  distant 
five   leagues. 

*(Note. — This  extract  was  made  in  1816  by  Mr.  Bulfinch, 
of  Boston,  one  of  the  owners  of  the  Columbia,  from  the  sec- 
ond volume  of  the  log-book,  which  was  then  in  the  possession 
of  Captain  Gray's  heirs,  but  has  since  disappeared.  It  has 
been  frequently  published  in  the  newspapers  and  reports  to 
Congress,  accompanied  by  the  affidavit  of  Mr.  Bulfinch  to 
its   exactness.) 


By  Lydcll   Baker.   Esq.,  Portland. 

Mr.   President,  Ladies  and  Gentlemen: 

The  mind  of  the  thoughtful  student  can  scarcely  survey 
the  scenes  which  it  has  been  \\i>  pleasure  to  witness  these 
two  hist  days  without  l>einK  reminded  of  similar  scenes  in 
the  history  of  another  nation.  He  can  scarcely  fail  to  think 
of  the  national  festivals  of  the  (jrceks.  and  the  influence 
which  they  played  in  the  development  of  that  remarkable 
people.  For  it  is  true  that  no  arm  of  government  extended 
over  the  Hellenic  Peninsula,  uniting  the  people  in  the  work  of 
a  common  destiny.  They  might  unne,  ab  ut  Marathon  and 
Salamis,  at  the  call  of  the  invader,  but  when  danger  had 
passed  they  lapsed  back  again  into  a  state  of  the  purest  pro- 
vincialism, and  their  petty  jealousies  and  bickerings  form  one 
of  the  distressing  features  of  Greek  history.  Still,  there  were 
certain  institutions  which  tended  to  remind  them  that  they 
were  one  people,  speaking  the  same  language,  honoring  the 
same  heroes,  and  believing  the  same  religion.  Among  these, 
the  most  prominent  were  the  Olympian  games  and  festivals. 
They  were  held  every  fourth  year  on  the  plain  of  Elis,  and 
were  participated  in  only  by  men  of  pure  Hellenic  blood. 
There,  men  from  all  parts  of  the  land  contended  in  all  kinds 
of  athletic  strife.  There,  to  enraptured  crowds,  poets  read 
their  latest  productions.  There,  too,  the  youths  were  infused 
with  the  cardinal  virtues  of  patience  and  fearlessness.  But 
the  greatest  effect  upon  them  was  not  as  individuals,  but  as 
a  people.  These  games  became  a  school  for  the  cultivation 
of  kindly  feelings  toward  one  another  and  a  sense  of  their 
common  interests.  They  excited  once  more  a  love  of  the  dear 
old  motherland.  They  revived  the  glorious  tradition  of  their 
national  life.  They  excited  in  their  breasts  no  feclinj^s  but 
those  of  an   exalted   patriotism. 

It  were  vain  to  deny  that  we  who  participate  in  this 
memorial    festival    represent    interests    as    diversified    as    those 


of  the  Grecian  tribes.  It  were  vain  to  deny  that  men  of  one 
section  are  filled  with  a  spirit,  always  emulous,  often  antag- 
onistic, towards  those  of  another.  But  today  we  put  these 
aside.  Today  we  meet,  not  as  men  of  Oregon,  or  men  of 
Washington,  or  men  of  Idaho,  but  as  men  of  the  Pacific 
Northwest.  We  meet  to  honor  the  event  which  is  the  most 
interesting  in  our  common  history,  and  thereby  to  learn  once 
more  that  we  have  one  and  the  same  destiny;  that,  in  an  en- 
lightened sense,  our  interests  are  inseparable,  and  to  show 
to  ourselves  and  to  the  world  the.  wonderful  changes  which 
have  taken  place  on  our  soil.  Let  us  then  be  Greeks  of  the 
Olympiads;  and  breathe  the  air  which,  as  it  sweeps  in  from 
yonder  ocean,  knows  no  state  lines  nor  mountain  barriers,  but 
moves  onward  unchecked  till  it  meets  the  eternal  snows  on 
the  summit  of  the  Rockies. 

•Captain  Robert  Gray  was  not  the  first  white  man  to  look 
upon  the  fresh-water  breakers  at  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia. 
The  Spaniards  had  seen  them  a  century  before,  but  he  was 
the  first  navigator  who  had  the  courage  to  cross  them  and 
ascertain  their  meaning.  In  the  logbook  of  the  ship  Columbia 
it  is  not  referred  to  as  an  unusual  incident,  and  I  presume 
that  to  the  last  of  his  life  he  considered  it  far  more  to  his 
credit  that  he  was  the  first  American  to  carry  the  Stars  and 
Stripes  around  the  world  than  the  fact  that  on  the  eleventh 
of  May,  1792,  he  anchored  in  an  estuary  near  the  forty-sixth 
parallel.  And  yet,  if  judged  by  the  results  which  flowed  from 
them,  there  is  no  comparison  bctwen  these  episodes.  For  in 
the  latter,  Captain  Gray  discovered  the  Columbia,  a  fact  which 
constituted  the  main  link  in  the  chain  of  American  title  to  the 
lands  which  that  great  river  drained,  and  is  another  illustration 
of  the  fact  that  the  events  which  make  the  most  noise  and 
confusion  in  the  world  are  not  those  which  posterity  looks 
back  to  with  grateful  remembrance. 

Results  of  a  Century. 

We  stand  today  at  a  century  from  the  discovery  of  the 
Columbia.  And  what  a  century  it  has  been!  No  other  similar 
period  of  history  has  seen  the  human  mind  accomplish  greater 


In  1792  Europe  was  gazing  in  horror  on  the  French  Rev- 
olution. The  streets  of  Paris  were  red  with  blood.  The 
noblest  sons  of  France  were  being  led  to  the  block.  No  king, 
no  church,  no  God,  was  the  sentiment  proclaimed  from  the 
Tribune.  None  then  knew  that  this  was  the  struggle  in 
which  Juirope  was  to  shake  off  its  intellectual  and  social  fea- 

In  Anu'rica,  W'ashinj^ton  was  constructing  out  of  the  chaos 
of  the  Revolution  the  republic  which  we  know  and  love,  but 
which  yet  had  not  crossed  the  Alleghanies.  Daniel  Boone  had 
struck  into  the  Kentucky  wilderness,  and  nascent  settlements 
were  springing  up  along  the  Ohio.  But  of  the  country  beyond 
the  Stony  Mountains  there  was  as  little  known  as  is  known 
today  about  life  on  the  planets.  F^or  a  quarter  of  a  century 
the  country  through  which  the  Oregon  flowed  remained  the  sym- 
bol of  primeval  solitude. 

Where  is  that  solitude  now?  It  has  passed  away  like  % 
dream.  The  light  of  civilization  has  penetrated  it,  and  behold, 
it  is  as  though  it  had  never  been.  Through  it  the  iron  horse 
plunges,  the  lightning  flashes,  the  mighty  steamer  plows,  and 
in  its  depths  splendid  cities  have  sprung  up  as  though  mythi- 
cal, and  from  the  wand  of  the  enchanter.  The  father  of  the 
gods,  we  are  told,  felt  a  pain  in  his  head,  and  when  it  was 
cut  open  the  beautiful  goddess  of  civilization  sprang  forth.  In 
passing  from  fable  to  reality,  we  may  say  that  the  rise  of  civ- 
ilization in  this  Northwest,  in  its  suddenness  and  complete- 
ness, suggests  the  fabled  birth  of  Minerva  from  the  brain  of 

In  an  event  of  commemoration  therein  mingled  both  his- 
tory and  prophecy.  Thoughts  of  the  past  and  thoughts  of  the 
future  spring  up  spontaneously.  But  if  it  be  thus  compara- 
tively easy  to  go  back  100  years  and  trace  the  progress  of 
events,  who  shall  look  forward  100  years  and  attempt  to 
describe  human  conditions  then?  During  the  latter  part  of 
the  last  century,  the  statesman,  Burke,  attempted  such  a  feat. 
But  though  his  view  was  tinged  with  all  the  colors  of  his 
splendid  fancy,  how  far  short  of  the  reality  did  it  fall?     What 


did  he  know  of  the  coming  discoveries  in  science,  in  mechan- 
ics and  in  all  the  arts  which  tend  to  ameliorate  the  condition 
of  man?  And  what  do  we  know  of  the  discoveries  to  be  made 
in  these  directions  before  a  hundred  years?  Shall  we  say, 
for  instance,  that  men  will  have  developed  the  electric  fluid, 
and  be  looking  for  a  subtler  and  more  powerful  agency? 
Shall  we  say  that  the  scene  of  human  activity  will  have  been 
shifted  from  the  land  to  the  ocean?  Shall  we  say  that  the 
problem  of  aerial  navigation  will  have  been  solved?  Shall 
we  say  that  the  reign  of  "peace  on  earth,  good  will  towards 
men,"  shall  have  come,  and  that  it  will  indeed  be  a  time 

"When   the   war  drum  beats   no   longer,   and   the   battle    flags 

are  furled 
In  the  parliament  of  men,  the  federation  of  the  world?'* 

The  Pacific  Northwest. 

And  w^hat  of  this,  our  own  Pacific  Northwest?  It  has 
been  said,  and  that,  too,  I  believe,  by  the  distinguished 
scholar  who  has  addressed  us  today,,  that  if  America  keeps  on 
increasing  in  the  future  as  it  has  in  the  past,  in  a  hundred 
years  its  population  will  be  one-half  as  dense  as  that  of  Bel- 
gium. When  the  population  of  the  Pacific  Northwest  is  one- 
half  as  dense  as  that  of  Belgium,  it  will  contain  nearly  as 
many  people  as  are  in  Europe  today,  with  the  exception  of 
Russia.  If  the  inhabitants  of  the  future  develop  this  civiliza- 
tion as  rapidly  and  in  as  many  directions  as  the  inhabitants 
of  the  past  have  developed  it,  the  mind  absolutely  fails  to 
conceive  what  will  be  the  condition  of  things  here  200  years 
from  the  discovery  of  the  Columbia.  If  this  ratio  of  increase 
kept  up,  certain  it  is  that  in  this  section  there  will  be  cities 
rivaling  the  London  and  Paris  of  today.  But  the  law  of 
prophecy  is  not  for  us.  None  but  the  eye  of  Omniscience 
can  penetrate  the  veil,  or — ■ 

"Look  into  the  seeds  of  time 

And  tell  which  grain  will  grow,  and  which  will  not.'* 


Past,  Present  and  Future. 

We  stand  today  at  the  portal  between  these  two  cen- 
turies. We  look  back  over  the  past  and  see  a  land  reclaimed 
from  the  wilderness,  a  new  race  occupying  its  soil.  We  see 
the  smoke  of  the  wigwam  retire  and  the  smoke  from  en- 
gine, furnace  and  factory  appear  in  its  stead.  Where  once 
was  sloth  and  superstition  there  now  is  industry,  progress  and 
the  light  of  everlasting  truth.  We  look  into  the  future,  and, 
though  our  eyes  cannot  pierce  its  depths,  we  behold  it  with 
trustful  anticipations.  We  behold  it  with  the  hope  that  this  cor- 
ner of  the  earth  may  still  remain  the  land  of  happy  firesides 
beneath  the  skies  of  eternal  peace. 




By  Hon.  Elwood  Evans,  Tacoma. 

Mr.  Evans,  after  reviewing  the  historical  meaning  of  the 
occasion,  said: 

"There  are  i»articular  reasons  why  the  State  of  Washington 
should  have  been  at  the  fore  in  inaugurating  these  ceremonies. 
Within  her  boundaries  is  the  territory  saved  to  the  United 
States  by  that  memorable  act  of  May  11,  1792,  which  is  so 
worthily  and  appropriately  celebrated  near  the  entrance  to, 
and  at  the  first  settlement  upon  the  mighty  river  discovered 
by  Captain  Robert  Gray.  It  will  be  conceded  by  all  that  the 
real  contention  in  that  protracted  diplomatic  struggle,  his- 
torically termed  the  "Oregon  controversy,"  was  the  territory 
lying  north  and  west  of  the  Columbia  River,  now  comprising 
Western    and    Central    Washington. 

"There  are  equally  weighty  reasons  why  Oregon  should 
have  taken  the  lead  in  inaugurating  these  ceremonies,  as  she 
is  the  parent  of  the  Northern  Pacific  States,  from  whose 
territory,  step  by  step,  piece  by  piece,  as  our  western  civiliza 
tion  in  the  last  generation  required  space  in  which  to  expand, 
she  yielded  her  area  and  furnished  the  territory.  Here  today, 
she  has  called  us  to  the  festive  board  to  partake  with  her  in 
rejoicing  at  her  original  area  and  in  her  present  power,  not 
diminished  by  having  been  shorn  of  the  heritage  she  conferred 
upon  her  children,  and  with  what  filial  affection  and  pride 
we  rejoice  in  her  future  assured  grandeur,  as  one  of  the  most 
wealthy  and  influential  components  of  the  union  oi  states. 
The  youthful  State  of  Washington  takes  pride  in  her  maternity. 
To  her  more  than  alma  mater  she  sends  the  affectionate  as- 
surance that  it  is  pleasing  to  co-operate  and  follow  in  enter- 
prises in  which  she  leads,  dictated,  as  she  is  assured  they 
will  be,  by  a  love  of  country  and  well-being  of  humanity. 

"The  State  of  Washington  possesses,  in  common  with  Ore- 
gon, all  those  historic  antecedents  which  are  the  grand  occa- 
sion of  this  celebration.  She  is  proud  in  wearing  that  illustrious 


name — a  name  which,  in  the  annals  of  modern  greatness, 
stands  alone,  and  the  greatest  names  of  antiquity  lose  their 
lustre  in  the  presence  of  him  whom  Byron  in  matchless  verse 

'Washington's  a   watchword   such  as  ne'er 
Shall    sink    while    there's   an   echo   left   in   air.' 

*'Thosc  antecedents  assumed  form  when  Washington  was  president  of  tlic  republic,  then  in  its  first  struggling  days 
of  existence.  Our  history  is  the  American  history  of  the 
Northwest  Pacific.  The  discovery  of  our  shores  and  coast  and 
limits  date  with  the  birth  of  our  beloved  nation. 

"Contemporaneous  with  the  adoption  of  the  Federal  Con- 
stitution and  the  inauguration  of  George  Washington  as  presi- 
dent of  the  United  States  of  America  was  the  discovery  of 
her  magnificent  adjacent  seas  by  Captains  John  Kendrick 
and  Robert  Gray,  in  the  ship  Columbia  and  sloop  Washington. 
It  is  a  remarkable  feature  of  that  antecedent  history  that  the 
little  sloop  Washington  made  the  first  discoveries  and  real 
examination  of  that  grand  inland  Mediterranean  Sea,  which 
now  constitutes  the  peculiar  physical  feature  and  boast  of  the 
State  of  Washington,  and  that  the  name  of  Washington  was 
subsequently  and  involuntarily  conferred  upon  the  territories 
bounded  thereby;  such  fact  not  being  considered  in  that  nom- 
ination. It  is,  perhaps,  an  equally  pleasant  coincident  of  our 
state  history  that  when,  in  1852,  the  people  north  of  the  Co- 
lumbia River  petitioned  to  be  set  off  from  Oregon  and  to  be 
erected  into  a  new  territorial  government,  that  the  people  of 
Oregon  on  both  sides  of  the  Columbia,  with  perfect  unanimity, 
asked  for  the  name  of  'Columbia/  It  is  our  boast  that  the 
mighty  river  passes  through  our  borders,  and  constitutes  our 
southern  boundary  line,  perpetually  reminding  us  of  the  great 
discovery  we  are  now  celebrating.  As  a  State,  should  wc  not 
be  overjoyed  that  such  historic  names  perpetuate  the  memory 
of  our  birthday  antecedents?  For  what  more  significant 
names  for  American  commonwealths  than  those  two,  which 
were  borne  by  the  little  pioneer  fleet  which  first  introduced 
in   these   waters   the   starry   emblem   of  our   nationality?     The 


one  emblematic  of  the  discovery  of  a  new  world,  the  other 
that  a  new  thought  had  been  inaugurated — a  new  republic 
founded,  which  recognized  the  inalienable  right  of  self-govern- 
ment, that  stamped  upon  these  new  regions  a  newness  of 
thought,  a  prognostic  of  progress  heretofore  unknown  in  the 
annals  of  a  race.  Pride  in  birthright,  pride  in  ourselves,  pride 
in  our  country,  pride  in  our  people,  are  essential  ingredients 
constituting   patriotism. 

"It  is  meet  and  proper  when  we  meet  on  these  occasions 
that  it  should  be  made  known  why  we  have  such  occasion  to 
be  proud.  It  is  not  boasting  when  we  herald  our  growth — 
our  progress  in  the  past,  for  a  legitimate,  laudable  purpose, 
renewing  our  devotion  to  country,  state  and  home  and  take 
new  courage  for  the  future.  Washington  brings  hither  this 
centennial  evidence  of  her  claim  to  your  admiration  and  re- 
gard. Two  score  years  ago  she  left  the  Oregon  maternal 
roof,  humble  enough.  Her  taxable  property  did  not  rate  very 
heavily,  and  her  population  was  less  than  4000.  Now  she  has 
a  population  of  400,000  and  a  state  assessment  of  taxable 
property  amounting  to  little  short  of  $4,000,000.  She  was 
allowed  a  delegate  to  Congress,  and  kept  a  territorial  tutelage 
thirty-six  years,  having  lived  and  prospered  even  as  a  terri- 
tory for  over  a  generation.  Three  years  ago  her  disability 
was  removed.  Today,  with  her  parent,  Oregon,  and  her 
sisters,  Idaho  and  Montana,  she  comes  here  to  her  mother's 
festive  board  to  rejoice  that  near  the  close  of  this  first  mem- 
orable centenary,  these  children  were  made  independent  states. 
That,  while  proud  in  her  maternity,  she  means  no  disregard  to 
her  mother  by  passing  her  in  the  struggle  for  wealth  and 
future  influence.  Nothing  in  this  century's  progress  is  more 
worthy  of  your  hearty  rejoicing  than  the  making  of  American 
states  out  of  territory  watered  by  the  great  Columbia,  because 
of  which  feature  they  have  become  a  part  of  the  country. 

"As  a  direct  consequence  of  the  act  we  celebrate  in  the 
centennial  year  of  the  discovery  of  Gray's  Harbor,  the  first 
ps^senger  train  of  the  Northern  Pacific  Railroad  took  the 
people    who    celebrated   that    event    to    the    ocean    beach    sur- 


rounding  Gray's  Harbor.  The  iron  band  had  that  day  finally 
encircled  the  continent,  'forming  a  more  perfect  union,  pro- 
moting the  general  welfare  and  thereby  securing  those  bless- 
ings of  liberty  for  ourselves  and  posterity/  so  eloquently  ex- 
pressed in  the  preamble  of  that  sacred  charter  of  the  Union 
and  nationality,  framed  in  the  identical  year  in  which  was 
projected  that  enterprise  for  commerce  and  discovery  by  the 
merchants  of  Boston,  under  the  commands  of  Captains  Ken- 
drick  and  Gray,  whose  labors  we  are  now  commemorating. 
The  State  of  Washington,  proud  of  its  common  interest  with 
you  in  the  great  events,  must  chronicle  as  characteristic  the 
century  just  closed,  gratefully  acknowledges  the  vastness  of 
the  benefit  realized  by  the  completion  of  the  Northern  Pa- 
cific Railroad,  connecting  our  shores  with  the  Atlantic  sea- 
board— a  triumphant  consummation  within  that  first  centen- 
nial period,  dating  its  commencement  with  the  discovery  of  the 
Columbia  River,  and  it  surely  will  not  be  out  of  place  in 
summing  up  the  prominent  reminiscences  of  such  an  eventful 
period  in  connection  with  the  completion  of  that  stupendous 
work,  which  inspired  this  whole  region  with  its  present  vitality 
and  the  vigor  of  manhood,  to  name  as  worthy  of  the  heartiest 
remembrance  Washington's  first  governor,  Isaac  I.  Stevens, 
the  distinguished  chief  of  the  expedition,  to  whom  was  in- 
trusted the  examination  of  a  route  from  the  headwaters  of 
the  Mississippi  River  to  the  broad  Pacific  Ocean.  There  lias 
been  but  the  one  Isaac  T.  Stevens." 

Mr.  Evans  closed  with  an  eloquent  peroration  in  tribute 
to  the  character  of  Governor  Stevens. 

In  the  Chinook  Language. 

Dr.  W.  C.  Mackay,  of  Pendleton,  was  next  introduced,  and 
made  a  pleasing  address.  He  spoke  briefly,  and,  by  request, 
in  the  Chinook  language,  with  which  many  in  the  audience 
were  sufficiently  familiar  to  follow  him. 

The   Evening    Celebration. 

At  6:30  the  imported  Indians  gave  an  Indian  war  dance, 
in    which   about    twenty-five   of   them    participated,   and    which 


was  witnessed  by  hundreds  of  people.  Their  number  in- 
cluded the  old  Chehalis  chief,  Colchu,  reputed  to  have  been 
born  on  the  day  Captain  Gray  entered  the  Columbia,  He  is 
partly  blind,  decrepit,  and  the  statement  as  to  his  age  is 
given  credence.  The  evening  was  given  up  to  a  grand  illu- 
minated procession  and  a  fireworks  display  in  the  harbor. 
About  thirty  craft  of  all  sizes  participated,  and  made  a  beau- 
tiful appearance.  Hundreds  of  rockets  and  colored  fires  were 
burned  on  ships  and  ashore,  amid  the  screams  of  whistles  and 
cheers  from  the  multitude  which  lined  the  water  front.  The 
foghorns  of  the  cruisers,  sounding  like  those  off  Point  Reyes, 
lent  their  piercing  and  unearthly  moans  to  the  general  pande- 
monitim  of  sound.  Later  in  the  evening  the  searchlights  of 
the  Charleston  and  Baltimore  were  turned  on  the  city  and 
moved  about.  The  effect  upon  the  senses  was  irresistible, 
startling  and  weird.  With  the  suddenness  and  brilliancy  of 
lightning  and  the  steady  glare  of  the  sun  they  lit  up  every 
object  on  which  they  were  turned,  from  the  smoke  in  the  air 
of  the  harbor  to  the  distant  hillsides.  Either  cruiser  under 
the  other's  searchlight  stood  out  in  space  like  the  goblin  ship 
from  fairyland. 

The  Ball. 

A  complimentary  ball  was  tendered  to  the  officers  of  the 
Charleston  and  Baltimore  and  the  visiting  army  officers  by 
the  young  ladies  of  Astoria  at  the  Ross  Opera  House  tonight, 
and  was  participated  in  by  Astoria's  most  exclusive  society. 
An  elegant  repast  was  served,  and  the  affair  was  very  enjoya- 
ble in  every  way. 



(From   the  Oregonian,  June  19,  1891.) 

Corvallis,   Oregon,  June   19,   1891. 

(To  the  Kditor):  The  Pioneers'  meeting  was  the  mo>t 
agreeable  and  pleasing  of  any  that  has  ever  been  held.  The 
city  of  Portland  has  greatly  endeared  itself  to  the  Pioneers 
by  her  generous  hospitality  at  these  reunions.  The  acts  of 
kindness  are  duly  appreciated  and  will  long  be  remembered. 
ICverything  was  done  that  could  be  done  to  render  this  meet- 
ing of  the  home  builders  enjoyable  beyond  that  of  any  pre- 
vious occasion.  The  music  was  fine,  the  addresses  were  ex- 
cellent— many  passages  being  like  "letters  of  gold  in  pictures 
of  silver,"  and  the  lunch  was  superb.  All  honor  to  the  Pioneer 
ladies  of  Portland. 

The  Pioneers  feel  a  special  pride  in  Portland.  They  re- 
joice in  the  prosperity  of  the  great  city  of  the  Northwest,  and 
hope  to  see  her  compete  for  commerce  and  trade,  both  east 
and  west,  and  north  and  south. 

There  has  been  some  talk  of  changing  the  place  of  meeting 
of  the  annual  reunion  of  the  Pioneers.  With  all  due  def- 
erence to  the  opinions  of  others,  I  hope  it  will  not  be  done. 
Portland  is  the  proper  place  for  these  annual  meetings,  and 
to  make  a  change  would  be  a  great  mistake. 

Portland  is  the  most  accessible  location  for  all  Pioneers 
in  the  state.  The  accommodations  are  far  superior  to  what 
they  could  be  elsewhere — and  in  fact  all  that  can  be  desired; 
and  the  open-handed,  generous  welcome  that  always  greets 
us  in  Portland  will  insure  a  large  majority  in  favor  of  "no 
change."  TOLBERT  CARTER.  1846. 



I  Oregon  Pioneer  Association 



Annual  Address  by  Hon.  N.  L.  Butlrr 

Occasional  Address  by  Seymour  W.  Condon,  Esy. 




McKay  Building,  248H  Stark  Street 




Portland,  Oregon,  ) 

Friday,  January  7,  1892. ) 

The  Board  of  Directors  met  pursuant  to  call  at  the  bank- 
ing parlor  of  Ladd  &  Tilton  at  three  o'clock  p.  m.,  to  make 
necessary  arrangements  for  the  Twentieth  Annual  Re- 

Present:  W.  S.  Ladd,  1850,  President;  William  Kapus, 
1853,  Vice-President;  George  H.  Himes,  1853,  Secretary; 
Henry  Failing,  1851,  Treasurer;  John  Hobson,  1843;  C.  C. 
Strong,  M.  D.,  1849. 

The  invitation  extended  by  the  Oregon  Pioneer  and 
Historical  Society  of  Clatsop  County,  and  the  Columbia 
River  Centennial  Celebration  Society,  to  this  Association  to 
unite  with  them  in  suitably  celebrating  the  one  hundredth 
anniversary  of  the  discovery  of  the  Columbia  River,  to  take 
place  at  Astoria,  May  11,  12,  and  13,  was  taken  up  and 
considered.  After  discussion,  it  was  decided  to  accept  such 
invitation,  and  have  that  occasion  take  the  place  of  the 
regular  reunion. 

On  motion  of  Vice  President  Kapus,  it  was  voted  that  a 
special  meeting  of  the  Association  be  called  for  Monday 
evening,  May  9th,  so  as  to  make  all  needed  arrangements 
for  going  to  Astoria. 


After  further  discussion  this  action  was  reconsidered, 
and  the  matter  of  informing  all  members  was  left  with  the 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Failing,  it  was  voted  that  committees 
of  three  on  finance  and  transportation  be  appointed,  it 
being  understood  that  all  pioneers  in  good  standing  should 
be  conveyed  from  Portland  and  intermediate  points  to  As- 
toria and  returned  without  expense,  except  for  staterooms. 

These  committees  were  appointed  by  the  President  as 

On  Finance — H.  J.  Corbett,  Charles  E.  I^add  and  Joseph 
Teal,  jr. 

On  Transportation — William  Kapus,  Frank  Dekum, 
and  C.  C.  Strong,  M.  D.,  to  act  in  conjunction  with  a  like 
committee  to  be  appointed  by  the  Centennial  Celebration 
Society,  with  special  reference  to  conveyance  from  Portland 
to  Astoria  and  return. 

The  question  of  who  should  be  asked  to  deliver  the 
principal  address  on  the  occasion  was  discussed  at  some 
length,  the  Secretary  having  stated  that  as  Secretary  of  the 
Executive  Committee  of  the  Colimibia  River  Centennial 
Celebration  Society,  he  had  had  considerable  correspond- 
ence with  notable  speakers  in  the  East  without  any  result 
up  to  this  date. 

Mr  Failing  stated  that  in  conversation  with  Rev.  T.  L- 
Eliot,  D.  D.,  of  this  city,  he  had  learned  that  sometime  in 
May  the  noted  historian,  Mr.  John  Fiske,  of  Boston,  would 
be  in  this  city  on  a  lecturing  tour,  and  suggested  that  he 
might  be  secured  as  orator  of  the  day. 


The  suggestion  was  approved  of,  and  the  Secretary  in- 
structed to  correspond  with  Mr.  Fiske  and  ascertain  if  he 
could  accept  the  position,  and  in  case  of  acceptance  what 
his  terms  would  be. 

The  Secretary  stated  that  he  knew  of  a  gentleman  in  or 
near  Boston,  Rev.  Edward  G.  Porter,  a  member  of  the 
Massachusetts  Historical  Society,  who  was  well  acquainted 
with  the  early  history  of  Capt.  Robert  Gray,  who  discovered 
the  Columbia  River,  and  suggested  that  it  might  be  well 
to  secure  his  services  in  preparing  an  historical  sketch  of 
Capt.  Gray  and  the  Ship  Columbia. 

On  motion,  the  Secretary  was  instructed  to  ascertain 
what  Mr.  Porter  would  charge  for  preparing  a  sketch  as 

No  further  business  appearing,  the  Board  adjourned. 




Portland,  Oregon,  | 

Friday,  April  26,  1892.  j 

A  special  meeting  of  the  Board  of  Directors  was  held 
in  the  banking  parlors  of  I^add  and  Tilton  at  3  o'clock  p.  m., 
pursuant  to  call. 

Present — W.  S.  I^add,  President;  William  Kapus,  Vice- 
President;  George  H.  Himes,  Secretary;  Henry  Failing, 
Treasurer;  C.  C.  Strong,  M.  D.,  and  Frank  Dekum  from  the 
Committee  on  Transportation,  and  D.  F.  Sherman,  from  the 
Centennial  Committee  on  Finance. 

Mr.  Dekum  from  Committee  on  Transportation,  report- 
ed that  the  T.J,  Poster  conld  be  chartered  for  $500,  to  leave 
Portland,  Monday  evening,  May  loth,  and  returning,  leave 
Astoria  Wednesday  evening.  May  12th,  and  that  58  state- 
rooms would  be  furnished  at  $1.50  each,  and  meals  at  fifty 

On  motion  of  Mr.  Failing,  this  proposition  was  accepted 
subject  to  raising  the  necessary  funds. 

The  Secretary  reported  that  he  had  secured  bids   from 

the  Marine  Band  of  this  city,  and  the  Military  Band  at  Fort 

Vancouver,  each  giving  the  same  terms,  $350  for  the  entire 

time,  including  transportation.    The  fixing  of  final  terms 

was  placed  in  the  hands  of  Dr.  Strong  and  the  Secretary. 


The  Secretary  reported  that  a  letter  had  been  received 
from  Mr.  John  Fiske  agreeing  to  deliver  an  oration  on  May 
I  ith,  for  $100.  The  making  of  final  arrangements  regard- 
ing this  matter  was  placed  in  the  hands  of  Dr.  Strong. 

The  Secretary  was  authorized  to  do  such  advertising  as 
in*  his  judgment  was  wise  for  the  purpose  of  informing 
pioneers  throughout  the  State  about  the  celebration. 

On  motion,  it  was  voted  that  a  subscription  paper  to 
raise  the  needed  funds  for  carrying  out  the  program,  so 
far  as  this  city  was  concerned,  should  be  placed  in  the 
hands  of  D.  F.  Sherman,  F.  V.  Holman,  Jo.  Teal  and  Dr. 

No  further  business  appearing,  the  Board  adjourned. 




The  following  is  a  statement  of  the  funds  collected  and 
paid  out  in  Portland  in  connection  with  the  celebration  of 
the  Columbia  River  Centennial. 

At  this  point  it  should  be  stated  that  the  work  was  done 
by  D.  F.  Sherman  and  Dr.  Strong,  the  other  members  of  the 
Finance  Committee  declining  to  serve: 

Oregon  Pioneer  Association  and  the 

C01.UMBIA  River  Centenniai.  Cei^ebration  Society, 

In  account  with  D.  F.  Sherman. 

1892  RECEIPTS. 

May  12.     Ladd  &  Tilton |  200  00 

First  National   Bank 200  00 

Frank    Dekum 25  00 

Portland  Savincjs  Bank 25  00 

Commercial  National  Bank 25  00 

Oregon  National  Bank 75  od 

16.     Merchants  National  Bank 50  00 

Northwest  Loan  and  Trust  Co 50  00 

U.  S.  National  Bank  25  00 

London  and  San  Francisco  Bank 100  00 

Bank  of  British  Columbia 100  00 

C.  H.  Lewis 50  00 

Security  Savings  and  Trust  Co 50  00 

Chas.  H.  Dofdd 10  00 

S.  G.   Reed 25  00 

First  National  Bank,  Vancouver 25  00 

Ainsworth   National  Bank 50  00 

H.  W.  Corbett 200  00 

W.  S.  Ladd 50  00 

Henry  Failing 50  00 

Total 11,385  00 



May  12.  .  Union  Pacific  Ry.  Co.,  charter  steamer 

Potter  to  Astoria  and  back |  500  00 

18.     Marine  Band 350  00 

John  Fiske,  Centennial  address 100  00 

Exchange  draft  on  N.  Y.,  favor  Fiske . .  20 

Oregonian,  advertising 29  40 

Lydell  Baker,  expenses  to  Astoria 10  00 

Staterooms  on  Potter  for  Col.  Anderson  4  50 

Telegram  to  Col.  Anderson 50 

J.  C.  Hollister,  rubber  stamps,  Holden . .  4  00 

Cochran,  ofl&cial  stenographer 14  00 

Anderson  &  Co.,  on  a?ct.  printing 62  40 

Transmitted  to  Astoria 310  00 

Total |i.385t  00 


PoRTirAND,  Oregon,         ) 
Saturday,  February  ii,  1893.  j 

Pursuant  to  call,  the  Board  of  Directors  of  the  Oregon 
Pioneer  Association  met  in  the  parlor  of  the  First  National 
Bank  at  three  o'clock  p.  m.  for  the  purpose  of  arranging  for 
the  Twenty-first  Annual  Reunion. 

Those  present  were  as  follows:  George  H.  Himes,  Sec- 
retary, 1853.  Henry  Failing,  Treasurer,  1851;  John  Hob- 
son,  1843;  C.  C.Strong,  M.  D.,  1849. 

After  due  consideration  it  was  voted  that  the  Reunion 
take  place  in  Portland. 

The  office  of  President  having  become  vacant  by  the 
death  of  W.  S.  I^add,  and  Vice-President  William  Kapus 
being  absent  from  the  State,  on  motion  of  George  H.  Himes, 
Henry  Failing  was  elected  President  protem. 

On  motion,  it  was  voted  that  Hon.  J.  H.  Slater  be  in- 
vited to  deliver  the  annual  address,  and  that  if  he  should 
decline,  that  an  invitation  be  extended  to  Hon.  Thomas 
H.  Brents  of  Walla  Walla,  and  in  the  event  of  his  declina- 
tion, the  matter  be  left  in  the  hands  of  the  Secretary. 

It  was  also  voted  that  Hon.  Seymour  W.  Condon  of 
Eugene,  be  invited  to  give  the  occasional  address. 

George  H.  Durham  was  chosen  to  act  as  Grand  Marshal, 
with  authority  to  select  his  own  aides. 


On  motion,  it  was  voted  that  the  Committees  be  appointed 
as  follows: 

Arrangements — C.  C.  Strong,  M.  D.,  B.  B.  Beekman,  Ed 
King,  R.  I^.  Durham  and  W.  L.  Boise. 

Transportation — George  H.  Himes. 

Finance — Charles  E.  Ladd. 

Invitations  and  Music — George  H.  Himes. 

Entertainment — Mrs.  M.  S.  Burrell,  Mrs.  Frances  M. 
Harvey,  Mrs.  L.  I^.  McArthur. 

No  further  business  appearing,  the  Board  adjourned. 




Portland,  Oregon,  ) 

Thursday,  June  15,  1893. ) 

The  gull  shall  whistle  in  his  wake,  the  blind  wave  break  in  fire, 
He  shall  fulfill  God's  utmost  will,  unknowing  his  desire; 
And  he  shall  see  old  planets  pass  and  alien  stars  arise, 
And  give  the  gale  his  reckless  sail  in  shadow  of  new  skies. 
Strong  lust  of  gear  shall  drive  him  out  and  hunger  arm  his  hand, 
To  wring  his  food  from  a  desert  nude,  his  foothold  from  the  sand. 
His  neighbor's  smoke  shall  vex  his  eyes,  their  voices  break  his  rest; 
He  shall  go  forth  till  south  is  north,  sullen  and  dispossessed; 
He  shall  desire  loneliness,  and  his  desire  shall  bring 
Hard  on  his  heels  a  thousand  wheels,  a  people  and  a  king. 
He  shall  come  back  on  his  own  track,  and  by  his  scarce  c  ool  camp 
There  shall  he  meet  the  roaring  street,  the  derrick  and  the  stamp 
For  he  must  blaze  a  nation's  ways,  with  hatchet  and  with  brand,, 
Till  on  his  last-won  wilderness  an  empire's  bulwarks  stand. 

— Rudyard  Kipling, 

The  Twenty-first  Annual  Reunion  of  the  Oregon  Pioneer 
Association  was  held  to-day,  the  celebration  being  satisfac- 
tory in  every  way,  and  in  many  respects  superior  in  point 
of  interest  and  numbers  to  any  ever  held.  The  literary- 
exercises  at  the  Industrial  Exposition  building  in  the  after- 
noon were  listened  to  by  an  immense  audience,  and  the 
evening  entertainment  passed  off  agreeably  to  all  concerned. 
The  forenoon  was  passed  by  the  incoming  pioneers  in 
registering  with  the  Secretary,  obtaining  badges  and  the  for- 
mation and  the  renewal  of  personal  acquaintances. 


At  one  o'clock  the  members  of  the  Association  began 
gathering  at  the  Hotel  Portland,  and  about  1 130  were  formed 
into  procession  by  Mr.  John  W.  Minto,  Grand  Marshal  of 
the  day,  assisted  by  his  aides,  Curtis  C.  Strong,  M.  D.  and  O. 
F.  Paxton,  Esq.  They  were  grouped  by  delegations,  the 
pioneers  of  each  year  being  together  and  preceded  by  the 
banner  bearing  the  number  of  the  year  of  their  arrival  in 
Oregon.  The  post  of  honor  was  held  by  Rev.  J.  S.  Griffin, 
of  Hillsboro,  the  only  pioneer  of  1839  ^^  1^^^-  ^^'  Griffin 
commenced  a  settlement  near  Hillsboro  in  1841,  and  sub- 
sequently married  Miss  Desire  C.  Smith.  Though  nearly 
86  years  of  age,  his  sight  and  hearing  are  clear,  and  he 
carried  his  banner  as  erect  as  any  in  the  parade.  Another 
feature  of  interest  was  the  flag  of  Company  D,  First  Oregon 
Indian  War  Veterans,  1855-1856,  carried  by  W.  C.  Painter, 
or  Walla  Walla,  a  pioneer  of  1850,  and  an  Indian  war  veteran 
who  had  borne  it  through  those  campaigns.  Nearly  all  the 
pioneers  walked,  though  many  carried  canes,  which  were 
evidently  more  for  service  than  display.  A  few  infirm 
veterans  and  several  old  ladies  were  taken  in  carriages. 
There  were,  however,  a  number  of  women  in  the  marching 
column.  The  route  was  simple,  being  directly  out  Wash- 
ington street  to  the  Exposition  building,  which  had  been 
carefully  prepared  for  the  occasion. 

Decorations  had  been  made  on  an  elaborate  scale.  The 
immense  stage  was  almost  hidden  from  view  by  floral  and 
foliage  display,  including  fir  boughs  and  a  wreath  of  June 
roses.  Over  the  desk  of  the  presiding  officer  hung  a  floral 
arch,  with  the  word  "Welcome'*  traced  in  white  and  red 
carnations.  Large  letters  made  of  marguerites,  tracing  the 
word  "Pioneers"  rose  from  the  front  line  of  the  stage,  while 


boxes,  bouquets  and  flower  wreaths  were  profusely  dis- 
played. A  large  crayon  portrait  by  B.  C.  Towne  of  W.  S. 
I^add,  late  President  ofthe  Association,  hung  with  a  massive 
wreath,  occupied  the  center  of  the  stage.  Three  large 
frames  of  pioneer  photographs  had  been  placed  in  the  front 
of  the  hall,  and  were  examined  with  interest  by  many  pre- 
vious to  the  exercises.  Several  relics  of  early  days  were 
about  the  hall,  including  a  pioneer  wagon  brought  to  Oregon 
from  Indiana  in  1852  by  the  late  James  Abraham;  a  stew- 
pan,  marked  "T.  R.  Blackerby.  Silverton,  1848,"  and  a  plow 
labeled  "W.  F.Eastham,  Silverton,  1849."  Other  curiosities 
were  a  rope-bottomed  chair,  donated  to  the  Association  by 
Mr.  D.  M.  McKee,  and  brought  across  the  plains  in  1850;  a 
rusty  ax,  made  by  a  missionary  named  Alanson  Beers  in 
1846;  a  square,  made  in  Oregon  City  in  1844,  and  the  bone  of 
an  ox  that  crossed  the  plains  in  1847. 

At  2  o'clock  the  officers  and  speakers  of  the  day  ascended 
the  stage,  where  upon  the  following  literary  exercises  took 


Calling  to  order By  Acting  President  John  Minto,*  1844 

Music Marine  Band 

Prayer  by  the  chaplain Rev.  C.  C.  Stratton,  D.  D.,  1854 

^riei  Introductory  Address Acting  President  John  Minto 

Annual  Address Hon.  N.  L.  Butler,  of  Polk  County 

Music Marine  Band 

Occasional  Address. . .  .Hon.  Seymour  W.  Condon,  of  Polk  County 

Music Marine  Band 

Benediction  by  the  chaplain Rev.  C.  C.  Stratton,  D.  D. 

In  offering  prayer,  Dr.  Stratton  said: 

*  Elected  by  the  Board  of  Directors  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused 
by  the  death  of  President  W.  S.  Ladd. 


We  thank  Thee,  our  Heavenly  Father,  for  this  land  in  which 
we  live;  forthefertility  of  itssoil;  forthebenignity  of  its  climate; 
for  the  heavens  that  smile  above  it;  for  the  sea  that  breaks  upon 
its  shores;  for  everything  that  has  made  glorious  its  past  and  leads 
forward  to  a  prosperous  future.  We  thank  Thee  that- in  Thy  prov- 
idence it  was  brought  under  the  government  of  these  United 
States,  which  has  sheltered  us  with  its  power  and  secured  to  us  so 
many  blessings.  We  thank  Thee  for  that  kind  providence  which 
has  been  over  our  lives  and  the  lives  of  these  pioneers  to  this 
hour,  which  has  furnished  so  many  bounties  in  their  homes,  sur- 
rounded them  with  families,  and  permitted  them  to  gather  here 
with  their  children  and  grandchildren  about  them.  For  the  abun- 
dance of  our  prosperity,  for  the  protection  of  our  shores,f or  the  sta- 
bility of  our  institutions,  for  the  products  of  our  fields,  for  what- 
ever has  contributed  to  our  present  growth  and  gives  assurance 
of  future  progress; — for  all  these  we  render  thanks  to  the  name  of 
our  Heavenly  Father. 

And  now  what  shall  we  render  unto  Thee  for  all  thy  benefits 
toward  us?  We  will  take  the  cup  of  salvation,  and  call  upon  the 
name  of  our  God.  We  will  come  boldly  unto  a  throne  of  grace 
where  we  may  obtain  mercy  and  find  grace  to  help  in  time  of 
need.  Accept  the  gratitude  of  our  hearts  for  the  church,  pro- 
moting integrity  and  virtue;  for  our  common  schools,  educating 
our  children;  for  the  higher  institutions  which  add  to  our  society 
the  embellishments  of  literature,  science  and  art;  for  whatever  has 
contributed  to  the  increased  comfort  and  usefulness  of  our  daily 
lives;  to  the  righteousness  of  our  laws;  to  the  better  moral  habits 
of  our  people  and  so  much  of  promise  for  the  years  to  comfe, 
and  grant  that  these  blessings,  which  Thou  hast  vouchsafed  to  us, 
may  be  by  us  transmitted  to  our  children. 

Let  Thy  blessing  rest  upon  these  pioneers  as  they  return  to 
their  homes.  May  their  fields  yield  bountifully;  their  industries 
prosper;  their  families  be  sustained,  their  own  lives  be  guarded, 
and  all  their  interests  be  precious  in  the  sight  of  Our  Father 
in  Heaven. 

Dr.  Stratton  closed  by  repeating  the  Lord's  Prayer. 



A  business  meeting  was  held  at  the  dose  of  the  literary 
exercises,  and  oflScers  for  the  ensuing  year  were  elected  as 

President,  Hon.  H.  W.  Corbett,  1851;  Vice-President, 
Thomas  R.  Cornelius,  1845;  Secretary,  Geo.  H.  Himes,  1853; 
Corresponding  Secretary,  Horace  S.  Lyman,  1849:  Treas- 
urer, Henry  Failing,  1851;  Directors,  Frank  Dekum,  1853; 
Multnomah  county;  F.  X.  Matthieu,  1842,  Marion  county; 
A.  R.  Burbank,  1853,  Yamhill  county. 

Notice  was  given  by  John  Minto,  1844,  of  an  amend- 
ment to  the  constitution  to  extend  the  limit  of  membership 
in  the  Association,  to  1859,  the  date  the  territory  of  Oregon 
became  a  state. 

The  following  resolution,  oflFered  by  T.  A.  Wood,  was 

Resolved^  That  a  committee  of  three  be  appointed  to  take 
into  consideration  the  question  of  amending  the  constitution  and 
making  the  pioneer  societies  auxiliary  to  this  organization  (the 
Oregon  Pioneer  Association)  and  to  invite  the  county  pioneer 
associations  to  co-operate  and  meet  with  us  in  our  annual  gath- 
ering, June  15  of  each  year. 

W.  C.  Johnson,  of  Oregon  City,  Clackamas  county,  A. 
R.  Burbank,  of  Lafayette,  Yamhill  county,  and  T.  D.  Hum- 
phrey, of  Hillsboro,  Washington  county,  were  appointed 
a  committee  on  resolutions,  also  the  committee  to  carry  out 
the  foregoing  resolution. 


The  restaurant-room  in  the  east  wing  of  the  Exposition 
building  was  spread  out  for  the  collation,  and  large  tables 


Stretched  through  the  hall  set  with  covers  for  two  hundred 
and  fifty  persons.  There  were  second  and  third  tables  set 
also,  so  that  about  seven  hundred  persons  were  fed.  The 
ladies  of  the  committee  were  assisted  by  about  thirty  young 
ladies  and  gentlemen,  who  waited  upon  the  tables.  Much 
praise  was  awarded  the  ladies,  not  only  for  the  admirable 
entertainment  provided  at  the  board,  but  also  for  the  ele- 
gant floral  decorations  of  the  music  hall.  Among  these  was 
a  box  of  Pioneer  Mission  roses,  the  original  stock  of  which 
was  brought  here  at  an  early  day.  The  posterity  of  these 
roses  have  been  named  ^'Descendants  of  Pioneers/'  making 
a  new  variety.  The  committee  and  ladies  who  had  the 
arrangements  in  charge  were: 

Mesdames  Frances  M.  Harvey,  M.  C.  George,  M.  C.  De- 
Lashmutt,  S.  L.  McArthur,  R.  Williams,  D.  P.  Thompson,  P. 
L.  Willis,  A.  Bowman,  J.  McCraken,  H.  L.  Pittock,  W.  W. 
Spaulding,  A.  H.  Morgan,  L.  Cosgrove.  J.  C.  Cartwright, 
Charles  Cartwright,  R.  Porter,  T.  T.  Struble,  Captain 
Biles,  G.  L.  Story,  Arthur  Breyman,  C.  B.  Bellinger,  B.  Kil- 
lin,  A.  N.  King,  R.  King,  A.  E.  Borthwick,  H.  L.  Maxwell, 
George  H.  Himes,  Dr.  E.  Melaine,  J.  H.  McMillen,  J.  W.  Mur- 
ray, Dalton,  Kent,  George  H.  Durham,  Anna  Caufield. 


After  the  inner  man  and  woman  had  been  satisfied  the 
pioneers  and  guests  repaired  to  the  music  hall,  where  "an 
experience  meeting"  was  held,  Hon.  M.  C.  George  presid- 
ing in  his  usual  felicitous  manner.  Mrs. John  MintoandHon. 
Richard  Williams  made  interesting  and  entertaining  ad- 
dresses, and  Hon.  O.  N.- Denny  spoke  eloquently,  referring 
feelingly  to  his  life  in  Oregon,  his  residence  abroad,  the 


pride  he  feels  in  the  progress  made  by  the  state  and  hopes 
for  its  future  greatness. 

Mr.  George  introduced  Van  B.  DeLashmutt  as  the  ex- 
mayor  of  Portland,  and  Mr  DeLashmutt  made  one  of  his 
characteristic  humorous  speeches.  Edward  Chambreau 
was  asked  to  sing  and  gave  a  few  bars  of  a  Chinook  melody, 
following  with  some  thrilling  personal  reminiscences. 

Hon.  John  F.  Caples  was  introduced  as  a  late  arrival  in 
the  city,  and  was  greeted,  as  he  always  is,  with  unbounded 
enthusiasm.  He  spoke  a  few  minutes  in  his  stirring  way, 
with  frequent  sallies  of  humor,  and  then  led  in  three  cheers 
for  the  pioneer  women,  in  which  the  veterans  joined  with 
a  will. 

Father  Griffin,  of  Hillsboro,  who  came  here  as  an  inde- 
pendent missionary  in  1839,  gave  some  interesting  reminis- 
cences. Mrs.  Susan  H.  Mathews,  of  Portland,  was  called 
on  and  greeted  with  much  applause.  She  related  some 
pleasant  experiences  and  gave  a  few  sprightly  sentences  in 

The  Multorpor  quartet,  composed  of  Messrs.  Edward 
Drake,  L.  Bowman,  A.  M.  Alexander  and  N.  H.  Alexander, 
sang  ''Nellie  Was  a  lyady**  and  "He  Never  Cares  to  Wan- 
der." Their  singing  was  loudly  cheered  and  encored  to 
the  echo. 

Hon.  William  Galloway,  of  McMinnville,  made  a  very 
happy  address,  eulogizing  the  pioneer  ladies  of  Portland 
for  their  hospitality  at  the  reunion  days.  He  eloquently 
recounted  instances  of  the  achievements  of  Oregon ians, 
making  particular  reference  to  Senators  Nesmith  and  Baker. 


then  led  in  three  hearty  cheers  from  the  outside  members 
for  the  pioneer  men  and  women  of  Portland. 

Charles  Miller,  a  venerable  patriarch  of  Lane  county, 
gave  an  interesting  account  of  his  trip  from  Indiana  into 
Oregon  in  1849,  when  he  settled  in  Marion  county,  and 
related  some  laughable  experiences  which  he  had  here  at 
an  early  day. 

The  band  then  played  "Auld  Lang  Syne,"  after  which 
Hon.  W.C.  Johnson,  chairman  of  the  committee  on  resolu- 
tions, read  its  report,  as  follows: 

Resolved,  That  we  bow  with  reverent  heads  to  the  decree  of 
Divine  Providence  which  has  removed  our  brethren  and  sisters 
from  the  pioneer  ranks  the  past  year,  and  extend  to  the  surviving 
relatives  and  friends  our  most  heartfelt  sympathy  and  cqndolence. 

Resolvedy  That  the  thanks  of  this  Association  be  and  are  pre- 
sented to  those  who  have  so  well  discharged  the  duty  of  preparing 
and  delivering  the  addresses  at  this  annual  reunion.  May  their 
shadows  never  be  less  than  now. 

Resolved,  That  we  are  most  hearty  in  the  expression  of  our 
obligation  to  the  ladies  and  friends  of  Portland  and  vicinity  who 
have  so  generously  provided  for  the  wants  of  the  inner  man  and 
woman  on  this  festive  occasion. 

Resolvedy  That  notice  be  and  is  hereby  given  of  the  intention 
to  introduce  a  motion  at  the  coming  annual  meeting  in  1894  to 
change  the  constitution  of  this  Association  so  as  to  make  all  per- 
sons eligible  to  membership  who  arrived  in  Oregon  before  the 
14th  day  of  February,  1859,  when  our  statehood  began. 

Resolved,  That  our  heartfelt  thanks  are  presented  to  the  va- 
rious transportation  lines  which  have  given  reduced  rates  of  fare 
to  those  attending  [this  annual  reunion  of  our  Association ;  and 
as  well  to  all  who  have  in  so  many  ways  ministered  to  our  com- 
fort and  enjoyment. 



The  resolutions  were  adopted  viva  voce,  "America"  was 
sung  and  the  assemblage  was  dismissed. 


The  following  is  a  complete  list  of  the  pioneers  who  were 
in  attendance,  arranged  by  years. 


Rev.  J.  S.  Griffin, 

*Mrs.  F.  A.  Neill. 

William  Abernethy. 


Thomas  Mountain. 


F.  X.  Matthieu. 


John  Hobson, 


A.  J.  Baker, 

H.  A.  Straight. 

W.  M.  Case, 


J.  B.  Parker, 

Willard  Rees, 

J.  Johnson, 

Hez.  Caples, 

Mrs.  J.  J.  Burton, 

Joshua  McDaniel, 
John  Minto, 

J.  C.  Nelson, 
W.  D.  Stillwell, 

R.  W.  Morrison, 

G.  L.  Rowland, 

B.  F.  Shaw, 

Mrs.  Frances  M.  Harvey. 

J.  H.  McMillen, 
Sol.  Smith, 


W.  Savage, 
.  B.  Killin, 

Prier  Scott, 
G.  H.  Baber, 

John  Foster, 
James  Taylor, 

*A  daughter  of  Rev.  J.  P.  Richmond,  who  came  in  the  ship  I«ausanne. 



Mary  N.  Hurley, 
C.  C.  Bozorth, 
T.  R.  Cornelius, 

B.  Grounds, 
William  Barlow, 
W.  C.  Johnson. 

Edward  Chambreau, 
Carlos  W.  Shane, 
Mrs.  A.  F.  Cox, 
Mrs.  A.  B.  Stuart, 

C.  B.  Bellinger, 
J.  T.  McComas, 
O.  H.  Cone, 
John  T.  Hughes, 
T.  D.  Humphrey, 
George  Merrill, 
Albert  Walling. 
G.  W.  Dimick, 

J.  W.  Swank, 
O.  C.  Yocum, 
G.  A.  Cone, 
H.  W.  Prettyman, 
R.  V.  Short, 
J.  M.  Finley, 
Melinda  Butler. 
Mrs.  W.  A.  Daly, 
Elizabeth  Byrom. 

T.  M.  Robinson, 
Annie  E.  Smith, 
Ahio  S.  Watt, 
W.  F.  Eastham, 

Noah  Lambert, 

D.  E.  Pease, 





W.  A.  Scoggin, 
C.  O.  Hosford. 
J.  S.  Risley, 
H.  Terwilliger, 
Sol.  Richards, 

A.  S.  Cone, 
N.  H.  Bird, 
Doc.  Hartley, 
il.  S.  McEwan. 

William  B.  Jolly, 

S.  Coffin, 

T.  R.  Hibbard, 

R.  C.  Geer, 

W.  T.  SchoU, 

Lyman  Merrill, 

F.  A.  Watts, 

George  H.  Durham, 

D.  Caufield, 

A.  E.  Wait, 

W.  M.  Merchant, 

W.  M.  Chapman, 

J.  B.  Dimick, 

John  A.  Richardson, 

Mrs.  N.  J.  McPherson, 

O.  S.  Cone, 

Charles  Miller, 
John  W.  Minto, 
Plympton  Kelly, 
Mrs.  S.  B.  Allphin. 

Mrs.  E.  M.  Mendenhall, 
Mrs.  A.  W.  Stowell, 



M.  McCormick, 
John  Adair, 
A.  B.  Stuart, 
Mrs.  A.  J.  Bird, 
G.  W.  Force. 

W.  C.  Painter, 
Theodore  Wygant, 
J.  M.  Belcher, 
I.  H.  Gove, 
Williams  Grooms, 
M.  A.  Barlow, 
Jasper  W  ilk  ins, 
T.  A.  Davis, 
I.  G.  Davidson, 
John  M.  Breck, 
James  McDaniel, 
C.  P.  Bacon, 
J.  B.  Wyatt, 
Robert  Porter, 
J.  A.  Slavin, 
G.  C.  Bisenhart, 
T.  B.  Trevett, 
G.  W.  Woodworth, 
Rev.  J.  W.  Miller, 
vS.  L.  Beary, 
Robert  Patton, 

H.  W.  Corbett, 
T.  J.  Eckerson, 
C.  H.  Mattoon, 
W.  H.  Pope, 
George  F.  White, 
G.  C.  Bell, 
J.  P.  O.  Lownsdale, 
George  Williams, 
George  ly.  Story, 



T.J.  Eckerson, 
A.  J.  Moses, 
Colburn  Barrell, 
A.  G.  Walling, 

H.  J.  Mclntyre, 
S.  A.  Miles, 
J.  S.  Simmons, 
Major  Ward  Bradford, 

C.  S.  Silver, 
W.  L.  White, 

W.  H.  Musgrove, 

E.  A.  Dean, 

A.  P.  Delyin, 

B.  F.  McKee, 

D.  A.  McKee, 

C.  C.  Redman, 
W.  E.  Long, 
George  A.  Pease, 
S.  C.  Adams, 

S.  A.  Clarke, 

D.  W.  Laughlin, 
R.  L.  Simpson, 
Mrs.  James  Strang, 
John  Waud, 

G.  D.  Rob.nson. 

W.  T.  B.  Nicholson, 
H.  A.  Hogue, 

F.  M.  Arnold; 
D.  C.  Coleman, 
David  Linn, 

C.  G.  Henderer, 
J,  H.  Johnson, 
Richard  Williams, 
S.  R.  Baxter, 



J.  C.  Carson, 
Henry  Failing, 
M.  C.  George, 

C.  H.  Jennings, 
F.  H.  West, 

H.  S.  Gile, 

Mrs.  M.  ly.  Perham^ 

George  Abernethy, 
William    Masters, 
J.  P.  Powell, 

F.  V.  Holman, 

D.  G.  Olds, 
O.  P.  Lent, 
George  Horn  buckle, 
B.  P.  Cardwell, 

Mrs  Charles  Holman, 
Nancy  Kent, 

D.  W.  Crandall, 
J.  R.  Cardwell, 
H.  A.  Leavens, 
J.  R.  Wiley, 

G.  W.  Taylor, 
J.  S.  Vaughn, 
J.  D.  Kelly, 
J.  S.  Newell, 
H.  F.  Bedwell, 

E.  N.  Morgan, 
L.  M.  Parrish, 
Margaret  E.  Ball, 
J.  C.  Burnside, 

J.  H.  Jones, 
Joseph  Paquet, 
John  Mock, 
Aaron  Cisco, 
Gustaf  Wilson, 


A.  S.  Glisan, 
Edward  Byrom, 
C.  P.  Burkhart, 
Dr.  D.  Sidall, 
Eugene  D.  White, 
A.  G.  Phillips, 
Mrs.  Anna  M.  Worth, 

John  Hug, 

J.  A.  Strow bridge, 

T.  A.  Wood, 

W.  H.  H.  Myers, 

J.  B.  Kellogg, 

J.  W.  McKnight, 

W.  H.  Goudy, 

Nancy  Miller, 

N.  A.  Musgrove, 

Annie  Kent, 

S.  R.  Smith, 

G.  P.  Gray, 

Mrs.  Susan  Gill   WhitweU. 

J.  M.  Holston, 

William  S.  Mitchell, 

J.  W.  Miller, 

Allen  Parker, 

William  Galloway, 

H.  Wehrung, 

Joseph  Buchtel, 

Isaac  Ball, 

George  C.  Day, 

Van  B.  DeLashmutt, 

J.  P.  Walker, 

T.  B.  Speake, 

William  G.  Beck, 

Sophie  Speake, 

W.  T.  Kirk, 



I.  M.  Wagner, 
John  Winters, 
Peter  Taylor, 
I.  A.  Hinkle, 
Mrs.  H.  B.  Gore, 
Elizabeth  Shannon, 
William  Griffith, 
Mrs.  R.  Scott. 

A.  R.  Burbank, 

C.  W.  Bryant, 

W.  J.  Eastabrooks, 
Frank  Dekum, 
John  Conner, 
Nancy  Raun, 
James  McCahey, 
J.  A.  McWhirter, 
T.  B.  Newman, 
W.  D.  Hare, 
W.  H.  Pope, 
H.  K.  Hines, 
John  Epperly, 
H.  D.  McGuire, 
Mrs.  W.  F.  Kirk, 
J.  W.  Wilson, 
James  F.  Failing, 
Norman  Darling. 

J.  R.  Kinyon, 

D.  W.  Taylor, 
W.  C.  Reininger, 
Frank  Story, 

E.  H.  Burchard, 
Elizabeth  Wade, 
Dean  Blanchard, 
G.  H.  Holsapple, 
William  Church,  jr., 
Mrs.  P.  I..  Willis. 



Mrs.  I.  M.  Wagner, 
Mrs.  Arvilla  McGuire, 
Mrs.  Peter  Taylor. 
G.  C.  Morgan, 
J.  H.  Fisk, 
John  Parkhill, 
W.  H.  Harris, 

E.  Poppleton, 
Clark  Hay, 
C.  P.  Hogue, 

C.  L.  Spore, 
H.  R.  Kincaid, 
E.  S.  Gray, 

D.  H.  Hendee, 
W.  H.  Byers, 
J.  D.  Rowell, 
G.  M.  Perkins, 
C.  Lafollette, 

E.  A.  Parker, 
E.  D.  Deady, 

Mrs.  Mary  T.  Gilliland. 
C.  E.  Geiger, 
George  H.  Himes. 
P.  A.  Bates, 
G.  W.  N.  Taylor 

George  Herrall, 

L.  A.  Kent, 

T.  W.  Thompson, 

Joseph  Mann, 

Mary  G.  Burchard, 

A.  Beck, 

C.  C.  Stratton, 

John  Murphy, 

Chauncey  Dale, 



Ladies  and  Gentlemen  of  the  Pioneer  Association^  Friends  and 
Successors  of  the  Oregon  Pioneers'.  We  assemble  here  as  the  21st 
reunion  of  an  association  formed  to  collect  and  place  upon  record 
facts  of  history  and  acts  of  individuals  contributory  to  these  facts 
which  collectively  form  the  history  of  the  discovery,  occupation 
of,  and  planting  civil  government  upon  the  northwest  shores  of 
this  continent  under  the  dominion  of  the  United  States  of 

The  settlement  of  Oregon  we  thus  commemorate  extended 
over  the  area  of  what  is  now  the  states  of  Washington,  Idaho, 
and  Western  Montana,  and  incidentally  the  alien  province  of 
British  Columbia,  as  well  as  our  own  state  of  Oregon,  which  was 
in  a  measure  the  fostering  mother  of  these  communities  as  organ- 
ized governments. 

The  pioneers,  of  civil  government  in  Oregon  are  more  fortu- 
nate than  any  body  of  men  heretofore  laboring  in  the  same  line 
of  action  for  the  good  of  mankind,  in  that  the  means  of  placing 
on  record  the  true  state  of  facts  in  relation  to  their  action  was 
never  as  perfect  as  now. 

.  A  comparison  of  the  allegory  and  myth  which  has  been  hand- 
ed down  to  us  relative  to  the  formative  period  of  the  Grecian  and 
Roman  States  will  indicate  the  immense  strides  mankind  has 
made  in  tiie  art  of  preserving  historical  data. 

We  are  told  in  regard  to  the  action  of  Comus,  a  leader  of  Grecian 
colonists,  that  he  sowed  the  land  with  dragon's  teeth,  and  armed 
men  sprang  to  its  defense,  as  a  resultant  crop.  The  two  promi- 
nent leaders  of  Rome's  heroic  age,  we  are  told,  were  suckled  by  a 


wolf.  It  is  not  worth  while  to  discuss  the  probable  meaning  of 
these  stories.  It  requires  no  great  strength  of  imagination  to 
conclude  that  the  dragon's  teeth  of  the  Grecian  allegory  may 
mean  the  hard  endurance  and  sharp  privations  of  the  pioneer  mo- 
thers. It  requires  even  less  imagination  to  conclude  that  associ- 
ated effort  to  protect  the  lives  and  property  of  the  Trojan  settlers 
on  the  banks  of  the  Italian  river  against  wild  beasts  and  savage 
men  originated  much  as  it  did  only  fifty  years  ago  on  the  banks 
of  this  Jjeautiful  Willamette. '  We  have  no  reason  to  believe  that 
the  European  wolf  was  more  destructive  to  domestic  animals,  which 
are  the  support  of  early  efforts  of  civilized  life,  than  was  the  for- 
midable elk -wolf,  whose  ravages  on  the  herds  and  flocks  of  the 
earliest  pioneers  of  Oregon  caused  the  assembling  of  the  historical 
"wolf  meeting,"  which  so  nourished  the  determination  of  the 
American  settlers  to  establish  civil  government  in  Oregon  that 
it  was  able  to  conquer  its  enemies  a  few  months  afterward;  so  that 
figuratively  speaking, we  may  say  American  dominion  over  Oregon 
as  it  was  in  1843,  was  nourished  by  a  wolf,  as  probably  was  early 
Roman  dominion,  with  the  difference  that  the  latter  was  imbued 
with  the  ravening,  predatory  nature  of  the  wolf,  which  seized  and 
fed  upon  weaker  nationalities  and  people,  while  the  Oregon  wolf 
meeting  set  to  work,  on  the  then  wild  Pacific  coast  agencies  pro- 
tective of  productive  human  activities  which,  in  fifty  short  years, 
have  aided  in  silencing  the  war-whoop  of  the  wild  man  and  the 
howl  of  the  wolf  over  th«  2,000  miles  of  desert  and  wilderness  which 
then  lay  between  the  Mississippi  river  and  the  Pacific  ocean, 
and  which  in  fifty  years  to  come  will  make  the  city  of  Chicago  more 
the  center  of  civilization  than  the  city  of  London  now  is. 


It  is  our  business  here  today,  in  addition  to  the  personal  enjoy- 
ment of  the  exchange  of  reminiscences  of  the  past,  to  revive  recol- 
lections and  place  upon  record  whatever  any  of  us  may  remember 
of  individual  action,  which  contributefd,  directly  or  indirectly,  to 
fill  this  land  with  comfortable  homes  and  found  this  great  and 
stable  commercial  city. 

And  here  permit  me  to  say  a  few  words  in  regard  to  the  fine 


type  of  manhood  and  business  energy  you  have  recently  lost  from 
your  ranks  in  the  person  of  your  late  President,  W.  S.  Ladd.  What 
an  object  lesson  to  the  ambitious,  industrious  youth  of  today  is 
the  record  he  has  made  since  at  the  age  of  17  he  subdued  to  high- 
er usefulness  fifteen  acres  of  rocky,  brush-covered,  New  England 
hillside.  We  have  seen  him  during  the  forty-two  years  of  his  life 
in  Oregon,  fostering,  by  his  enterprising  spirit,  nearly  every  branch 
of  productive  industry,  while  the  moral  forces  of  the  community 
which  he  thus  helped  build  up  have  been  supported  by  him  with 
a  most  liberal  hand.  • 

Amongst  the  annals  of  Oregon  pioneers,  no  page  is  brighter 
in  worthy  example  than  that  written  by  the  committee  of  this 
Association  under  the  name  of  William  Sargent  Ladd. 

It  is  not  for  me  at  this  time  to  trespass  upon  time  allotted  to 
to  those  chosen  to  address  you  on  this  occasion.  I  will  close  there- 
fore with  pressing  upon  your  attention  the  desirability  of  furnish- 
ing the  Secretary  of  this  Association  any  relics  of  the  homely  life 
of  the  pioneer  days  any  of  your  may  yet  have,  for  preservation, 
and  to  suggest  also  for  your  consideration  the  propriety  of  extend- 
ing the  pioneer  age  of  Oregon  to  cover  the  period  of  territorial 
government.  This,  I  think,  it  would  be  wise  to  do,  for  although 
every  second  pioneer  who  crossed  the  plains  with  ox  teams  during 
the  '  40's  carried  under  his  hat  the  head  of  a  statesman,  many  of 
our  most  useful  public  men  and  most  enterprising  citizens  came 
between  1850  and  i860.  The  propriety  of  fostering  your  objects 
by  inviting  in  the  aid  of  descendants  of  pioneers  may,  I  thint, 
also  be  worthy  of  your  consideration ;  for,  though  the  American 
institutions  of  dominion  on  the  Pacific  slope  you  founded  fifty 
years  ago  on  the  basic  ideas  of  protection  to  life  and  property, 
were  well  founded,  there  was  a  disturbing  element  left  which 
now  constitutes  the  city  of  Victoria,  the  headquarters  of  men  who 
make  gain  of  smuggling  unwelcome  immigrants  and  destructive 
drugs  across  your  northern  border  against  your  laws  to  such  extent 
as,  if  continued,  will  force  upon  your  successors  the  question  of 
national  action  which  shall  carry  the  northern  boundary  of  the 
United  States  to  the  frozen  ocean.  There  comes  times  to  nations 
as  well  as  to  men  when  patience  ceases  to  be  a  virtue. 


BY  HON.  N.  L.  BUTLER. 

Pioneers  of  Oregon^  Ladies  and  Gentlemen:  On  October  i8th, 
1873,  this  Association  became  an  organized  body.  Twenty-one 
years  and  twenty -one  sessions  will  soon  be  completed.  Its  duration 
as  composed  of  true  pioneer  men  and  women,  the  home-builders 
who  participated  in  the  hardships,  toils,  dangers  and  pleasures  of 
the  long  journey  and  early  life  in  this  then  wilderness  of  the  West 
must  soon  come  to  an  end.  They  are  fast  passing  away.  How 
frequently  the  tidings  go  forth  that  another  pioneer  has  passed 
from  among  us.  The  Association  must  soon  adjourn  to  meet  no 
more.    Few  shall  succeed  me  in  the  duties  and  pleasures  of  this 


The  youngest  of  that  gallant  band  are  in  the  sear  and  yellow 
leaf,  their  bent  forms  and  whitened  locks  mark  the  victory  of  Time 
—the  tomb-builder.  The  beautiful  story  Of  their  lives  and  of  pio- 
neer days  has  been  told  over  and  over  again.  The  muse  of  history 
has  embalmed  it,  the  polished  rhetoric  and  entrancing  eloquence 
of  a  Grover,  a  Scott,  a  Deady,  a  Nesmith,  and  many  another,  the 
pride  of  the  West,  has  given  it  a  place  among  the  country's  great 

From  the '40s  and  *5os,  the  bards  of  the  Pacific — Simpson,  Henry, 
Eberhard  and  Clarke — have  gathered  garlands  of  never-failing 
beauty,  and  from  the  noble,  charitable,  self-sacrificing  and  simple 
lives  of  the  men  and  women  of  those  days  have  gathered  gems  of 
purest  thought,  and  by  the  divine  witchery  of  poesy  wrought  them 
into  chaplets  fit  for  angels. 

I  thank  you,  pioneers,  for  this  privilege  of  participating  in 
some  small  degree  in  commemorating  that  noble  part  acted  by 


you  in  the  dramatic  life  of  this  big  world.  It  is  said  that  history 
repeats  itself.  This  may  be  true  of  events  having  their  origin 
entirely  within  the  domain  of  man's  intellectuality,  of  acts  and 
words,  the  fruitage  of  his  reason  or  passion.  But  of  these  events, 
which  are  the  results  of  the  co-action  of  his  qualities  and  attri- 
butes, and  the  physical  conditions  and  forces  of  nature  about  him, 
it  cannot  be  true.  Hon.  H.  W.  Scott,  in  his  able  address  of  1890, 
remarks,  "  Phases  of  life  pass  away  never  to  return.  In  the  first 
settlement  of  a  country  the  conditions  of  nature  produce  our  cus- 
toms, guide  our  industries,  fix  our  ways  of  life." 

In  all  the  annals  of  the  future  the  story  of  your  lives,  labors,  ad- 
ventures and  achievements  cannot  be  repeated.  By  an  inflexible  law, 
like  conditions  are  necessary  to  like  results.  The  conditions  that 
wrought  out  the  formula  of  your  lives  cannot  recur  again.  In  the 
far  East  organized  governments  were  first  established.  History, 
from  the  earliest  period  to  the  present,  from  the  record  of  events 
on  the  shores  of  the  Euphrates  and  the  Nile,  to  those  on  the  shores 
of  the  Sacramento  and  Columbia,  constitute  an  unbroken  chain 
of  progressive  development.  It  displays  the  boundless  possibili- 
ties of  our  race,  and  is  prophetic  of  the  great  future  slumbering 
in  the  years  to  come.  The  results  of  the  far  Eastern  civilization 
were  absorbed  in  the  Grecian.  The  splendor  of  the  Roman 
enlightenment  was  an  appropriation  of  all  things  worthy  to  be 
preserved  from  that  of  the  Egyptian,  Assyrian  and  Grecian,  From 
the  ashes  of  the  Eternal  City  boundless  activities  sprang  into 
being.  In  the  truths  of  her  moral  and  political  philosophy  mod- 
ern society  and  methods  of  government  are  deeply  rooted.  Rome 
ruled  the  world  in  solitary  majesty  for  centuries,  grand,  peculiar- - 
a  combination  of  the  worst  and  best  elements;  she  was  the  mother 
of  all  nations,  the  first  and  last  to  have  universal  dominion. 


From  her  treasury  of  knowledge  and  the  fragments  of  her  vast 
domain  republics  and  empires  have  been  builed  up.  Her  decline 
and  fall  was  the  end  of  the  old  and  the  beginning  of  the  new 
world.     That  old  world,  characterized  by  superstition,  hate,  the 


fierce  passions  of  war,  persecutions  and  oppression,  slaughter  of 
men,  sack  and  pillage  of  cities,  and  devastation  of  countries  ;  the 
beginning  of  this  new  era  of  reason,  justice,  charity,  of  beneficent 
methods  of  government,  recognition  of  individual  rights  and 
their  protection  by  just  and  wise  laws;  of  freedom  of  conscience 
and  the  dissemination  of  knowledge,  a  time  when  such  broad, 
deep  and  grand  declarations  as  "  That  all  men  are  created  equal, 
are  endowed  by  their  Creator  with  certain  inalienable  rights," 
may  be  made  and  believed  of  all  men. 

Providence  conducts  to  maturity  by  the  law  of  universal  life 
men,  things  and  events.  It  suffices  in  order  that  an  old  world 
may  disappear,  that  civilization,  ascending  continually  toward  its 
meridian,  shall  shine  upon  old  institutions,  old  prejudices,  old 
laws,  old  customs,  that  radiance  burns  up  and  devours  the  past. 
At  its  influence,  slowly,  and  without  shock,  what  ought  to  decay 
decays;  what  ought  to  decline  declines;  the  wrinkles  of  age  grow 
over  all  doomed  things,  over  castes,  codes,  institutions  and  relig- 

The  enlightenment  of  today  is  the  result,  the  accretion  of 
thirty  centuries  of  activities  of  the  human  intellect,  of  its  inven- 
tions and  discoveries.  From  the  beginning  the  river  of  man's  life 
has  broadened  and  deepened,  from  the  few  wise  men  of  the  East 
to  the  wise  nations  of  the  West,  from  poetic  mythology  to  reason, 
philosophy  and  science.  Truth  has  been  added  to  truth,  discov- 
ery to  discovery:  to  inscriptions  upon  stone  have  been  added  vast 
libraries.  From  superstition  and  polytheism  man  has  become 
with  nature's  very  self  an  old  acquaintance,  free  to  jest  at  will 
with  all  her  glorious  majesty. 

The  troubled  soul  of  man  is.  like  the  restless  waters  of  the 
ocean — in  ceaseless  activity.  The  tide  rolls  on,  event  crowds  upon 
event;  he  has  never  turned  his  face  from  the  goal  of  his  destiny. 
Through  desolation  and  war,  the  gigantic  crimes  of  rulers,  he 
presses  onward  with  undiminished  force.  A  resistless  destiny  ex- 
alts him  toward  the  Infinite.  No  great  truth  that  has  once  been 
found  has  ever  afterward  been  lost.  They  are  each  immortal;  they 
survive  the  shock  of  empire;  the  struggle  of  rival  creeds,  and  wit- 


ness  the  decay  of  successive  religions.  All  these  have  their  diflPer- 
ent  measures  and  their  different  standards.  One  set  of  opinions 
for  one  age,  and  another  set  for  another.  They  pass  away  like  a 
dream,  and  are  as  the  fabric  of  a  vision. 

The  discoveries  of  genius  alone  remain,  and  it  is  to  them  we 
owe  all  that  we  have;  they  are  for  all  ages  and  for  all  time,  never 
young  and  never  old;  they  bear  the  seeds  of  their  own  life,  they 
flow  on  in  a  perennial  and  widening  stream.  They  are  essentially 
cumulative,  and  ever  giving  birth  to  the  additions  which  they 
subsequently  receive,  thus  influencing  the  most  distant  posterity, 
and  after  the  lapse  of  centuries  produce  more  eflfect  than  they  were 
able  to  do  even  at  the  moment  of  their  promulgation.  Each  age 
is  a  preparation  for  the  succeeding  one. 


If  the  duration  of  our  races  upon  the  earth  is  to  be  coequal 
with  that  of  the  preceding  ages  of  animal  or  vegetable  life,  as 
determined  by  geology;  if  our  geological  period  is  to  be  the  same 
in  duration  as  theirs  has  been — and  may  we  not  so  infer  from 
the  shadowy  evidences  of  the  young  science? — man  is  in  the  morn- 
ing of  his  day.  The  stars  that  sang  together  at  his  birth  are  still 
burning,  and  the  shadows  of  the  departing  night  are  still  about 
him.  "  Who  can  blame  me,"  says  Tyndall,  "if  I  cherish  the  belief 
that  the  world  is  still  young — that  there  are  great  possibilities 
in  store  for  it? 

In  the  growth  of  years  the  fruitful  tree  knits  its  roots  deep  in 
the  ground,  and  spreads  out  its  branches  clothed  with  foliage;  the 
blossoms  appear  and  it  bears  its  fruitage — the  object  and  end  of 
its  preparation.  By  the  Infinite  the  earth  was  planted  in  the  fields 
of  space;  through  countless  ages  it  grew,  the  preparation  was  com- 
pleted, the  earth  was  blessed,  and  it  bloomed  and  bore  its  fruitage, 
and  man  walked  upon  the  earth;  from  the  fountains  of  infinite 
wisdom  that  fruitage  will  be  nourished,  and  there  shall  not  be 
anything  in  the  universe  that  he  may  not  know.  His  knowledge 
shall  go  forth  as  a  flame,  and  he  shall  walk   in  the  light  and   not 


stumble.  Says  Addison,  "There  is  not  in  my  opinion  a  more 
pleasing  and  triumphant  consideration  in  religion  than  this  of 
the  perpetual  progress  the  soul  makes  toward  the  perfection  of  its 
nature  without  ever  arriving  at  a  period  in  it.  To  look  upon  the 
soul  as  going  on  from  strength  to  strength,  to  consider  that  she  is 
to  shine  forever  with  new  accessions  of  glory  and  brighten  to  all 
eternity;  that  she  will  still  be  adding  virtue  to  virtue,  and  know- 
to  knowledge,  carries  in  it  something  wonderfully  agreeable  to 
that  ambition  which  is  natural  to  the  mind  of  man." 

This  dawn  of  the  20th  century,  this  15th  day  of  June,  1893,  is 
the  grandest  day  this  world  has  ever  known.  The  rich  results  of 
the  world's  labors,  discoveries  and  experiences  in  all. the  days  of 
the  past  are  gathered  into  it;  everything  worthy  of  preservation 
has  entered  into  its  web  and  woof.  To-morrow  the  world  shall  be 
wiser  by  the  accumulations  of  to-day. 

The  great  events  of  the  modern  period  prepared  the  way  for  the 
spirit  of  progress  in  discovery  and  invention.  It  has  grandly 
displayed  its  energies  in  all  lines  of  thought  and  action;  old  dog- 
mas in  science,  government  and  religion  have  been  cast  aside  or 
cleared  of  error;  society  has  been  elevated,  beautified  and  adorned 
by  the  resources  of  the  mind,  and  by  the  appropriation  of  the 
forces  in  nature  the  enlightenment  of  all  people  has  been  made 
possible.  Every  part  of  the  earth  has  been  visited  and  measured 
and  the  dominion  of  the  land  and  the  sea  divided  among  the 


The  laws  and  institutions  of  a  country  are  the  illustration 
and  expression  of  the  social,  moral  and  intellectual  status  of  the 
people.  We  are  so  constituted  as  that  union  and  co-action  with 
our  fellows  are  necessary  to  individual  success,  as  well  as  to  the 
attainment  of  the  highest  possibilities  of  our  race.  Hence  or- 
ganized society  or  government  is  of  the  utmost  importance. 
Deeply  impressed  with  this  truth,  the  wisest  and  best  of  every 
age  have  labored  to  perfect  a  system  that  will  unite  and  foster 
the  energies  of  the  people  and  the  resources  of  the  country.    From 


these  sources  and  the  fullness  of  their  own  wisdom  the  forefathers 
wrought  a  system  of  government  out  of  the  purest  and  best  prin- 
ciples. That  system  was  adopted  by  our  people,  and  we  have  be- 
come from  a  few  struggling  colonies  a  puissant  nation.  By  that 
system  the  whole  people  are  made  participants  in  the  affairs  of 
the  daily  life  of  the  nation.  Party  organizations  are  the  nec- 
essary result,  hence  our  government,  in  its  structure  and  adminis- 
tration, may  be  defined  to  be  the  constitution  and  the  political 
party  organized  within  its  liimitations.  Parties  are  not,  then. 
menaces  to  the  peace  and  prosperity  of  the  country,  but  watchmen 
on  its  battlements.  They  are  its  safety  props  and  defences. 
Fervency  in  party  conflict  means  with  us  an  intense  progressive 
national  life.  In  republics,  action  is  life,  inaction,  death;  there 
must  be  progression  or  energy.  Vigilance  in  republics  is  the 
price  of  liberty.  With  us,  the  more  vigilant  the  more  worthy  the 
citizen.  We  are  called  a  nation  of  politicians.  So  long  as  it  i& 
true,  our  government  will  endure.  The  voice  of  one  citizen  may 
move  the  hearts  of  his  countrymen.  Our  people  observe  the 
words  and  acts  of  all  those  who  would  assume  authority  in  state 
or  nation.  A  government  so  constituted  and  directed  by  an  en- 
lightened public  opinion  cannot  but  be  first  in  war  and  first  in 
peace  among  the  nations  of  the  iearth.  All  other  governments  in 
their  structure  and  administration  are  concrete;  ours  more  nearly- 
abstract,  or  a  system  of  principle.  The  constitution  of  the  United 
States  is  the  most  glorious  consummation  of  human  wisdom. 
Says  Winthrop:  "Like  one  of  those  wonderful  rocking  stones 
reared  by  the  Druids,  which  the  finger  of  a  child  might  vibrate 
to  its  center,  yet  the  might  of  an  army  could  not  move  from  its 
place,  our  constitution  is  so  nicely  poised  and  balanced  that  it 
seems  to  sway  with  every  breath  of  opinion,  yet  so  firmly  rooted 
in  the  hearts  and  affections  of  the  people  that  the  wildest  storm 
of  treason  and  fanaticism  break  over  it  in  vain."  By  this  won- 
derful experiment  of  self-government  the  world  is  being  in- 


Based  on  the  eternal  principles  of  right  and  justice,  the  equal- 
ity of  man,  the  individual  right  of  life,  liberty  and  the  pursuit  of 


happiness,  and  that  governments  derive  all  their  just  powers 
from  the  consent  of  the  governed,  the  wisdom  of  a  prophet  alone 
may  see  the  end  and  ^n  the  boundaries  of  its  possibilities.  Says 
Webster :  **  If  we  are  true  to  our  country  and  generation,  and 
those  who  come  after  us  shall  be  true  to  it  also,  assuredly  we 
shall  elevate  her  to  a  pitch  of  prosperity  and  happiness,  of  honor 
and  power,  never  reached  by  any  nation  beneath  the  sun.  By  her 
the  waters  of  the  river  of  human  progress  shall  be  broadened  and 
deepened  and  made  purer.  Our  noble  people,  disenthralled  and 
encouraged,  will  lead  her  on  and  on  from  victory  to  victory,  from 
glory  to  glory,  until  the  constitution,  now  good,  not  perfect,  shall 
grow  to  be  and  become  the  pride  of  the  world.  Until  all  that  is 
thrown  like  a  Chinese  wall  around  thought,  around  commerce, 
around  industry,  around  nationality,  around  progress,  will  crum- 
ble, until  with  Adam  Smith  the  world  shall  know  that  money  is 
of  no  possible  use  to  nations  except  to  circulate  their  riches;  when 
the  scepter  shall  depart  from  King  Gold,  and  the  iron  from  out 
the  hearts  of  men,  until  the  world  shall  no  more  think  of  digging 
in  the  earth  or  tunneling  in  the  rock  for  such  measures  of  value 
than  for  principles  of  law  or  morals,  or  for  words  to  enable  an 
exchange  of  thought;  until  the  fiat  or  supreme  will  of  an  enlight- 
ened people  shall  determine  all  things,  though  written  on  parch- 
ment and  not  on  gold;  until  no  exigency  in  nature  shall  govern, 
except  those  supreme  exigencies  of  the  human  intellect;  until  the 
happiness  and  prosperity  of  society  shall  no  longer  depend  upon 
the  presence  or  absence  or  quantity  of  any  substance  in  nature, 
but  alone  an  the  glorious  resources  of  man's  own  great  soul;  until 
our  country's  power  and  dominion  shall  fill  the  Western  hemis- 
phere and  the  British  provinces,  and  the  states  of  Mexico  become 
states  in  the  Union;  until  she  shall  be  the  arbiter  of  nations. 

Since  the  reunion  of  1891  the  beautiful  angel  has  called  many 
from  the  pioneer  ranks  to  the  better  country,  where  the  silver 
cord  is  never  loosed  nor  the  golden  bowl  never  broken.  Medorem 
Crawford,  James  Winston,  W.  S.  I^add,  Matthew  P.  Deady,  William 
C.  McKay,  Lloyd  Brooke,  W.  W.  Chapman,  Fred  Schwatka,  A.  W. 
Lucas  and  Charles  Taylor   have  finished  their  work  and  passed 


from  the  heat  and  dust  of  life.  In  the  death  of  these  pioneers 
the  record  of  noble  lives  has  been  completed;  brave,  sturdy  men, 
they  were  willing  to  do  and  bear  all  things  in  the  measure  of 
their  power,  and  "Life's  hardest  lesson,  without  groan,  to  suffer 
and  endure."  Their  names  are  interwoven  with  the  history  of  the 
Northwest;  men  of  thought  and  action,  whole-hearted  and  enter- 
prising, they  were  promoters  of  its  development  and  the  welfare 
of  the  people.    Of  each  it   may  be  said: 

"He  has  done  the  work  of  a  true  man, 
Crown  him,  honor  him,  love  him: 

Weep  over  him  tears  of  women, 
Stoop  manliest  brow  above  him." 

Venerable  pioneers,  you  have  accomplished  much;  your  work 
is  memorable.  The  results  determine  its  value  to  the  country 
and  the  world.  Three  stars  were  lighted  in  the  glorious  constel- 
lation of  states  that  shall  burn  with  inceasing  brightness  while 
the  Union  shall  endure.  Three  states  commemorate  your  lives; 
who  could  wish  a  monument  more  magnificent?  Compared  to  it 
how  mean  that  record  in  the  common  storehouse  of  history.  Em- 
balmed in  the  fervent  love  and  gratitude  of  your  children,  the 
memory  of  your  lives  and  labors  will  never  fade.  You  have  left 
foot  prints  on  the  sands  of  time  which  no  wave  of  oblivion  can. 
efface  while  the  beautiful  name  of  our  state,  Oregon,  s>hall  be 
spoken  by  men. 



Mr.  President,  Honored  Pioneers  of  Oregon,  Ladies  and  Gentle- 
men :  —  Oregon's  pioneer  history  is  to  many  before  me  a 
matter  largely  of  personal  recollections,  and  many  of  you 
possibly  participated  in  some  of  its  most  memorable  events.  I  am 
therefore  reminded  that  I  may  have  undertaken  a  most  difficult 
task  in  endeavoring  to  interest  you  for  even  a  short  time  in  a  sub- 
ject so  familiar  to  you  in  its  details,  and  so  often  canvassed  on 
occasions  like  the  present  one.  I  have  accepted  a  most  generous 
invitation,  not  in  the  hope  of  being  able  to  add  anything  of  spec- 
ial historic  value,  but  as  a  representative  of  Oregon's  native  sons, 
who  are  beneficiaries  of  your  perseverance  and  energy,  I  may  with 
propriety  say  something  of  your  work  in  laying  here  the  founda- 
tion of  this  great  commonwealth. 

It  occurs  to  me  that  no  more  appropriate  occasion  for  this 
could  present  itself  than  here,  in  the  presence  of  so  many  honored 
men  and  women,  whose  names  are  interwoven  with  the  history  of 
the  state,  and  who  have  done  so  much  to  create  and  preserve  it. 

There  has  been  much  in  our  pioneer  history  to  make  it  not 
only  interesting,  but  unique.  It  has  been  rich  in  exhibitions  of 
brave  and  generous  manhood  and  womanhood;  its  pioneer  homes 
not  only  abound  in  a  proverbial  hospitality — 

••  Where  every  stranger 
Found  a  ready  chair"— 

But  in  men  and  women  of  broad  capacity,  intellectual  force 
and  noble  character.  Men  and  women  capable  of  carrying  into 
practical  execution  the  founding  of  a  state — far  removed,  as  was 
this,  from  every  recognized  center  of  civilized  life. 


They  could  do  this,  for  they  brought  with  them — across  a  great 
continent,  over  mountain  barriers,  and  down  through  almost 
pathless  forests,  to  the  very  shores  of  the  Pacific — that  love  of 
country  and  devotion  to  liberty  that  had  built  up  the  homes  and 
institutions  of  New  England,  and  here  as  there,  the  family  hearth- 
stone became  the  center  and  source  of  courageous  action  not  only 
but  the  source  of  a  strong  individuality,  the  eflfects  of  which,  out- 
live men,  and  will  exist  when  the  last  pioneer  shall  have  been  laid 
beneath  the  soil  of  his  adopted  state.  It  was  this  home  life,  as 
distinguished  from  purely  mercenary  employments,  that  made 
Oregon  and  preserved  her  to  the  republic.  Her  frontier  homes,  her 
agriculture  beginnings,  her  seed  wheat  and  farming  implements, 
formed  a  colonizing  influence  with  which  the  trapping,  half  civil- 
ized life  of  the  British  subject  could  not  successfully  contend  for 
final  mastery. 


While  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  held  the  country  for  a  great 
game  preserve,  American  homes  were  being  established,  land 
cleared  and  crops  planted.  And  had  not  political  insincerity 
forced  the  issue  of  the  Northwestern  boundary  at  an  unfortunate 
time,  when  compromise  seemed  a  necessity  and,  in  the  opinion 
of  some,  a  matter  of  national  honor,  it  is  possible  that  the  natural 
evolution  of  events  would  have  ripened  the  title  of  the  United 
States  to  an  even  greater  territory  than  was  secured  in  the  final 
settlement  had.  The  interests  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  were 
secured  by  a  royal  charter.  The  solitudes  "  where  rolled  the  Ore- 
gon" were,  for  its  corporate  use,  to  remain  intact,  save  as  these 
charter  privileges  were  exercised  in  the  extension  of  the  fur  trade. 
Private  holders  in  land  were  discountenanced,  as  tending  to  en- 
croach on  the  game  supply.  It  was  the  American  pioneer  who 
founded  homes  based  upon  honorable  family  ties;  who  planted 
crops  and  gathered  harvests;  who  built  and  maintained  churches 
and  school-houses.  The  unfolding  of  such  a  civilization  was  such 
as  to  bring  Oregon,  naturally,  into  the  sisterhood  of  states,  and 
under  the  flag  of  the  Union,  |rather  than  to  permit  her  devel- 
opment into  a  British  province. 


There  is  no  longer  any  frontier  to  be  brought  under  the  do- 
minion of  man.  Commercial  cities  have  sprung  up  upon  the  shores 
of  the  Pacific;  railways  and  telegraph  lines  have  brought  us  into 
close  touch  and  sympathy  with  the  commerce  and  thought  of  the 
civilized  world.  The  work  of  the  pioneer  is  accomplished;  there 
can  never  be  any  more  true  pioneers  upon  this  continent.  But  a 
few  years  and  the  last  of  those  now  remaining  will  be  gone.  The 
absence  of  once  familiar  faces  at  these  reunions  tells  its  story,  and 
the  whitened  heads  of  those  yet  remaining  eloquently  empha- 
sizes it. 

The  men  who  came  to  Oregon  even  in  1852,  at  the  age  of  21 
3^ears,  are  now  over  60  years  of  age.  There  are  no  young  men  among 
them.  Since  your  last  annual  reunion  a  number  of  Oregon's  prom- 
inent pioneers  have  gone  to  that  unknown  country,  whose  border 
marks  the  end  of  human  toil  and  aspiration.  One  who  indelibly 
impressed  his  honored  name  upon  the  jurisprudence  of  the  state 
from  its  early  history,  and  who  was  a  valued  patron  of  its  educa- 
tional and  literary  effort;  another  whose  business  success  was  a 
blessing  to  his  state;  whose  financial  prosperity  was  the  result  of 
great  undertakings — beneficial  to  the  public;  who  was  widely 
known  as  a  generous  public  benefactor,  who  employed  his  wealth 
largely  to  crystallize  into  practical  good  the  impulses  of  a  noble 


Much  has  from  time  to  time  been  said  about  the  motives 
which  led  our  pioneers  to  migrate  to  this  coast,  and  how  much 
disinterested  patriotism  had  to  do  with  its  early  settlement.  Con- 
ceding that  self-betterment  and  natural  love  of  frontier  life  were 
th€  ruling  motives,  distance  and  isolation  never  lessened  the  devo- 
tion of  the  people  of  Oregon  to  their  government,  and  nowhere 
did  the  flag  of  the  union  ever  awaken  a  more  loyal  love  than  when 
it  floated  over  the  soil  of  Oregon,  reclaimed  and  forever  dedicated 
to  constitutional  liberty. 

Frontier  life  has  always  had  its  charm,  appealing  to  some  of 
the  highest  and  most  heroic  impulses  in  men,  where  man  can  be* 


free  from  the  pressure  of  artificial  life,  and  self- betterment  is  the 
working  out  of  an  ennobling  principle — ^promoting  an  individu- 
ality that  raises  a  man  above  the  tiresome  level — and  makes  himi 
visible  through  his  personality.  Weak  characters  seldom  found 
their  way  to  Oregon  before  the  advent  of  comfortable  transporta- 


It  required  grit  to  get  here  in  those  days.  The  old  prevailing- 
criticisms  of  the  "  Oregon  country,"  as  it  was  called,  are  certainly 
unique,  and  often  border  on  the  grotesque.  A  leading  English 
paper  declared  that  the  whole  [territory,  out  of  which  has  since 
been  carved  a  number  of  prosperous  states,  was  not  worth  £20,000 
per  year!  Tom  Benton  said  in  1825:  "The  ridge  of  the  Rocky 
mountains  may  be  named  without  offense  as  a  natural  and  ever- 
lasting boundary.  Along  the  back  of  this  ridge  the  western  limits 
of  the  republic  should  be  drawn."  And  Winthrop,  in,  1844,  in  the 
United  States  senate,  quoted  this  from  Benton,  and  gave  it  the  seal 
of  his  approval. 

The  Edinburgh  Review  solemnly  prophesied  that  in  a  few  years 
all  that  lived  in  the  country  would  be  supplanted  by  a  mixed 
white  and  half-breed  population,  degenerating  into  barbarism. 
This  estimate  might  have  been  verified  if,  instead  of  the  Ameri- 
can home-builder,  the  British  trapper  had  prevailed  in  the  race 
for  control.  There  was  something  really  amusing  in  the  prevail- 
ing ideas  of  this  coast  entertained  by  Eastern  people  at  the  time 
of  the  Oregon  controversy,  nor  have  they  ever  been  entirely  erad- 
icated. A  prominent  citizen  of  this  state  recently  received  a  let- 
ter from  an  Eastern  man,  who  contemplated  a  removal  to  Oregon 
with  his  family,  but  had  been  deterred  by  rumors  that  Mount 
Hood  was  in  a  state  of  eruption  and  desired  to  know  whether 
that  fact  would  make  it  inadvisable. 

Chancellor   Kent,  in  the  second  volume  of  his   commentaries 

on  American  law,  in  discussing  the  jurisdiction  of  courts,  said  in 

1826:  "If  the  government  of   the  United  States  should  carry   out 

•  the  project  of  colonizing  the  great  valley  of  the  Columbia  or  Ore- 


gon  river,  it  would  afford  a  subject  of  grave  consideration  what 
would  be  the  future  civil  and  political  destiny  of  that  country. 
It  would  be  a  long  time  before  it  would  be  populous  enough  to 
be  created  into  one  or  more  independent  states,  and  in  the  mean- 
time, upon  the  doctrine  taught  by  the  acts  of  congress,  and  by 
the  judicial  decisions  of  the  supreme  court,  the  colonists  would  be 
in  a  state  of  most  complete  subordination.  *  *  *  Such  a  state 
of  absolute  sovereignty  on  the  one  hand — and  of  absolute  depen- 
dence on  the  other — is  not  congenial  with  the  free  and  indepen- 
dent spirit  of  our  native  institutions  and  the  establishment  of 
distant  territorial  governments,  ruled  according  to  will  and  pleas- 
ure, would  have  a  very  natural  tendency,  as  all  proconsular  govern- 
ment have  had,  to  abuse  and  oppression."  And  in  a  foot  note  that 
gifted  author  recites  that  Cicero  in  his  oration  for  the  Manilian 
law  describes  in  glowing  colors  the  abuse  and  oppression  committed 
by  Roman  magistrates  exercising  civil  and  military  power  in  the 
distant  provinces. 


During  the  debate  in  the  United  States  senate  upon  the  North- 
west boundary  question,  Daniel  Webster  counseled  a  compromise 
upon  the  49th  parallel,  as  tending  best  to  maintain  the  peace  and 
honor  of  both  countries  interested.  His  estimate,  placed  upon 
the  commercial  importance  of  the  Columbia  river,  found  expres- 
sion in  a  remarkable  comparison  between  it  and  the  St.  John  river, 
forming  a  portion  of  the  northeast  boundary.  He  said  that  the 
St.  John  was  to  be  free  to  citizens  of  Maine  for  the  transportation 
down  its  stream  of  all  unmanufactured  articles. 

"He  had  heard,  he  said,  "a  vast  deal  lately  of  the  immense  value 
and  importance  of  the  river  Columbia  and  its  navigation.  But 
asserted,  that  for  all  purposes  of  human  use,  the  St.  John  was 
worth  a  hundred  times  as  much  as  the  Columbia  was  or  ever 
would  be.  That  in  point  of  magnitude  it  was  one  of  the  most 
respectable  rivers  on  the  Eastern  side  of  that  part  of  America. 
That  it  was  longer  than  the  Hudson  and  as  large  as  the  Delaware. 
And  as  if  to  clinch  his  argument  for  its  superiority  over  the  Co- 


lutnbia,  added  that  it  was  a  river  which  had  a  mouth  to  it,  and 
thftt,  in  the  opinion  of  some,  was  a  thing  of  some  importance  in 
the  matter  of  rivers. 

He  argued  that  it  was  navigable  from  the  sea  by  steamboats 
to  a  greater  distance  than  the  Columbia,  and,  unlike  the  Colum- 
bia, ran  through  a  good  country.  But  he  seems  to  have  based 
his  comparison  of  the  value  of  its  commerce  with  that  of  the  Co- 
lumbia upon  the  diflference  between  the  value  of  the  developed 
lumber  trade  of  that  region  and  of  the  furs  shipped  from  Fort 
Vancouver  to  the  Pacific.  In  comparing  the  country  tributary 
to  the  two  rivers,  he  said  land  was  to  be  found  in  the  Aroostook 
valley  which  had  yielded  as  had  been  stated  to  him  on  the  best 
authority,  more  than  forty  bushels  of  wheat  to  the  acre! 


Oregon  has  ceased  to  marvel  at  crops  yielding  forty  bushels 
to  the  acre,  and  Daniel  Webster,  if  a  living  visitor  at  the  world's 
fair,  would  no  doubt  share  the  popular  belief  current  there — that 
Oregon  wheat  exhibited  has  been  swelled  by  artificial  process. 
The  commercial  value  of  the  historic  St.  John  river  pales  beside 
that  of  our  own  great  Columbia. 

It  runs  in  a  climate  of  extremes  varying  from  loo  degrees 
above  to  20  degrees  below  zero.  The  gulf  stream  bathes  the  south- 
ern coast  of  Maine — but  her  lakes  and  rivers  are  ice-bound  from 
December  to  April. 

The  Columbia  is  five  times  the  length  of  the  St.  John.  The 
natural  obstructions  to  navigation  in  the  St.  John  are  more  fre- 
quent and  nearer  its  mouth  than  in  the  Columbia,  and  the  area 
drained  by  its  waters  sinks  into  comparative  insignificance. 

Contemplated  improvements  on  the  Columbia  will  open  up 
one  thousand  miles  of  continuous  waterway* -into  tlie  interior  of 
the  continent — from  the  sea.  The  drainage  area  of  the  Columbia 
is  greater  than  the  aggregate  area  of  all  the  New  England  States, 
the  Middle  States,  Maryland  and  Virginia. 


The  Oregon  of  today  would  be,  indeed,  a  revelation  to  those 
who  only  knew  Portland  as  an  uninteresting  hamlet,  inferior  to 
Scottsburg,  on  the  Umpqua,  and  several  other  points  in  the  state 
in  point  of  population  and  trade;  to  whom  the  waters  of  the 
Columbia  seemed  an  endless  waste,  as  it  flowed  in  quiet,  ceaseless 
power  to  the  sea,  bearing  no  commerce  upon  its  bosom  and  giving 
back  no  echoes  save  the  lonely  fall  of  the  woodman's  ax  or  the 
low  chant  of  the  Indian;  to  whom  the  Willamette  seemed  dream- 
ily to  steal  its  way  through  a  veritable  paradise,  unscarred  by  any 
indicia  of  private  possession  or  ownership. 

We  who  today  measure  the  progress  of  our  state,  know  little 
of  its  possibilities.  Nature's  God  seems  to  have  lavished  upon 
Oregon  the  richest  and  most  enduring  gifts.  Her  undeveloped 
resources  are  such  as  to  make  her  one  of  the  grandest  common- 
wealths in  the  Union.  Her  harbors  are  yet  to  be  improved,  her 
mineral,  coal  and  timber  wealths  to  be  developed,  her  foothills  to 
be  made  productive.  Down  the  valley  of  the  Willamette  and 
upon  the  broad  Columbia  will  be  borne  her  ever-increasing  pro- 
ducts. The  great  empire  of  Eastern  Oregon,  within  fifteen  years, 
has  developed  a  trade  in  a  single  product — that  of  wool — that  has 
made  its  gateway  city  upon  the  Columbia,  The  Dalles,  the  largest 
original  shipping  point  for  wool  in  the  United  States,  and  the 
cereal  product  of  Eastern  Oregon  yearly  crowds  the  facilities  for 
transportation.  When  the  locks  at  the  Cascades  of  the  Columbia 
shall  be  completed  and  the  obstructions  at  The  Dalles  no  longer 
present  a  barrier  to  shipment  to  the  sea;  when  a  new  pathway 
from  ocean  to  ocean  is  opened  by  means  of  the  Nicaragua  canal, 
her  products  will  easily  and  cheaply  find  the  markets  of  the 


iilk  The  temper  of  our  people  has  not  always  been  such  as  to  fav- 
or the  investment  of  capital  in  the  development  of  our  resources, 
The  flow  of  immigration  and  capital  has  been,  by  the  superior 
energy  of  our  sister  commonwealths  upon  the  north  and  south, 
largely    directed    from  us.    Yet    there  has  been  steady   progress. 


which  under'more  favorable  circumstances  will  develop  into  phe- 
nomenal growth.  These  more  favorable  circumstances  will  come. 
and  with  this  advancement  a  more  complex  social  order  will  pre- 
vail. The  conditions  of  individual  success  will  be  more  and  more 
exacting,  for — 

Where  by  the  bonds  of  nature  feebly  held, 
Mind  combats  mind,  repelling  and  repelled, 
Ferments  arise,  imprisoned  factions  roar. 
Repressed  ambition  struggles  round  the  shore— 
'Till,  overwrought,  the  general  system  feels 
Its  motion  stop,  or  frenzy  fire  the  wheels. 

But  to  meet  these  more  complex  conditions,  there  will  spring 
up  a  better  organized  philanthropy,  a  more  zealous  application  of 
just  laws  and  a  simpler  and  purer  application  of  the  principles  of 
human  brotherhood,  addressed  to  the  alleviation  of  human  con- 
ditions and  the  extension  of  true  philanthropy.  We  do  not  be- 
lieve that  this  great  and  free  republic  has  reached  the  zenith  of 
its  greatness  or  power  or  grandeur.  And  here  in  Oregon,  above  and 
beyond  the  beaten,  dusty  highways  of  life,  these  mountains  will 
always  stand,  lifting  the  thoughts  and  purposes  of  men. 

And  when  the  last  star  shall  have  been  added  to  the  field  of 
blue— emblematic  of  the  birth  of  states — upon  this  continent; 
when  millions  dwell  where  there  are  now  thousands;  when  you 
and  I  have  returned  to  the  elements  and  been  forgotten,  these  grand 
mountains  will  inspire  and  these  great  rivers  will  broaden  the 
minds  of  men.  And  if  there  be  one  spot  beneath  the  stars  where 
human  aspiration  shall  be  best  directed,  let  us  believe  that  it  may 
be  here,  in  our  own  Oregon,  a  state  whose  foundations  are  laid  in 
the  rugged  courage  of  her  pioneers,  preserved  in  true  fidelity  and 
to  be  perpetuated  only  in  the  intelligence  and  nobility  of  her 



The  roll  of  the  seasons  has  brought  us  June 

And  birds,  with  their  roundelay; 
With  its  voices  attuned  to  its  wondrous  runes 

The  springtime  has  passed  away; 
It  is  as  it  was  when  our  steps  were  bent 
In  the  olden  time  for  the  Occident! 

We  then  were  as  young  as  we  now  are  old — 

Oldened  by  grief  and  by  care; 
We  all  were  then  bold,  and  our  hearts  pure  gold 

Was  undimmed  by  life's  dull  wear; 
We  gathered  our  herds  and  marshalled  our  trains- 
What  counted  we  then  for  mountains  or  plains! 

We  still  love  the  songs  of  the  olden  time— 
I/ife  always  must  love  its  Spring— 

For  the  frosty  rime  of  our  age  will  chime 
With  memories  June  can  bring; 

So  we  gather  together  for  greeting  to-day 

To  dream  of  the  hopes  of  I^ife's  far  away  May! 

The  years  are  far  behind  ^ 

The  years  we  proudly  know 

By  days  and  deeds  that  bind  us 
To  the  times  of  long  ago; 

The  years  so  blest,  with  all  their  fears, 
With  all  their  toils  and  pains, 


The  trying  years  of  all  life's  years 
That  brought  us  o*er  the  plains! 

Some  crossed  the  stormy  water, 

Some  journeyed  here  by  land; 
Columbia's  children  sought  her 

By  ocean  and  by  strand ; 
Their  motto,  with  Columbus, 

Was  ever,  "  On  and  on," 
'Til  autumn  sunsets  found  us 

At  home — our  goal  won ! 

But  now,  life's  golden  morrows 

Are  fading  in  the  West; 
The  years  have  left  their  sorrows 

For  some  who  are  at  rest; 
The  seasons,  with  their  changes. 

Have  made  the  ripened  years 
Through  which  the  melting  ranges 

Send  down  their  floods  of  tears; 
The  youth  and  prime  of  long  ago 

Wear  hoary  heads  to-day, 
And  fairest  maids,  we  used  to  know, 

Are  matrons  grave  and  gray. 

And  still  the  grand  old  mountains 

Look  down  on  fruitful  soil; 
Their  snows  still  swell  the  fountains 

That  quench  the  thirst  of  toil; 
The  rivers  yet  are  flowing 

To  reach  the  western  sea. 
And  summer  suns  are  glowing 

On  hillside  and  on  lea. 

But  now  they  see  fair  valleys 

Gemmed  with  ten  thousand  homes; 


And,  where  the  west  wind  dallies, 

Now  rise  the  city *s  domes; 
And  where  the  unknown  rivers 

Once  rolled  past  realms  of  shade, 
The  golden  sunrise  quivers 

On  palaces  of  trade; 
The  navies  of  the  Orient 

And  oceans  far  away, 
Are  anchored  here,  with  sails  unbent. 

On  Argos  quest  to-day. 

The  glamour  of  the  lightning's  flash — 

The  hiss  of  fretful  steam — 
Are  seen  in  yonder  mountain  pass, 

Or  on  the  prairies  gleam ; 
And,  in  the  half-gone  century, 

While  we  have  turned  to  gray, 
Our  brain  and  brawn  wove  history 

That  clothes  these  scenes  to-day. 

We  found  a  leafy  wilderness 

Broad  spread  and  fair  to  view; 
We  felt  the  summer  sun's  caress, 

'Mid  scenes  and  graces  new; 
Here,  nestled  by  the  river  flows. 

The  Indian  village  lay; 
There,  nature,  in  her  calm  repose. 

Had  antlered  herds  at  play! 

We  leave  a  land  of  churches,  and 

A  state  with  homes  and  schools; 
Where  wild  deer  roved  the  harvests  stand, 

And  here  Columbia  rules; 
The  snowy  ranges  now  look  down 

Upon  earth's  happiest  day, 
And  home  and  orchard,  field  and  town, 

Replace  primeval  sway. 


And  this  fair  land  might  long  have  been 
Untamed,  if  toiling  trains 

Of  women  brave  and  stalwart  men 
Had  never  crossed  the  plains! 

The  gray  beards  now  are  massing, 

And  furrowed  faces  here 
All  tell  how  time  is  passing 

With  every  Pioneer. 
Few  years  are  yet  before  us, 

Our  life  seems  far  behind; 
But  glamour  will  come  o'er  us 

And  call  the  past  to  mind. 
Again  we  stem  the  torrent, 

Or  hold  the  lone  night  guard, 
As  over  loved  and  loving  ones 

We  keep  our  watch  and  ward; 
We  cross  the  plains  and  prairies, 

Or  combat  with  the  foe; 
We  climb  the  frowning  ranges 

To  realms  of  frost  and  snow; 
We  tread  the  parching  deserts. 

Or,  with  a  silent  tread, 
We  weep  for  those  loved  dearest — 

As  we  leave  behind  our  dead. 
Then,  after  dangers  manifold. 

We  find  these  regions  blest — 
The  land  of  which  our  hopes  have  told — 

The  vales  of  farthest  West! 

Alas!  the  glamour  fades  again — 
Our  eyes  forget  to  glow — 

So  many  who  were  with  us  then 
These  scenes  no  longer  know; 

For  now,  amid  the  silences. 
Our  comrades  are  at  rest; 


They  who  gave  life  it  joyousness — 

Many  we  loved  the  best — 
Have  crossed  the  mystic  river, 

Until  a  kindred  throng 
Are  waiting  there  to  welcome  those 

Who  came  the  Plains  along! 

Soon  we,  too,  must  cross  over, 

And  then  that  past  will  be 
To  future  cycles  only 

An  old-time  memory! 
Yet,  through  the  coming  ages. 

Where  schools  or  altars  rise — 
When  songs  or  storied  pages 

Shall  name  those  early  ties — 
In  epic  verse  or  classic  prose 

The  legend  shall  be  told. 
To  honor — *till  the  ages  close — 

The  Pioneers  of  Old! 

And  time  shall  still  to  the  ages  thrill 

Of  deeds  by  the  mothers  done; 
That  made  men  strong  by  cheer  and  by  song 

As  they  marched  with  the  Westing  sun; 

That  wife  and  fair  maid  by  kindly  words  said, 

And  bravest  of  heart  each  day, 
By  the  morning's  light  and  the  camp  fire's  night 

Drove  wearisome  thoughts  away. 

How  a  woman's  hand  in  a  desert  land 

By  magic  of  touch  can  thrill; 
How  her  kindly  eye  by  its  sympathy 

Can  banish  the  fear  of  ill! 


So,  when  men  shall  cheer  for  the  Pioneer 
And  words  due  of  praise  are  paid ; 

I^et  the  minstrels  play  and  the  poet's  lay 
Yield  fealty  to  matron  and  maid! 

lyife's  tide  is  ehbing  with  us  now; 

We  near  the  silent  stream 
Where  I^ethe  and  Nepenthe  flow 

To  end  life's  troubled  dream. 
Your  names  are  writ  upon  the  page 

That  history  must  record, 
And  early  patriot  or  sage 

Will  win  his  due  reward. 
With  humble  heart  and  reverent  one, 

You  now  that  past  may  view, 
For  you  have  builded — and  have  done — 

Far  better  than  you  knew. 
There  was  a  wondrous  providence 

Inspired  you  as  you  trod; 
You  were  the  fateful  instruments 

To  work  the  will  of  God! 
He  led  and  guided  then  your  ways 

And  held  you  in  His  hand, 
So  lift  your  hearts  in  thankful  praise 

That  you  won  this  fair  land! 

Some  ships  are  lost  on  wrecking  shore 
Amid  the  breaker's  foam; 

And  some  are  swallowed  tip  before 
The  cyclone's  fearful  doom ; 

While  others,  as  they£anchored  lie. 

Are  rotting  hulls 'neath  idle  sky! 


Some  good  ships  sail  on  favoring  seas, 

Where  wind  and  wfive  befriend, 
Deep  freighted  with  earth's  argosies 

To  reach  their  journey's  end; 
So  you  through  baffling  seas  have  pasiied 
To  reach  a  peaceful  haven  at  last ! 

May  Faith's  sure  anchor  hold  you  fast! 

When  Time's  last  voyage  shall  come, 
When  all  life's  toils  and  dangers  past 

The  angel  calls  you  home — 
Then  may  you  each  find  waiting  near 
A  Haven  that  claims  the  Pioneer! 

We  meet,  perchance,  to  meet  no  more! 

Life's  friendships  are  but  short; 
Some  soon  may  reach  the  Other  Shore 

And  anchored  lie  in  port; 
We  here  to  some  we  love  full  well 
May  give  Earth's  last  Hail  and  Farewell! 


[An  additional  number  of  the  letters  written  by  Mrs.  Nar- 
cissa  Whitman  to  her  relatives  in  New  York,  have  recently  been 
secured,  together  with  some  very  important  ones  from  Dr.  Whit- 
man himself,  incidentally  alluding  to  matters  which  of  late  years 
have  been  the  subject  of  much  controversy.  The  originals  of  the 
letters  in  this  pamphlet,  as  well  as  those  in  the  Transactions  of 
this  Association  for  1891,  are  in  my  possession  as  a  permanent 
contribution  to  the  archives  of  our  Association.  At  my  earnest 
solicitation  they  were  donated  to  us  by  Mrs.  Harriet  P.  Jackson, 
a  sister  of  Mrs.  Whitman,  who  lived  at  Oberlin,  Ohio,  in  1893, 
to  whom  we  owe  a  vote  of  thanks.  The  letter  of  Rev.  H.  H, 
Spalding  to  Mrs.  Whitman's  father,  giving  probably  the  first  ac- 
count of  the  massacre,  also  appears  in  this  pamphlet. — Geo.  H. 
HiMES,  Secretary.] 

Vancouver,  July  nth,  1843. 

My  Beloved  Sister  Jane: — ^Your  letters  of  March'and  April,  '42, 
I  received  about  three  weeks  since,  and  can  assure  you  I  was  not 
a  little  rejoiced  in  hearing  from  you,  they  being  the  first  I  have 
received  from  you  since  March,  *4o,  by  Mrs.  Littlejohn.  I  have 
written  you  and  Edward  several  times  since — indeed,  I  always 
write  you  every  opportunity,  whether  you  get  them  or  not.  I 
heard  of  the  death  of  dear  sister  Judson  last  September  through 
Lawyer  Divin,  but  no  particulars  until  your  letters  came.  About 
the  same  time  one  came  from  poor  brother  Judson,  the  only  one 
I  have  received  from  him  or  Mary  Ann  since  '39.  My  last  from 
dear  parents  and  Harriet  was  in  September,  '40;  so  you  see  I  have 
not  the  means  of  knowing  but  little  about  you  all,  yet  I  trust  that  I 
am  truly  thankful  for  that  little.    It  is  a  great  cordial  to  me.    I 


love  you  all  with  an  undying  love,  and  every  fresh  breeze  I  re- 
ceive fans  it  into  a  burning  flame.  I  feel  not  the  least  disposi- 
tion to  shed  a  tear  on  dear  sister  Judson's  account,  but  rather  to 
rejoice  that  she  is  so  safely  harbored  in  the  bosom  of  her  and 
our  Saviour's  love;  but  for  the  sake  of  those  who  still  live  and 
whom  she  might  be  the  means  of  leading  to  Christ,  I  could  mourn 
and  weep  in  bitterness  of  soul.  I  rejoice,  too,  that  the  sustaining^ 
grace  of  God  was  so  manifest  to  her  beloved  bereaved  husband » 
and  our  dear  parents,  as  well  as  you  all,  under  the  afflictive  dis- 
pensation. My  first  thought  when  I  heard  of  her  death  was  that  I 
should  be  the  next  to  go;  but  it  may  be  otherwise,  the'Lord  only 
knows.  This  I  do  know.  His  time  will  be  the  best  time,  and  my 
chief  concern  is,  and  shall  be,  to  be  ready  and  have  my  work  done 
and  well  done.  But  O,  what  a  poor  weak  creature  I  am;  how  lit- 
tle I  can  do  to  glorify  His  great  Name.  What  poor  return^  I  make 
daily  for  His  unbounded  goodness  to  me.  If  I  am  saved  I  am  sure 
it  will  not,  it  cannot,  be  because  of  any  intrinsic  worth  in  ihe,  oi* 
any  of  my  friends,  but  solely  and  alone  for  His  sake  who  gave  His 
Own  life  a  ransom  to  save  a  lost  world. 

Dear  J  ane,  I  have  the  privilege  of  once  more  addressing  you 
from  Vancouver  where  I  am  spending  a  little  time  very  pleasantly^ 
and  where  I  am  favored  with  the  medical  advice  and  treatment 
of  two  very  able  physicians.  Doctors  Barclay  and  Tolmie.  It  will 
soon  be  seven  years  since  I  first  saw  this  place.  I  should  not  be 
here  now  if  my  husband  had  not  gone  home  and  left  me,  or,  I 
should  have  said,  if  my  health  had  been  sufficient  .for  me  to  have 
continued  at  my  post  of  labor  among  the  Indians.  Doctor  White» 
the  government  Indian  agent  of  this  country,  advised  me  to  avail 
myself  of  this  opportunity  to  rid  myself  from  care  and  labor,  come 
here  and  attend  to  the  advice  of  Doctor  Barclay  for  the  perfect 
restoration  of  my  health,  and  I  have  no  reason  to  regret  it  so  far.  I 
feel  that  my  health  is  improving,  I  hope,  permanently. 

You  speak  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Abernethy.  I  have  seen  your  letter 
to  them  and  have  only  seen  him  a  short  time  since  I  have  been 
here.    I  hope  to  see  them  both  in  a  few  days,  for  I  am  waiting  a 


convenient  opportunity  to  go  to  the  Willamette,  where  I  expect 
to  visit  the  different  members  of  the  Mission  and  spend  a  pleas- 
ant season  among  them.  The  two  Missions  are  three  hundred 
miles  apart  and  it  is  not  easy  to  visit  back  and  forth,  especially 
where  all  hands  are  full  of  business  each  in  hi«  own  field  of 

You  almost  make  me  feel,  from  your  letters,  that  you  will 
accept  of  my  invitation  and  come  over  and  live  with  me  and  help 
me  teach  the  poor  Indians.  Indeed!  are  you  not  now  almost  here 
with  my  beloved  husband?  The  time  draws  near  when  I  hope  to 
see  his  dear  face  again,  and  O!  am  I  to  greet  a  beloved  sister  with 
him,  and,  perhaps,  a  dear  brother,  too?  I  know  not  what  inex- 
pressible joys  or  sorrows  are  before  this  frail,  trembling  heart  of 
mine;  I  feel  that  I  could  not  survive  an  excess  of  either,  my  ner- 
vous system  is  so  much  impaired.  But  I  know  assuredly  that  the 
same  grace  that  has  sustained  me-  hitherto  under  fiery  trials,  is 
able  and  will  sustain  in  time  to  come.  I  am  in  His  hand.  The 
nine  months  past  that  I  have  been  separated  from  my  precious 
husband,  have  been  months  of  His  special  favors  to  me  in  this 
dreary  land  of  heathenish  darkness.  The  sacrifice,  if  I  may  call 
it  so,  has  been  a  very  great  one — much  more  so  than  I  at  first 
thought  it  could  be,  even  to  exceed  that  of  leaving  my  native 
land  and  beloved  friends,  and  coming  to  dwell  among  the  hea- 
then. But  the  precious  promises  have"  been  fulfilled  in  my  case 
leaving  all  for  Christ's  sake,  as  J.  trust  I  did  in  coming  to  this 
country,  and  freely  consenting  to  be  left  so  feeble  and  lonely 
in  such  a  lonely  situation,  by  my  earthly  protector,  my  husband. 
I  feel  that  I  have  indeed  received  manifold  more  in  this  present 
time  with  an  assured  hope  of  receiving  in  the  world  to  come  life 

lam  pleased  to  hear  so  good  an  account  of  dear  E.'s  progress 
in  study  and  piety ^  and  sincerely  hope  ke  will  be  a  useful  and 
devoted  Christian  minister.  I  wish  he  would  write  me  more,  for 
his  own  sake  as  well  as  mine. 

Miss  Jane  A.  Prentiss, 

Cuba,  Alleghany  County, 

New  York,  U.  S.  A. 


Waiii,atpu,''Orkgon  Territory,  \ 

April  i2th,  1844.     J 

My  Beloved  Father: — I  was  coming  up  the  Columbia  river  from 
the  Willamette  and  Vancouver  with  Rev.  Jason  Lee  when  your 
welcomed  letter  reached  me.  My  husband  had  each  of  the  sta- 
tions of  the  Mission  to  visit  before  he  could  come  after  me.  Mr. 
Lee  brought  me  on  my  way  home  as  far  as  The  Dalles,  to  Mr 
Perkins,  one  of  their  stations,  where  I  spent  the  winter  of  my 
husband*s  absence.  I  remained  there  a  few  days,  and  my  long 
absent  doctor  came  for  me.  It  was  a  joyful  and  happy  meeting 
and  caused  our  hearts  to  overflow  with  love  and  gratitude  to  the 
Author  of  all  our  mercies,  for  permitting  us  to  see  each  other's 
faces  figain  in  the  flesh.  We  came  home  immediately  after  a 
short  visit  with  friends  there.  My  health,  which  had  been  quite 
poor  some  of  the  time  of  his  absence,  was  somewhat  improved, 
but  the  voyage  up  the  river,  or  rather  the  exposure  of  rain,  cold 
and  fatigue,  and  also  the  journey  from  Walla  Walla  here,  proved 
injurious  to  me.  I  was  so  unwell  when  I  reached  home  that  I 
could  scarcely  get  about  the  house  for  several  weeks.  I  continued 
to  decline,  or,  rather,  had  two  attacks  of  remittent  fever  until  the 
last  of  December,  when  I  was  taken  with  a  very  severe  attack  of 
inflammation  of  the. bowels  and  bloating  which  threatened  almost 
immediate  death.  The  second  night  of  the  attack,  we  almost 
despaired  of  my  living.  From  the  first,  I  was  taken  with  excruci- 
ating pain  and  spitting  bilious  fluid  from  the  stomach,  and  could 
keep  nothing  down,  nor  effect  a  motion  of  the  bowels  sufficient 
to  afford  a  permanent  relief;  a  clyster  of  salts  was  introduced  into 
the  bowels  with  a  long  tube  and  stomach  pump  the  second  night, 
and  followed  by  a  portion  of  the  same  medicine  in  the  morning, 
which  soon  gave  signs  of  relief.  The  cathartic  operated  favorably 
and  thoroughly,  and  I  recovered  almost  immediately  so  as  to  be 
able  to  sit  up  and  be  about  the  room.  Previous  to  this,  and  al- 
most as  soon  as  husband  returned  and  inquired  into  my  case,  he 
discovered  a  beating  tumor  near  the  umbilicus  and  fears  it  is  an 


aneurism  of  the  main  aorta  below  the  heart.  If  what  he  fears  is 
true,  he  says  there  is  no  probability  or  possibility  of  a  cure,  or  of 
my  ever  enjoying  anything  more  than  a  comfortable  degree  of 
health,  and  I  am  liable  at  any  moment  to  a  sudden  death.  While 
I  was  at  Vancouver,  I  placed  myself  under  Doctor  Barclay's  care, 
a  surgeon  of  the  H.  B.  Company's.  He  discovered  that  I  had  an 
enlargement  of  the  right  ovary  and  gave  me  iodine  to  remove  it. 
I  was  very  much  improved  by  his  kind  attentions  for  that  com- 
plaint, and  had  it  not  been  for  the  other  difficulty  of  the  aorta 
which  was  not  at  that  timedisc:overed  by  Doctor  Barclay,  although 
it  existed,  I  might  have  recovered  my  health.  But  the  medicine 
I  took  for  the  cure  of  one  tumor  was  an  injury  to  the  other,  and 
for  three  months  after  my  husband's  return,  my  situation  was  a 
source  of  deepest  anxiety  to  him  and  he  greatly  feared  that  he  was 
about  to  be  bereaved.  But  the  Lord  dealt  in  infinite  loving  kind- 
ness to  us  both,  and  in  answer  to  prayer,  raised  me  up  again.  Yes, 
beloved  parents,  while  I  was  in  that  precarious  state,  and  almost 
without  hope  that  I  should  survive  many  hours,  dear  brother 
lyittlejohn,  who  is  now  with  us,  prayed  for  me  with  the  full  assur- 
ance that  the  prayer  of  faith  shall  save  the  sick,  and  the  Lord 
heard  and  answered. 

I  am  now  much  more  comfortable  than  at  that  time  husband 
expected  I  ever  could  be.  I  am  able  to  take  the  whole  care  of  my 
family  and  aid  in  doing  the  most  difficult  part  of  the  work,  or 
that  that  I  cannot  get  done  by  others.  During  the  first  three 
months  after  my  return  to  the  station,  husband  was  confined 
with  the  care  of  me  and  was  obliged  to  have  the  whole  care  of 
the  family  upon  his  mind  at  the  same  time  with  his  other  duties. 
Our  family  was  large  and  at  the  time  I  arrived,  there  were  two 
large  families  of  the  emigrants  in  our  house  besides  Mr.  Little- 
John's,  and  our  own  consisted  of  six  children  and  two  hired  men. 
We  have  written  about  our  half  breed  children,  those  we  had  before 
the  doctor  left;  in  addition  to  those  is  Perrin,  our  nephew,  and  two 
English  girls  of  the  emigrating  party  of  last  year.  One  of  them  is 
thirteen  and  the  other  six;  they  are  motherless;  they  have  both  re- 


quired  much  training,  but  I  hope  to  realize  much   benefit   from 
them  if  I  should  succeed  in  keeping  them. 

This  paper  is  so  rough  that  it  makes  my  writing  look  very- 
miserable  and  I  fear  father  and  mother  will  scarcely  be  able  to 
read  it.  I  should  take  common-sized  letter  paper  did  I  not  wish  to 
write  more  than  one  sheet.  Last  fall  I  did  not  write  a  single 
letter  home.  I  was  not  able  to,  and  feared  I  should  never  have 
the  privilege  again.  Writing  injures  me  very  much,  and  unless  I 
feel  more  than  usually  well  I  find  it  exceedingly  difficult  to 
attempt  it,  especially  as  I  am  situated;  having  just  as  much  labor 
and  care  as  a  weak  person  ought  to  have,  and  much  more  that 
needs  to  be  done. 

My  beloved  parents  need  not  be  surprised  should  they  hear  of 
my  death  soon.  Ever  since  the  fall  of  1840,  the  sickness  I  had  at 
that  time,  I  have  been  declining.  Every  spring  I  revive  and  feel 
quite  well,  and  feel  as  if  I  should  regain  my  health  again,  but 
every  fall  and  winter  I  am  very  miserable.  I  may  live  several 
years  yet,  with  care  and  favoring  myself,  but  I  do  not  expect  it. 
My  dear  parents  must  wish  to  know  how  my  mind  stands  aflFect- 
ed  in  view  of  death.  I  can  sincerely  say  that  "I  would  not  live 
always."  Yet  so  long  as  I  can  be  permitted  to  live  and  be  a  bene- 
fit to  the  living  and  the  cause  of  Christ,  I  desire  to.  At  times  I 
long  to  be  at  rest,  to  be  free  from  sin  and  its  defilements  and  be 
made  complete  in  the  righteousness  of  our  dear  Saviour.  Earth 
and  the  things  of  this  world  in  themselves  considered  have  no 
charms  for  me.  I  can  resign  them  all  for  a  place  in  the  presence 
of  Jesus.  I  feel  that  I  am  a  miserably  poor  sinner,  and  unworthy 
of  a  name  or  a  place  among  the  "sons  and  daughters  of  the  Lord 
God  Almighty."  Yet  I  hope  and  trust  alone  in  the  merits  of  him 
who  is  infinitely  worthy,  for  salvation  from  all  sin  and  unrii^fht- 
eousness.    He  is  my  all,  and  I  desire  to  be  His  entirely. 

Last  winter  I  felt  in  some  considerable  degree  what  is  one  of 
the  missionary's  greatest  trials,  to  be  sick  and  nigh  unto  death, 
and   to  die   away  from    father,  mother,  brothers  and  sisters,  and 


sympathizing  friends.  It  is,  indeed,  no  small  trial  for  flesh  and 
blood  to  endure,  but  thanks  to  God,  His  cheering  presence  can 
more  than  supply  the  absence  of  all  these.  Do  my  dear  parents 
cease  not  to  pray  for  your  afflicted  daughter  that  I  may  be  pre- 
pared; ready,  watching  and  waiting  for  the  summons  to  depart 
and  be  with  Christ  "which  is  far  better."  For  His  sake  and  the 
missionary  cause,  I  could  live  long  and  toil  and  labor  through 
many  a  wearisome  day  and  night  to  aid  in  accomplishing  His 
great  work.  But  as  He  directs,  so  I  desire  to  follow,  and  to  say, 
"The  will  of  the  Lord  be  done." 

I  have  something  to  say  concerning  the  manner  in  which  I 
spent  my  time  last  summer  while  the  doctor  was  gone.  I  forget 
when  was  the  last  time  I  wrote  you.  I  think,  however,  it  was 
last  spring.  I  came  from  Mr.  Perkins  in  April  and  visited  the 
station  and  went  to  Walla  Walla  in  May  to  avail  myself  of  the 
opportunity  of  a  passage  in  the  brigade  boats  the  first  of  June. 
We  reached  Vancouver  in  five  days,  remained  there  until  the  mid- 
dle of  July  and  then  went  to  the  Willamette  Falls,  where  I  spent 
three  weeks  very  pleasantly  in  the  families  of  Mr.  Abernethy  and 
Mr.  Walters  of  the  Methodist  Mission.  In  August,  the  Company's 
ship  was  about  leaving  in  which  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Lee  of  Waskopum 
was  about  to  depart  in  her;  also  Dr.  Babcock  and  wife  and  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Frost,  all  Methodist  missionaries.  I  went  down  to  the 
mouth  of  the  Columbia  river  to  see  them  depart  and  to  get  a 
view  of  the  Pacific  «cean.  I  enjoyed  the  voyage  down  and  my 
visit  there  very  much.  The  scenery  of  the  ocean  and  the  bar  was 
new  to  me.  I  also  had  a  visit  with  the  families  of  the  Mission  at 
the  Clatsop  station.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Parrish,  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Ray- 
mond, Mr.  and  Mrs.Judson  and  family,  and  Mrs.  Olley  toiney?] 
had  come  down  for  the  benefit  of  Mrs.  Jndson's  health.  Mr.  Leslie 
and  Mr.  Jason  Lee  were  there  also.  I  spent  a  day  or  two  on  board 
ship  with  Mrs.  Lee,  in  whose  society  I  enjoyed  so  much  satisfaction 
while  at  Waskopum.  Visited  the  celebrated  Astoria,  now  Fort 
George,  and  the  day  the  ship  sailed  went  round  Clatsop  Point  to 
the  station  and  spent  nearly  a  week  there  and  enjoyed  s«>me  prec- 
ious religious  privileges  with  the  brethren  and  sisters  there  and  re- 


turned  with  Mr.  J.  I^ee  and  Mr.  Leslie  to  the  Willamette  Falls,  and 
immediately  proceeded  up  the  river  to  the  upper  Mission  and 
visited  the  families  of  Rev.  Mr.  Hinds,  Mr.  Beers  and  others,  and 
also  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Gray,  my  old  associates.  While  there  a  camp- 
meeting  was  held  near  by,  which  I  attended  and  a  precious  season 
it  was  to  my  soul.  To  witness  again  the  anxious  tear  and  hear  the 
deep-felt  inquiry,  "What  must  I  do  to  be  saved?"  as  I  once  used  to, 
filled  me  with  joy  inexpressible.  It  continued  four  days  and  re- 
sulted in  the  conversion  of  almost  all  the  impenitent  on  the 
ground.  From  this  precious  season,  after  a  week  or  two,  we  came 
to  the  Falls  where  a  protracted  meeting  was  held.  While  that 
was  in  progress,  the  news  came  that  my  husband  was  on  his  re- 
turn with  a  hundred  and  forty  wagons  containing  an  immense 
party  of  emigrants,  and  that  probably  he  was  now  at  Waiilatpu. 
This  was  cheering  news,  as  I  had  just  heard  from  the  Islands 
through  Mr.  Hall  that,  iu  recent  news  from  the  States  to  the  Islands 
down  as  late  as  April,  1843,  no  mention  was  made  of  his  arrival. 
This  had  given  me  much  anxiety,  but  it  was  not  long  before  the 
other  intelligence  came.  The  last  week  in  September,  I  left  the 
Falls  for  Vancouver  and  The  Dalles  in  company  with  Mr.  J.  I^ee, 
the  Superintendent  of  that  Mission,  and  turned  my  back  upon 
many  dear  friends  in  Christ  with  whom  I  was  permitted  to  form 
an  acquaintance  and  a  Christian  attachment  never  to  be  for- 

Having  been  so  long  secluded,  I  was  well  prepared  to  enjoy 
society  and  I  may  well  say  that  some  of  the  moments  spent  there 
with  Christian  friends  were  among  the  happiest  in  my  life.  We 
made  a  short  stay  at  Vancouver  and  then  proceeded  on  our  way 
up  the  river.  Passing  the  Cascades  and  making  the.  portage,  we 
had  continual  rain,  and  before  we  reached  The  Dalles,  I  took  cold 
to  my  great  injury,  as  it  afterwards  proved.  Between  the  Cascades 

.  and  The  Dalles,  I  received  father's  letter  with  several  others  from 
friends,, also  sisters  Jane,  C.  and  H;  I  am  greatly  obliged  to  them 

_for  writing.  Mr.  Lee  waited  at  The  Dalles  until  the  doctor  came. 
It  was  pleasing  to  see  the  pioneers  of  the  two  Missions  meet  and 
hold  counsel  together.  Soon  we  parted  and  I  turned  my  face  with 


tny  husband  toward  this  dark  spot,  and  dark,  indeed,  it  seemed 
to  be  to  me  when  compared  with  the  scenes,  social  and  religious 
which  I  had  so  recently  been  enjoying  with  so  much  zest. 

When  we  parted  with  Mr.  Lee,  we  little  thought  that  our  first 
news  from  him  would  be,  that  he  had  set  his  face  toward  his  na- 
tive land.  But  it  was,  indeed,  so.  He  has  gone  again  and  I  should 
rejoice  if  dear  father  and  mother  would  see  him.  He  has  shown 
me  great  kindness  during  my  lonely  state,  and  may  the  Lord 
reward  him  for  it.  He  has  been  deeply  afflicted  in  his  domestic 
relations.  He  has  buried  two  excellent  wives,  and  a  little  son. 
A  little  daughter  of  his  last  wife,  still  survives  to  comfort  and 
cheer  him  in  his  loneliness.  She  has  gone  with  him  to  the  States; 
and  so  has  Rev.  Mr.  Hinds  and  his  wife.  As  they  are  from  the 
region  of  Allegheny  county,  I  hope  father  will  see  them. 

It  must  appear  singular  to  friends  at  home  to  hear  of  the  re- 
turn of  so  many  missionaries  from  Oregon.  So  it  seems  to  us; 
but  we  have  not  the  discouragements  which  our  friends  of  that 
Mission  have.  The  Indians  of  the  Willamette  and  the  coast  are 
diminishing  rapidly;  but  they  have  another  work  put  into  their 
hands.  Settlers  are  coming  into  the  country  like  a  flood  and 
every  one  of  these  need  the  gospel  preached  to  them  as  much  as 
the  heathen.  That  Society  have  been  and  are  doing  a  great  deal 
of  good  in  the  lower  country.  Mr.  Clark  and  Mr.  Griffin,  minis- 
ters of  our  denomination,  are  settled  near  on  the  Tualatin  plains 
and  are  doing  much  good  in  the  way  of  schools  and  preaching.  I 
did  not  visit  them,  although  greatly  urged  to;  on  account  of  my 
health  I  could  not  ride  there,  as  it  was  some  distance  from  the 

I  was  greatly  disappointed  in  not  seeing  Jane  when  the  doctor 
returned.  I  fancied  he  would  bring  her,  and  so  he  would  have 
done  had  a  family  been  coming  with  whom  it  would  have  been 
prudent  for  her  to  come.  I  still  hope  some  day  to  see  her  here. 
But  I  know  not  how.  This  I  do  know,  that  no  one  of  my  friends 
at  home  know  of  how  much  comfort  she  would  be  to  me  if  *she 
was  here. 


Sister  Littlejohn  is  a  great  comfort  to  me.  She  acted  the 
part  of  a  sister  to  me  during  my  sickness,  but  I  do  not  alwa3)» 
expect  to  keep  her.  Mr.  Littlejohn  is  in  poor  health  and  usable 
to  labor.  His  mind  suffers  greatly  from  dejection  and  melan- 
choly, and  he  longs  to  go  back  so  the  States  again. 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Spalding  and  two  children  have  been  deeply 
afflicted  the  past  summer,  just  before  the  doctor's  return,  with 
sickness,  especially  Mrs.  S.  She  lay  for  several  days  expectiag 
every  moment  would  be  her  last,  and  no  physician  near.  Mr. 
and  Mrs.  Littlejohn  was  there  at  that  time,  and  as  soon  as  possi- 
ble Mr.  Geiger,  who  was  at  this  station,  was  sent  for,  also  Mr. 
Walker,  to  preach  her  funeral  sermon— expecting  she  would  die 
before  he  reached  there.  Her  husband  and  children  were  sick  at 
the  same  time  and  all  must  have  perished  had  it  not  been  tliat 
Mr.  and  Mrs.  Littlejohn  were  providentially  there,  having  a  short 
time  before  returned  from  Mr.  Walker's.  God  in  mercy  spared 
them  all  and  restored  them  back  to  health  again.  But  Mrs.  S.  is 
feeble,  and  like  myself,  we  feel  cannot  be  expected  to  live  long^. 

Since  my  return  to  the  station,  Mrs.  S.  has  written  me  very 
kindly,  showing  that  her  feelings  have  undergone  a  change  dur- 
ing her  sickness,  while  in  the  near  view  of  death  and  expecting 
every  moment  to  enter  the  dark  valley.  This  is  a  great  consola- 
tion to  us,  and  we  hope  and  believe  that  they  both  feel  different 
toward  us  from  what  they  did,  and  surely  they  have  great  reason 
to,  from  husband's  account   of  his  visit  to  the  rooms  in  Boston. 

I  desire  never  to  pass  through  such  scenes  of  trial  as  I  have 
done,  and  God  grant  that  I  may  never  be  called  to.  We  both  have 
spent  a  happy  winter  in  each  other's  society.  Having  those  un- 
happy difficulties  removed  makes  a  change  in  our  every  day  feel- 
ings. We  are  happier  in  each  other  and  happier  in  God  and  in 
our  work  than  we  could  have  been  while  laboring  under  those  ex- 
citing difficulties — yea!  soul-destroying  difficulties,  I  may  well  say. 

For  more  than  a  year  past  I  have  enjoyed  an  unwonted  quiet 
resting  upon  God  my  Redeemer,  especially  during  my  husband's 


absence.  Truly  my  Saviour  was  with  me  in  those  trying  hours, 
and  sustained  me  far  beyond  what  I  deserve.  A  calm,  peaceful 
sense  of  His  abiding  presence  was  what  I  almost  daily  realized. 
Being  free  from  any  distracting  cares  of  my  family  and  the  sta- 
tion, I  had  nothing  else  to  do  but  rest  myself  in  my  Saviour's 
arms;  and  it  would  be  well  for  me  now  if  I  were  to  do  the  same, 
instead  of  attempting  to  shoulder  my  cares,  as  I  often  do — to  cast 
them  on  Him  who  has  said  *'  Cast  thy  burdens  upon  the  Lord  and 
He  will  sustain  thee."  I  know  this,  and  believe  it,  too,  for  I  have 
sometimes  realized  it.  But  to  have  the  constant  habit  of  doing  so 
is  what  I  would  gladly  obtain,  and  I  know  I  may  with  diligence 
and  prayerful  watching  thereunto. 

I  see  I  have  almost  exceeded  my  limits,  and  must  think  of 
closing.  Father's  letters  are  choice  gems  to  me,  and  I  hope  he 
will  continue  to  write  as  long  as  I  live.  O!  that  dear  mother 
would  put  some  of  her  thoughts  on  paper  for  the  consolation  of 
my  heart.  She  does  not  know  what  joy  it  would  give  me.  I  am 
a  thousand  times  thankful  for  all  the  favors  I  receive  from  home, 
and  shall  write  to  all  as  many  and  as  much  as  my  weak  state  will 

Love  to  all,  in  which  husband  unites.  I  am  sorry  he  did  not 
have  time  to  make  a  longer  visit  after  going  so  far.  Farewell, 
dear  father  and  mother,  and  if  I  never  write  again  till  we  meet 
in  heaven, 

Your  ever  affectionate  daughter, 

Narcissa  Whitman. 

Hon.  Stephen  Prentiss, 

Cuba,  Allegheny  Co., 

N.  Y.,  U.  S.  A. 



Waiii^aTpu,  May  i6th,  1844. 
My  Dear  Father  and  Mother: — A  little  more  than  a  year  has 
elapsed  since  I  had  the  pleasure  of  seeing  you.  The  remembrance 
of  that  visit  will  never  be  effaced  from  my  mind.  I  did  not  mis- 
judge as  to  my  duty  to  return  home;  the  importance  of  my  ac- 
companying the  emigration  on  one  hand  and  the  consequent 
scarcity  of  provisions  on  the  other,  strongly  called  for  my  return, 
and  forbid  my  bringing  another  party  that  year. 

As  I  hold  the  settlement  of  this  country  by  Americans  rather 
than  by  an  English  colony  most  important,  I  am  happy  to  have 
been  the  means  of  landing  so  large  an  emigration  on  to  the  shores 
of  the  Columbia,  with  their  wagons,  families  and  stock,  all  in 

The  health  of  Narcissi  was  such  in  my  absence  and  since  my 
return  as  to  call  loudly  for  my  presence.  We  despaired  of  her 
life  at  times  and  for  the  winter  have  not  felt  she  could  live  long. 
But  there  is  more  hope  at  present,  although  nothing  very  decisive 
can  be  said.  While  on  the  way  back,  I  had  an  inflammation  in  my 
foot  which  threatened  to  suppurate,  but  I  discussed  it  and  thought 
nothing  more  of  it  until  I  got  home,  when  I  found  I  had  a  tumor 
on  the  instep.  It  appears  to  be  a  bony  tumor  and  has  given  me 
a  good  deal  of  apprehension  and  inconvenience,  but  is  now  some 
better,  but  not  well. 

It  gives  me  much  pleasure  to  be  back  again  and  quietly  at 
work  again  for  the  Indians.  It  does  not  concern  me  so  much 
what  is  to  become  of  any  particular  set  of  Indians,  as  to  give  them 
the  offer  of  salvation  through  the  gospel  and  the  opportunity  of 
civilization,  and  then  I  am  content  to  do  good  to  all  men  as  "I 
have  opportunity."  I  have  no  doubt  our  greatest  work  is  to  be  to 
aid  the  white  settlement  of  this  country  and  help  to  found  its  re- 



ligious  institutions.  Providence  has  its  full  share  in  all  these 
events.  Although  the  Indians  have  made  and  are  making  rapid 
advance  in  religious  knowledge  and  civilization,  yet  it  cannot  be 
hoped  that  time  will  be  allowed  to  mature  either  the  work  of 
Christianization  or  civilization  before  the  white  settlers  will  de- 
mand the  soil  and  seek  the  removal  of  both  the  Indians  and  the 
Mission.  What  Americans  desire  of  this  kind  they  always  effect, 
and  it  is  equally  useless  to  oppose  or  desire  it  otherwise.  To  guide, 
as  far  as  can  be  done,  and  direct  these  tendencies  for  the  best,  is 
evidently  the  part  of  wisdom.  Indeed,  I  am  fully  convinced  that 
when  a  people  refuse  or  neglect  to  fill  the  designs  of  Providence, 
they  ought  not  to  complain  at  the  results;  and  so  it  is  equally 
useless  for  Christians  to  be  anxious  on  their  account.  The  Indians 
have  in  no  case  obeyed  the  command  to  multiply  and  replenish 
the  earth,  and  they  cannot  stand  in  the  way  of  others  in  doing  so. 
A  place  will  be  left  them  to  do  this  as  fully  as  their  ability  to 
obey  will  permit,  and  the  more  we  can  do  for  them  the  more  fully 
will  this  be  realized.  No  exclusiveness  can  be  asked  for  any  por- 
tion of  the  human  family.  The  exercise  of  his  rights  are  all 
that  can  be  desired.  In  order  for  this  to  its  proper  extent  in  re- 
gard to  the  Indians,  it  is  necessary  that  they  seek  to  preserve  their 
rights  by  peaceable  means  only.  Any  violation  of  this  rule  will 
be  visited  with  only  evil  results  to  themselves. 

The  Indians  are  anxious  about  the  consequence  of  settlers 
among  them,  but  I  hope  there  will  be  no  acts  of  violence  on  either 
hand.  An  evil  affair  at  the  Palls  of  the  Wallamett,  resulted  in 
the  death  of  two  white  men  killed  and  one  Indian.  But  all  is 
now  quiet.  I  will  try  to  write  to  Brother  Jackson  when  I  will 
treat  of  the  country,  etc. 

It   will    not   surprise  me   to  see  your  whole   family    in    this 

country  in  two  years.    Let  us  hear  from  you  often.   Narcissa  may 

be  able  to    write  for   herself.    We  wish  to    be  remembered   with 

your  other  children  in  your  prayers. 

Your  affectionate  son, 

Marcus  Whitman. 
Hon.  Stephen  Prentiss, 

Cuba,  Allegheny  Co., 

New  York. 


Waiii^aTpu,  Oct.  9th,  1844. 

Beloved  and  Honored  Parents: ^l  have  no  unanswered  letters 
on  hand,  either  from  dear  father  and  mother  or  any  of  the  family, 
yet  I  cannot  refrain  from  writing  every  stated  opportunity.  The 
season  has  arrived  when  the  emigrants  are  beginning  to  pass  us 
on  their  way  to  the  Willamette.  Last  season  there  were  such  a 
multitude  of  starving  people  passed  us  that  quite  drained  us  of 
all  our  provisions,  except  potatoes.  Husband  has  been  endeavor- 
ing this  summer  to  cultivate  so  as  to  be  able  to  impart  without 
so  much  distressing  ourselves.  In  addition  to  this,  he  has  been 
obliged  to  build  a  mill,  and  to  do  it  principally  with  his  own 
hands,  which  has  rendered  it  exceedingly  laborious  for  him.  In 
the  meantime,  I  have  endeavored  to  lighten  his  burden  as  much 
as  possible  in  superintending  the  ingathering  of  the  garden,  etc. 
During  this  period,  the  Indians  belonging  to  this  station  and  the 
Nez  Perces  go  to  Forts  Hall  and  Boise  to  meet  the  emigrants  for 
the  purpose  of  trading  their  wornout  cattle  for  horses.  Last  week 
Tuesday,  several  young  men  arrived,  the  first  of  the  party  that 
brought  us  any  definite  intelligence  concerning  them  (having 
nothing  but  Indian  reports  previous),  among  whom  was  a  youth 
from  Rushville  formerly,  of  the  name  of  Gilbert,  one  of  husband's 

Last  Friday  a  family  of  eight  arrived,  including  the  grand- 
mother, an  aged  woman,  probably  as  old,  or  older  than  my  mother. 
Several  such  persons  have  passed,  both  men  and  women,  and  I 
often  think  when  I  gaze  upon  them,  shall  I  ever  be  permitted  to 
look  upon  the  face  of  my  dear  parents  in  this  land? 

25th — When  I  commenced  this  letter  I  intended  to  write  a 
little  every  day,  so  as  to  give  you  a  picture  of  our  situation  at  this 
time.  But  it  has  been  impossible.  Now  I  must  write  as  briefly 
as  possible  and  send  oflf  my  letter,  or  lose  the  opportunity.  The 
emigration  is  late  in  getting  into  the  country.  It  is  now  the  last 
of  October  and  they  have  just  begun  to  arrive  with  their  wagons. 
The  Blue  mountains  are  covered  with  snow,  and  many  families,  if 
not  half  of  the  party,  are  back  in  or  beyond  the  mountains,  and 
what  is  still   worse,  destitute  of  provisions   and  some  of  them   of 

I . 


clothing.  Many  are  sick,  several  with  children  born  on  the  way. 
One  family  arrived  here  night  before  last,  and  the  next  morn  a 
child  was  born;  another  is  expected  in  the  same  condition. 

Here  we  are,  one  family  alone,  a  way  mark,  as  it  were,  or 
center  post,  about  which  multitudes  will  or  must  gather  this 
winter.  And  these  we  must  feed  and  warm  to  the  extent  of  our 
powers.  Blessed  be  God  that  He  has  given  us  so  abundantly  of 
the  fruit  of  the  earth  that  we  may  impart  to  those  who  are  thus 
famishing.  Two  preachers  with  large  families  are  here  and  wish 
to  stay  for  the  winter,  both  Methodist.  With  all  this  upon  our 
hands,  besides  our  duties  and  labors  for  the  Indians,  can  any  one 
think  we  lack  employment  or  have  any  time  to  be  idle? 

Mr.  and  Mrs.  Littlejohn  left  us  in  September  and  have  gone 
below  to  settle  in  the  Willamette.  We  have  been  looking  for 
associates  this  fall,  but  the  Board  could  get  none  ready,  but  say^ 
they  will  send  next  year.  Am  I  ever  to  see  any  of  my  family 
among  the  tide  of  emigration  that  is  flowing  west? 

Our  mill  is  finished  and  grinds  well.  It  is  a  mill  out  of  doors 
or  without  a  house;  that  we  must  build  next  year. 

We  have  employed  a  young  man  of  the  party  to  teach  school,. 
so  that  we  hope  to  hav*^  both  an  English  school  and  one  for  the 
natives.  My  health  has  been  improving  remarkably  through  the 
summer,  and  one  great  means  has  been  daily  bathing  in  the  river. 
I  was  very  miserable  one  year  ago  now,  and  was  brought  very  low 
and  poor;  now  I  am  better  than  I  have  been  for  some  time,  and 
quite  fleshy  for  me.  I  weigh  one  hundred  and  sixty-seven  pounds; 
much  higher  than  ever  before  in  my  life.  This  will  make  the 
girls  laugh,  I  know.  Mrs.  Spalding's  health  is  better  than  last 
year.     She  expects  an  increase  in  her  family  soon. 

This  country  is  destined  to  be  filled,  and  we  desire  greatly  to- 
have  good  people  come,  and  ministers  and  Christians,  that  it  may 
be  saved  from  being  a  sink  of  wickedness  and  prostitution.  We 
need  many  houses  to  accommodate  the  families  that  will  be  obliged 
to  winter  here.    All  the  house  room  that  we  have  to  spare  is  filled 


already.  It  is  expected  that  there  are  more  than  five  hundred 
souls  back  in  the  snow  and  mountains.  Among  the  number  is 
an  orphan  family  of  seven  children,  the  youngest  an  infant  t>oni 
on  the  way,  whose  parents  have  both  died  since  they  left  the 
States.  Application  has  been  made  for  us  to  take  them,  as  they 
have  not  a  relative  in  the  company.  What  we  shall  do  I  cannot 
say; we  cannot  see  them  suffer,  if  the  Lord  casts  them  upon  us. 
He  will  give  us  His   grace  and  strength  to   do  our  duty   to  them. 

I  cannot  write  any  more,  I  am  so  thronged  and  employed 
that  I  feel  sometimes  like  being  crazy,  and  my  poor  husband,  if 
he  had  a  hundred  strings  tied  to  him  pulling  in  every  direction, 
could  not  be  any  worse  oflf. 

Dear  parents,  do  pray  earnestly  for  your  children  here,  for 
their  situation  is  one  of  great  trial,  as  well  as  of  responsibility. 

Love  from  us  both  to  you  all.  I  am  disappointed  in  not 
getting  letters  from  some  of  the  dear  ones  this  fall,  but  so  it 
must  be  and  I  submit. 

Your  affectionate  daughter, 


Hon.  Stephen  Prentiss, 

Cuba,  Allegheny  Co., 

New  York. 

Waiii^aTpu,  April  8th,  1845. 
My  Dear  Father: — It  gives  me  pleasure  to  write  you  at  this 
time,  as  I  know  you  will  be  anxious  to  hear  how  we  prosper.  The 
health  of  Narcissa  is  very  much  improved  from  what  it  was  when 
I  came  home  and  the  winter  following,  yet  it  is  not  good,  nor  is 
it  likely  to  be  again.  She  is,  however,  able  to  take  the  charge  of 
the  family,  and  to  perform  much  important  labor.  Our  family 
had  the  important  addition  of  an  orphan  family  of  seven  chil- 
dren whose  parents  both  died  on  the  road  to  this  country.  The  two 
oldest  are  boys,  the  oldest  is  fourteen,  and  the  rest  are  girls;  the 


youngest  was  only  five  months  when  she  came  here.  It  did  not 
seem  likely  the  little  one  could  have  lived  many  days  more,  but 
she  is  now  strong  and  healthy,  as  are  all  the  rest. 

I  have  thought  much  for  the  last  winter  that'I  should  be 
glad  if  you  were  in  this  country.  The  immigrants  are  benefiting 
themselves  much  by  coming  here,  as  they  take  each  a  mile  square 
of  land  and  will  hold  it,  as  they  make  such  regulations  among 
themselves,  in  accordance  with  the  bill  of  Mr.  Linn,  formerly  in 
the  Senate  of  the  U.  S. 

No  country  now  open  to  settlers  presents  such  a  field  for  en- 
terprise, as  this  near  vicinity  to  the  Pacific  ocean  offers  large 
promise  of  commercial  advantage.  The  salubrity  of  the  climate 
is  such  here  that  1  am  every  year  only  the  more  and  more  admir- 
ing it.  Flowers  have  been  in  blossom  in  this  valley  this  year 
since  the  middle  of  January,  and  the  grass  is  as  fine  for  the  whole 
winter  as  in  almost  any  other  country  in  June. 

I  have  had  much  to  do  with  supplying  immigrants  for  the 
last  two  years. 

My  mill  was  burnt  soon  after  I  left  for  the  States,  but  I  have 
rebuilt  it,  and  have  a  saw-mill  in  a  state  of  forwardness,  which  I 
hope  to  start  soon  after  planting.  It  is  about  twenty  miles  from 
the  house  and  situated  in  the  Blue  mountains.  It  is  necessary  to 
•  have  a  saw-mill, as  we  are  in  want  of  conveniences,  and  our  houses 
are  to  be  roofed  anew,  as  we  have  only  dirt  roofs  at  present,  and 
besides  we  have  no  house  over  our  flour-mill,  and  we  need  store- 

We  must  also  use  a  saw-mill  for  fencing,  as  timber  is  so  scarce 
except  in  the  mountains.  The  Indians  are  doing  more  this  year 
at  farming  than  before  and  fencing  much  better^-^  thing  much 
needed,  for  most  of  them  are  now  getting  more  or  less  cows  and 
other  cattle.  I  have  killed  nineteen  beeves,  of  course  mostly  to 
supply  immigrants.  The  last  was  but  two  years  old  when  killed 
the  loth  of  March  and  weighed  six-hundred,  and  the  tallow,  after 
one  hind  quarter  was  sold,  weighed  65  lbs.    This  will  show  a  spec- 


imen  of  my  stock,  as  we  never  feed  either  to  raise  or  fatten,  and  he 
was  only  an  ordinary  animal.  I  have  four  two  year  old  heifers  (this 
spring  only)  which  have  each  better  yearlings  sucking  them,  prob- 
ably than  any  that  can  be  shown  in  the  state  of  New  York,  except 
they  have  had  more  than  one  cow's  milk. 

We  have  above  eighty  sheep,  a  large  part  ewes,  as  we  kill  the 
wethers — besides  all  that  have  been  killed  by  dogs,  wolves,  etc., 
and  besides  a  good  many  furnished  the  Indians.  All  these  came 
from  one  ewe  brought  from  the  Sandwich  Islands  in  '38  and  two 
more  brought  in  '39.  We  shall  have  more  than  a  hundred  when 
the  spring  lambs  have  come. 

Let  us  hear  from  you,  and  if  any  of  you  think   to  come   here. 

I  have  had  many  a  rebuke  by  Narcissa,  because  I  did  not 
bring  Jane  with  me  when  I  came  back.  Edward  might  do  well 
in  this  country,  and  we  shall  be  glad  to  see  him  when  his  educa- 
tion is  completed,  if  he  is  to  complete  it;  but  if  not,  still  let  him 
come,  but  only  with  a  wife.  You  can  come  in  wagons  all  the  way, 
but  bring  nothing  but  provisions  and  necessary  clothing — nothing. 
Accept  our  love  for  you  all.     And  believe  us, 

Your  affectionate  children, 

Marcus  Whitman. 

My  Dear  Parents: — I  have  now  a  family  of  eleven  children. 
This  makes  me  feel  as  if  I  could  not  write  a  letter,  not  even  to  my 
dearest  friends,  much  as  I  desire  to.  I  get  along  very  well  with 
them;  they  have  been  to  school  most  of  the  time;  we  have  had  an 
excellent  teacher,  a  young  man  from  New  York.  He  became 
hopefully  converted  soon  after  entering  our  family,  and  mother,  I 
wish  you  could  see  me  now  in  the  midst  of  such  a  group  of  little 
ones;  there  are  two  girls  of  nine  years,  one  of  seven,  a  girl  and  boy 
of  six,  another  girl  of  five,  another  of  three  and  the  baby,  she  is 
now  ten  months.  I  often  think  of  mother  when  she  had  the  care 
of  Henry  Martin  Curtis. 


It  would  make  me  indescribably  happy  ^to  have  father  and 
mother  and  some  of  the  children  come  to  Oregon;  but  it  is  such  a 
journey  I  fear  mother  would  be  sorry  she  undertook  it,  if  she  should 
conclude  to  come,  but  if  once  here  I  think  there  would  be  no  cause 
of  regret.  Families  can  come  quite  comfortable  and  easy  in  wag- 
ons all  the  way.  But  why  should  I  wish  thus?  It  cannot  be  pos- 
sible that  I  shall  see  my  beloved  parents  again — is  it?-  -until  I  meet 
them  in  heaven.  The  Lord  only  knows;  I  will  leave  it  with  Him 
to  direct  all  these  things.  We  have  had  some  serious  trials  this 
spring  with  the  Indians.  Two  important  Indians  have  died  and 
they  have  ventured  to  say  and  intimate  that  the  doctor  has  killed 
them  by  his  magical  power,  in  the  same  way  they  accuse  their 
own  sorcerers  and  kill  them  for  it.  Also  an  important  young  man 
has  been  killed  in  California  by  Americans;  he  was  the  son  of  the 
Walla  Walla  chief  and  went  there  to  get  cattle,  with  a  few  others. 
This  has  produced  much  excitement  also.  We  are  in  the  midst  of 
excitement  and  prejudice  on  all  sides,  both  from  Indians  and 
passing  immigrants,  but  the  Lord  has  preserved  us  hitherto  and 
will  continue  to,  if  we  trust  Him.    Love  to  all,  as  ever  and  forever. 

Your  affectionate  daughter, 


Miss  Jane  A.  Prentiss, 

Cuba,  New  York. 

Waiii^atpu,  April  9th,  1846. 

My  Dear  Mother: — It  is  now  ten  years  since  I  left  the  paternal 
roof  of  my  home  east  of  the  Rocky  mountains,  and  how  much 
have  I  been  thinking  of  the  scenes  that  transpired  at  that  time, 
and  of  the  dear,  dear  friends,  I  have  left  behind.  My  father,  my 
mother,  venerable  friends — shall  I  ever  behold  your  faces  again  in 
the  flesh?  O,  how  I  long  to  see  you,  yet  I  dare  not  indulge  the 
thought  lest  I  should  be  found  to  murmur.  If  it  would  give  such 
joy  and  satisfaction  to  meet  again  in  this  world,  to  interchange 
thoughts  and  feelings,  what  will  it  be  to  meet  above,  when  we 


shall  be  free  from  sin  and  sorrow,  in  the  immediate  presence  of 
our  Saviour  to  adore  and  wonder  together  and  praise  God  and  the 
Lamb  before  the  throne.  My  thoughts  have  been  very  much  in^ 
heaven,  on  heavenly  subjects  for  two  or  three  months  past,  hav- 
ing been  permitted  to  accompany  a  fellow  traveler  down  to  the 
gates  of  death  and  to  see  him  pass  the  dark  waters  triumphantly 
.  and  enter  joyfully  the  New  Jerusalem  above.  O,  what  a  glorious 
sight,  and  I  may  say  that  reluctantly  I  turned  away,  moturning^ 
that  I  was  not  permitted  to  follow  him  in  reality  as  with  an  eye 
of  faith.  The  individual  I  refer  to,  was  not  a  relative,  or  I  could 
not  have  stood  and  looked  on  with  such  composure  and  quietness, 
he  was  a  young  man  nearly  thirty- two  years  of  age;  far  gone  in 
the  consumption  when  he  arrived  here  last  fall,  as  one  of  last  im- 
migration— Joseph  S.  Findly,  from  Illinois,  and  without  friends 
and  money,  left  here  to  die  among  strangers.  His  brother  went 
on  past  to  the  Willamette,  and  he  stopped  here  because  it  was 
more  unfavorable  for  an  invalid  there  in  the  winter  time  then 
here.  We  had  assistance,  however,  in  taking  care  of  him  until  the 
last  month  of  his  life,  when  the  sole  care  devolved  on  me  and  tiu* 
children;  my  health  very  poor  all  the  time.  You  can  see, beloved 
parents,  what  my  work  was,  when  I  tell  you  that  when  he  came 
here,  he  was  without  a  Saviour.  This  gave  deep  anxiety  of  mind 
and  earnest  prayers,  until  the  Lord  was  pleased  to  bring  him  to 
himself,  but  the  evidence  was  not  always -so  clear  as  to  feel  very  con- 
fident in  his  case,  so  that,  during  the  whole  time,  I  felt  a  tender 
anxious  watchfulness  for  him,  which  led  me  to  be  constantly 
seeking  an  opportunity  of  nourishing  and  cherishing  him  as  I 
would  a  little  ch;ld.  Blessed  be  the  Lord,  he  did  not  suffer  me  to 
labor  in  vain,  but  from  time  to  time  gave  me  evidence  to  believe 
that  the  good  which  he  had  begun,  was  progressing.  Along  in  Feb- 
ruary he  manifested  a  desire  to  unite  with  the  church.  An  oppor- 
tunity was  presented. 

Mr.  Spalding  and  family  visited  us  the  last  of  February,  and 
on  the  26th,  he  with.  Mr.  Rogers,  another  young  man  that  had 
been  employed  as  teacher  of  our  children,  offered  themselves  and 
were  received  most  joyfully  into  our  little  church  here  in  the 


wilderness.  He  was  unable  to  sit  up,  consequently  we  were  gath- 
ered around  his  sick  and  dying  bed,  to  commemorate  with  him 
for  the  first  and  last  time  the  dying  love  of  our  blessed  Redeemer 
before  he  left  us  to  join  the  church  triumphant  above.  Prom  this 
time  on  his  evidence  of  an  acceptance  grew  brighter  and  stronger, 
yet  it  never  exceeded  a  calm  and  steady  trusting  in  the  Saviour, 
sometimes  doubting  almost  that  such  a  sinner  could  be  saved. 
I  never  could  discover  anything  like  ecstasy,  joy,  or  rejoicing  at 
any  time  in  his  state  of  mind.  He  never  had  received  very  much 
religious  instruction  in  his  youth,  his  mother  having  died  when 
he  was  quite  young. 

Many,  very  many,  precious  seasons  I  have  spent  with  him, 
reading,  conversing,  and  praying  with  him,  and  I  have  been  very 
much  refreshed  myself  in  doing  it.  Although  I  had  more  work 
and  care  on  my  hands  than  I  could  do,  without  him,  in  the  care 
of  my  eleven  children,  yet  I  felt  that  it  was  work  that  the  Lord 
put  in  ,my  hands  and  He  would  and  did  give  me  strength  to 
do  it.  He  died  on  Saturday,  ?Sth  of  March,  few  minutes  past  one. 
He  was  more  than  two  hours  dying.  Mr.  Spalding  was  provi- 
dentially present  at  the  time  of  his  death.  When  I  discovered  a 
change  had  taken  place  in  his  breathing,  I  went  to  him  and 
told  him  that  I  thought  Jesus  was  about  to  take  him  away, 
and  asked  him  if  he  did  not  rejoice?  He  said  he  did,  if  he 
knew  what  rejoicing  was.  Soon  he  said,  "  Lord,  help  me  now," 
and  then  asked  Mr.  Spalding  and  myself  if  we  thought  he  was 
smothering,  meaning  that  he  was  distressed  to  get  his  breath;  we 
told  him  we  thought  he  was  dying,  and  asked  if  he  did  not  wish 
Mr.  Spalding  to  pray?  He  said,  "  YesV*  and  we  united  in  fervent 
prayer  that  the  Lord  would  not  forsake  him  now  in  this  trying 
hour,  and  commended  his  departing  spirit  into  the  hands  of  his 

The  family  were  called  in.  J  asked  him  if  he  felt  the  Sav- 
iour present  with  him  now?  He  said  deliberately,  "  I  think  He 
is."  Occasionally  ejaculations  Jlike  these  would  be  heard  from 
him  as  we  stood  watching  around  him,  "Lord,  help  me  now;  Thy 
will  be  done."    After  a  little  he  looked  up  and  around  and  sai4, 


"Farewell  to  this  world;"  then,  some  moments  after,  "Father, 
Thy  will  be  done."  Afterwards  he  reached  his  hand  to  hnsband 
and  I,  with  a  look  of  gratitude  and  thankfulness  for  the  kindness 
he  had  received  from  us.  Soon  after  Mr.  Spalding  asked  him  if 
the  Saviour  was  with  him?  After  a  moment  he  said, "  I  think  so." 
Shortly  after  he  ejaculated,  "Jesus,  save  me."  Mr.  Rogers  stood 
by  him  holding  his  hand.  In  a  few  minutes  he  looked  at  us 
with  inexpressible  sweetness  depicted  in  his  countenance,  and 
said,  "Sweet  Jesus!  sweet  Jesus!  sweet  Jesus!"  as  if  anxious  that 
we  should  receive  the  evidence  of  his  Saviour's  presence  with  him 
and  the  token  he  had  just  received  from  Him.  It  was  like  a  ray 
of  glory  bursting  through  him  upon  our  minds.  It  completely 
melted  us  all.  From  this  time  on  he  lay  breathing  still  more 
and  more  laborious,  and  he  desired  us  to  try  and  turn  him  to  see 
if  he  could  not  find  relief;  but  the  change  of  position  made  it  still 
more  difficult,  and  he  wished  to  lie  back  again  as  he  was  before, 
exclaiming,  "Sweet  Jesus!  sweet  Jesus!"  as  if  the  Saviour  had 
again  given  him  another  taste  of  His  sweetness,  and  assurance 
that  rest  or  ease  was  not  for  him  in  this  world.  After  this  the 
occasional  uttering  of  these  words,  "  Sweet  Jesus!"  led  us  to  think 
that  his  communion  was  more  with  the  inhabitants  of  the  heav- 
enly world  *than  with  us,  although  he  was  most  perfectly  con- 
scious of  every  thing  that  passed  up  to  the  last  moment.  A  little 
after  one  o'clock  he  uttered  "Sweet  Jesus!"  sweet  Redeemer!" 
and  then  "Farewell,  farewell,  farewell!"  and,  indistinctly,  "I  am 
going!"  and  thus  expired,  sweetly  yielding  up  his  spirit  into  the 
hands  of  his  Redeemer. 

This  was  new  and  unexpected  to  Mr.  Spalding  and  Mr.  Rog- 
ers, they  having  never  seen  the  like  before.  As  for  me,  I  had  been 
asking  that  the  Lord  might  be  glorified  in  his  death,  and  thus  we 
were  left  without  a  doubt  that  our  brother,  on  whom  we  had  be- 
stowed so  much  anxious  care,  had  gone  to  be  forever  with  the 
Lord;  feeling,  too,  that  we  had  been  more  than  amply  rewarded 
for  the  labor  bestowed  upon  him.  He  was  always  so  grateful  for 
the  attention  shown  him,  particularly  for  the  instruction  and  re- 
ligious help  he  received — said  if  he  had  ever  in  his  life  had  such 


instruction,  he  would  never  have  lived  so  far  from  the  Saviour  as 
he  had  done.  He  felt  that  I  had  been  a  mother  to  him,  for  he 
never  received  such  attention  before  from  any  one,  and  he  said  it 
weeping.  But  it  was  all  of  the  Lord  to  dispose  my  heart  in  kind- 
ness toward  him  when  I  am  always  so  weak  and  burdened  with 
cares.  "I  was  a  stranger,  and  ye  took  me  in;  sick,  and  ye  minis- 
tered unto  me" — these  and  similar  passages  all  the  way  through 
were  my  support;  and  I  pray  God  I  may  always  be  in  a  frame  of 
mind  to  apply  this  scripture,  **  Be  not  forgetful  to  entertain 
strangers,  for  thereby  some  have  entertained  angels  unawares." 

April  loth,  1846. 

My  Dear  Father: — I  have  received  no  letters  from  father, 
mother  or  any  the  sisters  or  brothers  in  Allegheny  county  since 
husband  returned.  I  wonder  why,  sometimes,  and  feel  a  little 
like  complaining.  Nothing  I  receive  from  the  United  States 
gives  me  so  much  comfort  as  letters  from  my  dear  parents.  I  am 
sure  those  sisters  and  brothers  might  write  oftener  if  they  would 
think  so.  It  may  be  that  you  are  feeling  as  if  I  had  not  been  as 
faithful  lately  as  formerly;  true,  I  have  not,  but  it  is  not  for  the 
want  of  a  disposition.  The  greatest  reason  is  want  of  health,  then 
the  care  of  a  large  family  of  eleven  children,  aside  from  our  com- 
plicated duties  to  the  Indians.  Think  of  our  being  the  sole  in- 
structors spiritually  and  mentally  of  so  many  children,  except 
during  the  winter,  we  hire  a  teacher;  otherwise  all  these  mental 
and  physical  instructions  devolves  upon  us,  and  no  responsibility 
is  greater  than  the  care  of  so  many  immortal  souls  to  train  up  for 
God,  and  we  must  be  the  ministers,  Sabbath  school  teachers,  par- 
ents and  all  to  our  children.  I  am  sometimes  about  ready  to  sink 
under  the  weight  of  responsibility  resting  upon  me,  and  should, 
were  it  not  that  an  Almighty  hand  sustains  me.  Bringing  up  a 
family  of  children  in  a  heathen  land,  where  every  influence  tends 
to  degrade  rather  than  elevate,  requires  no  small  measure  of  faith 
and  patience,  as  well  as  great  care  and  prayerful  watchfulness. 
Under  such   circumstances,  how   comforting   could    I  call  in   the 


superior  wisdom  and  experience  of  my  beloved  parents  to  aid  ns 
in  times  of  emergency.  As  a  substitute  for  this,  how<ever,  and  for 
it  I  desire  to  be  thankful,  the  influence  of  the  impressions  made 
upon  my  young  mind  by  those  beloved  ones  are  now  beings  called 
forth  and  acting  upon  other  minds  to  a  degree  that  astonishes  me 
many  times,  and  I  may  say  that  almost  always  those  impres- 
sions are  of  such  a  nature,  that  if  faithfully  carried  out,  would 
greatly  tend  to  promote  the  honor  and  glory  of  God.  Cbildven 
of  such  parents  have  much,  very  much,  to  praise  God  for,  and  if  it 
should  be  found  at  last  that  any  of  them  have  not  borne  fruit  to 
His  Name*s  glory,  how  great  will  be  their  condemnation. 

There  has  been  considerable  evidence  of  the  movings  of  the 
Holy  Spirit  upon  the  minds  of  the  children  since  the  first  of  Jan- 
uary, as  well  as  upon  some  that  wintered  here.  For  ourselves,  we 
feel  that  our  own  souls  have  been  creatly  revived,  and  I  hope  and 
pray  that  we  may  never  again  relapse  into  such  a  state  of  insensi- 
bility and  worldly-mindedness  as  we  many  times  have  found  our- 
selves in.  This  may  seem  strange  to  my  dear  father,  that  mission- 
aries should  ever  become  worldly-minded;  and  it  should  be  strange, 
for  it  never  ought  to  be;  but  situated  as  we  are,  with  every  thing 
of  a  temporal  nature  to  see  to,  in  supplying  our  own  family 
with  food  and  clothing,  to  try  and  save  expenses  to  the  churches, 
and  also  to  relieve  as  much  as  possible  a  starving  immigration  as 
they  pass,  together  with  the  temporal  and  spiritual  calls  of  the  In- 
dians— what  time  is  there  left  for  the  care  of  one*s  own  heart? 
If  there  is  any,  it  may  all  be  required  to  restore  our  over-exhaust- 
ed natures,  which  often  groan  under  their  burden  and  will  sooner 
or  later  tumble  and  fall  down.  I  would  not  plead  any  excuse;  if 
there  is  fault  any  where  it  is  in  undertaking  to  accomplish  too 
much  of  a  worldly  nature.  When  I  say  this,  a  thought  comes  in: 
Where  shall  we  draw  the  line?  As  it  is,  we  but  just  make  the  ends 
meet,  and  sometimes  with  the  greatest  difficulty,  too.  Much,  very 
much,  is  left  undone  that  might  be  done  to  make  us  more  com- 
fortable and  save  labor.    Thus  we  struggle  on  from  year  to  year. 

How  cheering  under  such  circumstances,  when  the  heart  is 
weighed  to  the  earth  with  a  burden  too  heavy  for  mortal  man   to 


sustain,  to  have  an  aged  Christian,  a  minister  whose  heart  is  al- 
ways glowing  with  love  to  God  and  for  the  souls  of  men,  call  in,  sit 
and  converse  awhile  and  draw  the  mind  to  heavenly  things  and 
sympathize  and  pray  with  us.  To  me  it  would  seem  to  fill  my 
soul  with  such  ecstacy  that  I  should  want  nothing  more.  It 
would  be  a  heaven  on  earth.  Perhaps,  dear  father  will  say  that  I 
can  draw  a  richer  draught  from  the  fountain  head,  Jesus,  oftener 
and  easier  than  that.  True,  I  may;  but  that  requires  effort  and 
energy  of  mind  more  than  I  at  all  times  possess,  laboring  as  I  am 
under  the  infirmity  of  a  debilitated  nervous  system.  But  why 
should  I  be  indulged  in  such  a  melancholy  strain?  Can  it  be  that 
I  wish  to  excuse  myself  for  negligence  on  my  part?  This,  I  con- 
fess, is  too  often  a  fault;  for  if  it  were  otherwise,  I  should  not  be 
mourning  for  my  beloved  Jesus  as  I  often  find  myself  now,  not- 
withstanding His  permitting  me  to  speak  of  His  faithfulness  and 
of  His  tender  care  and  love  for  me,  unworthy  as  I  am.  He  gives 
me  now  and  then  streams  from  which  to  gather  refreshing  sweet- 
ness. But  the  fountain  head  oftener  pours  its  healing  waters  into 
my  weary,  sin-sick  soul.  Instead  of  complaining  that  I  enjoy  so 
little,  rather  let  me  rejoice  that  my  mercies  and  spiritual  com- 
fort and  enjoyments  are  so  many  and  great. 

If  my  dear  father  and  mother  were  here,  I  think  they  would 
be  very  well  contented,  for  we  could  give  them  a  very  comfortable 
home  and  enough  to  eat  and  do,  and  if  the  distance  were  not  so 
great,  I  should  hope  tliey  would  come  and  finish  their  days  with 
us.  But  it  is  a  dreadful  journey  to  perform  to  get  here,  and  I 
ought  not  to  ask  such  a  sacrifice  of  them  for  my  own  comfort, 
merely;  but  if  there  could  be  a  design  worthy  of  the  sacrifice  and 
fatigue  to  such  elderly  people,  I  should  ask  it  with  all  my  heart, 
if  there  was  a  willing  mind.  I  know  lather  once  used  to  think 
he  should  come  to  Oregon ;  but  if  I  recollect  right  he  wrote  me 
that  he  had  given  it  up.  It  is  not  so  difficult  to  get  here  now  as 
when  I  came,  for  families  come  in  wagons  all  the  way.  The  fa- 
tigue is  great,  however,  and  the  dust  from  Fort  Hall  here  is  very 
aflflicting;  aside  from  that,  with  food  enough  and  teams  enough, 
no  loading  except  necessary  clothing,  it  would  not  be  difiicult. 


Father,  if  you  would  send  word  from  Fort  Hall  we  could  send 
and  meet  you  and  assist  you  on.  But  the  greatest  affliction  would 
be  to  the  pious  soul — it  is  so  continually  vexed  with  the  ungodly  con- 
versation and  profanity  of  the  wicked,  and  is  so  often  brought 
into  straitened  circumstances  with  regard  to  his  own  duty  in 
obeying  the  commands  of  God,  such  as  keeping  the  Sabbath,  etc.,. 
that  he  often  is  wounded  to  that  degree  that  it  requires  many 
months,  if  not  years,  before  he  is  restored  to  his  wonted  health 
again.  To  be  in  a  country  among  a  people  of  no  law,  even  if  they 
are  from  a  civilized  land,  is  the  nearest  like  a  hell  on  earth  of 
anything  I  can  imagine.  I  do  not  say  that  the  journey  cannot  be 
performed  and  the  Christian  enjoy  his  peace  of  mind  and  contin- 
ued communion  with  God  all  the  way.  But  this  I  know,  that  the 
experience  of  all  proves  it  to  be  exceedingly  difficult,  if  not  impos- 
sible. It  is  often  said  that  every  Christian  gets  so  that  he  can 
swear  before  the  journey  is  completed.  One  thing  has  been  true 
of  almost  every  party  that  have  crossed  the  mountains;  Christians 
are  not  warned  of  their  danger  before  starting,  and  are  conse- 
quently off  their  guard.  If  I  had  to  ever  again,  I  should  try  and 
pray  more,  both  in  secret,  family  and  social  meetings,  but  above 
all  in  secret,  for  if  faithful  there  the  soul  is  kept  alive  and  in  health,. 
Generally  speaking,  every  religious  duty  has  been  neglected  and 
probably  none  more  so  than  reading  the  Bible,  consequently  dearth 
prevails  over  the  whole  mind. 

If  I  am  not  permitted  to  see  my  dear  parents  here,  I  hope  I 
shall  hear  from  them  often.  I  love  to  have  them  both  write;  when 
they  ^receive  this,  they  will  know  how  to  pray  for  us,  and  will  X. 
trust  most  fervently. 

From  your  most  affectionate  child, 


Hon.  Stephen  Prentiss, 

Cuba,  Allegheny  Co., 

New  York. 


WaiilaTpu,  April  13th,  1846. 

My  Dear  Harriet: — I  believe  I  have  not  written  you  since  the 
Lord  brought  this  orphan  family  under  our  care.  How  could  I, 
for  I  have  been  so  unwell  and  had  this  increase  of  care  upon  my 
mind,  that  I  have  written  to  no  one  in  the  States,  as  I  recollect. 
I  find  the  labor  greater  in  doing  for  so  many,  especially  in  in- 
structing them — where  they  come  in  all  at  once — than  if  they 
had  come  along  by  degrees  and  had  received  a  start  in  their  edu- 
cation, one  before  the  other;  whereas  all  their  minds  appear  to  be 
alike  uninstructed,  especially  in   the  great  truths  of  Christianity. 

I  would  like  to  know  how  you  and  Clarissa  get  along  in  un- 
foldin|2f  the  minds  of  your  little  ones.  I  hope  you  both  feel  that 
the  immortal  part  is  of  the  greatest  moment  in  all  your  strivings 
for  them,  and  to  educate  the  physical  in  such  a  way  as  to  give  the 
immortal  part  the  utmost  vigor  and  energy  possible. 

I  used  to  thiuk  mother  was  the  best  hand  to  take  care  of  babies 
I  ever  saw,but  I  believe,  or  we  have  the  vanity  to  think,  we  have 
improved  upon  her  plan.  That  you  may  see  how  we  manage  with 
our  children,  I  will  give  you  a  specimen  of  our  habits  with  them 
and  we  feel  them  important,  too,  especially  that  they  may  grow 
up  healthy  and  strong.  Take  my  baby,  as  an  example:  in  Octo- 
ber, 1844,  she  arrived  here  in  the  hands  of  an  old  filthy  woman» 
sick,  emaciated  and  but  just  alive.  She  was  born  some  where  on 
the  Platte  river  in  the  first  part  of  the  journey,  on  the  last  day  of 
May.  Her  mother  died  on  the  25th  of  September.  She  was  five 
months  old  when  she  was  brought  here — had  suffered  for  the  want 
of  proper  nourishment  until  she  was  nearly  starved.  The  old 
woman  did  the  best  she  could,  but  she  was  in  distressed  circum- 
stances herself,  and  a  wicked,  disobedient  family  around  her  to 
see  to. 

Husband  thought  we  could  get  along  with  all  but  the  baby — 
he  did  not  see  how  we  could  take  that;  but  I  felt  that  if  I  must 
take  any,  I  wanted  her  as  a  charm  to  bind  the  rest  to  me.    So  we 


took  her,  a  poor,  distressed  little  object,  not  larger  than  a  babe 
three  weeks  old.  Had  she  been  taken  past  at  this  late  season, 
death  would  have  been  her  portion,  and  that  in  a  few  days.  The 
first  thing  I  did  for  her  was  to  give  her  some  milk  and  put  her  in 
the  cradle.  She  drank  a  gill,  she  was  so  hungry,  but  soon  cleared 
herself  of  it  by  vomiting  and  purging.  I  next  had  a  pail  of  warm 
water  and  put  her  in  it,  gave  her  a  thorough  cleansing  with  soap 
and  water,  and  put  on  some  clean  clothes; — ^put  her  in  the  cradle 
and  she  had  a  fine  nap.  This  I  followed  every  day,  washing  her 
thoroughly  in  tepid   water,  about  the  middle  of  the  forenoon. 

She  soon  began  to  mend,  but  I  was  obliged  to  reduce  her  milk 
with  a  little  water,  as  her  stomach  was  so  weak  she  could  not 
bear  it  in  its  full  strength. 

Now  I  suppose  you  think  such  a  child  would  be  very  trouble- 
some nights,  but  it  was  not  so  with  her;  we  put  her  in  the  cradle 
and  she  slept  until  morning  without  waking  us  more  than  once, 
and  that  only  for  a  few  of  the  first  nights.  Her  habits  of  eating* 
and  sleeping  were  as  regular  as  clock-work.  She  had  a  little  g^in 
cup  which  we  fed  her  in;  she  would  take  that  full  every  meal,  and 
when  done  would  want  no  more  for  a  long  time.  Thus  I  contin- 
ued, giving  her  nothing  else  but  milk,  she  only  required  the  more 
until  her  measure  became  half  a  pint.  In  consequence  of  the 
derangement  of  her  digestive  powers,  which  did  not  recover  their 
healthy  tone,  she  had  a  day  of  sickness  some  time  in  Dec.  when 
we  gave  her  a  little  oil  and  calomel;  this  restored  her  completely, 
and  since  that  time,  and  even  before,  she  has  nothing  to  do  but  to 
grow,  and  that  as  fast  as  possible;  she  is  as  large  or  larger  than  her 
next  older  sister  Louisa  was  when  she  came  here,  thennearly  three 
years  old.  She  now  lacks  a  month  and  a  half  of  being  two  years 
old.  She  is  strong,  healthy,  fleshy,  heavy,  runs  any  where  she  is 
permitted,  talks  everything  nearly,  is  full  of  mischief  if  I  am  out 
of  the  room.  She  is  energetic  and  active  enough,arfd  has  a  dis- 
position to  have  her  own  way,  especially  with  the  children,  if  she 
is  not  prevented. 

She  contended  sharply  for  the  mastery  with  her  mother  before 
she  was  a  year  old,  but  she,  of  course,  had  to  submit.    Since  then 


she  has  been  very  obedient,  but  frequently  tries  the  point  to  see 
if  her  parents  are  steadfast  and  uniform  in  their  requirements  or 
not.  She  will  obey  very  well  in  sight,  but  loves  to  get  out  of 
sight  for  the  purpose  of  doing  as  she  pleases.  She  sings  a  little, 
but  not  nearly  as  much  as  Alice  C.  did  when  she  was  of  her  age. 
Thus  much  for  my  baby,  Henrietta  Naomi  Sager.  She  had 
another  name  when  she  came  here,  but  the  children  were  anxious 
to  call  her  after  her  parents.  Her  father's  name  was  Henry  and 
her  mother's  was  Naomi — we  put  them  together. 

What  I  call  an  improvement  upon  mother's  plan  is  the  daily 
bathing  of  children.  I  take  a  child  as  soon  as  it  is  born  and  put 
it  in  a  washbowl  of  water  and  give  it  a  thorough  washing  with 
soap.  I  do  this  the  next  day  and  the  next,  and  so  on  every  day  as 
long  as  the  washbowl  will  hold  it;  when  it  will  not,  then  I  get  a 
tub  or  something  larger,  and  continue  to  do  it  until  the  child  is 
able  to  be  carried  to  the  river  or  to  go  itself.  Every  one  of  my 
girls  go  to  the  river  all  summer  long  for  bathing  every  day  before 
dinner,  and  they  love  it  s»o  well  that  they  would  as  soon  do  with- 
out their  dinner  as  without  that.  In  the  winter  we  bathe  in  a 
tub  once  a  week  at  the  least.  This  is  our  practice  as  well  as  the 
children.  I  do  not  know  but  these  are  your  habits,  but  if  they 
are  not,  I  should  like  to  have  you  try  them  just  to  see  the  ben^t 
of  them.  I  never  gave  Henrietta  any  food  but  milk  until  she 
was  nearly  a  year-and-a-half  old.  She  never  wanted  any  thing 
else.  I  avoid  as  much  as  possible  giving  my  children  candies, 
sweetmeats,  etc.,  such  as  many  parents  allow  their  children  to  in- 
dulge in  almost  all  the  while;  neither  do  I  permit  them  to  eat 
cakes  and  pies  very  often. 

It  is  well  to  study  these  things  with  regard  to  our  children, 
for  it  saves  many  a  doctor  bill;  and  another  thing  with  our  chil- 
dren, we  never  give  medicine  if  we  can  help  it.  If  children  com- 
plain of  the  headache,  or  are  sick  at  the  stomach,  send  them  to 
bed  without  their  supper  or  other  meals;  they  are  sure  to  get  up 
very  soon  feeling  as  well  as  ever. 

My  husband  says  many  times  when  a  physician  is  called  to 
see  a  patient  he  finds  nothing  ails  him  but  eating  too  much.    If 


he  is  told  this  he  will  be  offended,  so  he  is  obliged  to  give  him 
something,  when  all  he  needs  is  to  do  without  a  meal  or  two  and 
to  fast  a  day  or  two  and  drink  water  gruel. 

Doubtless  you  will  think  this  a  strange  letter,  Harriet,  bat 
you  must  take  it  for  what  is  worth  and   make  the  best  of  it. 

We  sleep  out  of  doors  in  the  summer  a  good  deal — ^the  boys 
all  summer.  This  is  a  fine,  healthy  climate.  I  wish  you  were 
here  to  enjoy  it  with  me,  and  pa  and  ma,  too.  We  have  as  happy 
a  family  as  the  world  affords.  I  do  not  wish  to  be  in  a  better  sit- 
uation than  this. 

I  never  hear  as  much  as  I  wish  about  Stephen's  children.  I 
should  think  Nancy  Jane  might  write  her  aunt  now — tell  me 
something  about  them. 

O,  how  I  wish  you  were  all  here.  I  could  find  work  enough 
for  you  all  to  do;  and  every  winter  we  have  a  good  school,  so 
that  our  children  are  learning  as  fast  as  most  children  in  the 

Harriet,  I  do  want  you  and  that  good  husband  of  yours  to  come 
here  and  bring  pa  and  ma.  I  know  you  will  like  it  after  you  get 
here,  if  you  do  not  like  the  journey.  There  are  many  of  the  last 
immigration  that  came  without  their  families,  that  are  now  go- 
ing back  to  bring  them  as  quick  as  possible,  and  are  only  sorry 
they  did  not  bring  them  last  year.  Bring  as  many  girls  as  you 
can,  but  let  every  young  man  bring  a  wife,  for  he  will  want  one 
after  he  gets  here,  if  he  never  did  before.  Girls  are  in  good 
demand  for  wives.  I  hope  Edward  and  Jane  will  come.  I  have 
written  to  them  to  come.  Judson  wants  to  come,  too.  I  hope  he 
will,  and  many  other  Christians.  Where  is  Jonas  G.?  Why  does 
he  not  come?  Poor  man,  I  never  can  think  of  him  without  sorrow. 

Love  to  all,  and  a  kiss  for  all^those.  little  ones. 



TSHIMAKAIN,  April  22,  1846. 

Miss  Prentiss: — An  apology  is  due  in  my  attempting  to  write 
to  you,  being  an  entire  stranger,  although  I  feel  almost  as  though 
I  had  been  well  acquainted  with  you  for  years,  having  become  so 
much  attached  to  Mrs.  Whitman. 

Some  days  before  I  left  Dr.  Whitman's  for  this  place,  Mrs^ 
Whitman  was  speaking  of  having  a  great  number  of  letters  to 
write  to  the  States,  and  in  her  pleasant  way  wished  to  know  if  I 
would  not  write  some  for  her.  To  which  I  replied,  I  would  rather 
engage  her  to  write  for  me,  as  she  could  do  it  so  much  better;  but 
said,  finally,  that  I  would  write  one  to  any  of  her  friends,  if  she 
would  do  the  same  for  me. 

To  this  she  agreed  and  gave  me  your  name.  I  desired  her  to 
write  to  my  mother,  who  is  living  near  Monmouth,  Warren  county, 
Illinois,  where  I  have  been  living  for  the  last  ten  years  before  the 
spring  of  '45,  at  which  time  I  left  home  with  the  desire  of  seeing 
the  far  West. 

As  I  learned  from  Mrs.  Whitman  that  you  and  your  brother 
had  some  thought  of  coming  to  this  country,  you  will  doubtless 
feel  more  or  less  interested  in  some  of  the  difficulties  and  trials 
that  one  has  to  encounter  on  the  way.  One  of  the  greatest  trials 
that  a  religious  mind  has  to  encounter  on  the  way  is  the  com- 
pany one  is  often  compelled  to  travel  with.  There  is  no  place 
where  one  can  better  see  all  the  varieties  of  civilized  life  than 
here.  You  can  see  from  the  highest  to  the  lowest  grade.  You 
may  see  all  these  at  home,  it  is  true,  but  you  can't  see  them  all 
brought  so  closely  together,  and  under  so  many  vicissitudes  of 
life  as  have  to  be  passed  through  on  the  way — hunger  and  thirst 
and  fatigue,  cold  and  wet  weather.  Now  you  have  bad  roads  and 
no  grass  for  your  cattle;  now,  perhaps,  some  one  will  tell  you  there 
is  much  dancrer  from  Indians.  After  traveling  all  day  through 
dust  that  is  almost  insupportable,  you  will  come  into  camp  at  9 
or  10  o'clock  at  night  and  feel  almost  as  though  you  did  not  care 


whetheV  scalped  before  morning  or  not.  And  to  make  the  trouble 
greater  the  cattle  have  almost  nothing  to  eat,  and  may  be  yon 
have  no  water  within  a  mile,  and  perhaps  no  wood.  Under  such 
circumstances  who  is  there  among  the  sons  of  men  that  would 
not  be  likely  to  feel  somewhat  peevish,  so  much  so  that  almost 
anything  would  throw  him  off  his  balance,  and  be  likely  to  go 
beyond  the  bounds  of  propriety.  Sure  I  am  that  nothing  but 
"much  of  the  mind  of  Christ,"  will  support  one  under  such  trials. 
You  must  not  think  that  the  whole  journey  is  just  such  as  I  have 
described.  By  no  means.  I  have  given  you  about  as  dark  a  picture 
as  is  likely  to  be  met  with  on  thejroad.  But  I  must  confess  that 
I  endured  more  fatigue  during  the  six  months  we  were  on  the 
way  than  I  had  ever  before  undergone  in  the  same  length  of  time. 
No  one  need  think  that  it  is  like  traveling  in  the  stage  or  on  the 
steamboat;  yet  one  is  not  often  vexed  with  high  prices,  nor 
are  they  in  danger  of  being  robbed  as  they  are  on  steamboat. 

One  is  not  very  likely  to  spend  a  great  deal  by  the  "way,  with- 
out he  does  it  in  gambling,  which  he  may  do  here  as  well  as  any 
where  if  Tie  wishes,  as  it  is  almost  always  the  case  that  some  one 
was  thoughtful  enough  to  bring  a  deck  of  cards  with  him;  and 
if  they  have  none  of  them,  they  bet  on  the  distance  to  some  hill, 
or  on  the  distance  traveled  during  the  day,  or  that  my  oxen  can 
draw  more  than  yours. 

Another  trial  that  one  has  often  to  meet  on  the  way  is  disre- 
gard for  the  Sabbath.  I  suppose  there  was  about  as  much  conten- 
tion arose  on  that  subject  in  the  company  in  which  I  came  as 
any  another.  A  good  part  of  the  company  cared  nothing  about 
that,  or  any  other  religious  question,  and  if  it  suited  them  they 
wished  to  travel  on  that  day  as  well  as  any  other.  And  even  when 
they  did  stop  on  that  day  it  was  only  to  mend  their  wagons,  or 
wash  their  clothes.  I  do  not  say  that  all  did  so,  for  there  were 
some  of  the  company  that  were  devotedly  pious.  There  were 
three  ministers  in  the  company,  one  a  Seceder  minister  from 
about  Burlington.  The  other  two  were  Baptist  ministers,  one 
from  Iowa,  the  other  from  Rock  Island  county,  111.,  whose  name 
was  Fisher,  and  who  was  formerly  of  Quincy,  and  is  doubtless  well 



known  there.  He  manifested  more  of  the  true  spirit  of  Christ 
while  on  the  road  than  any  other  man  with  whom  I  was  ac- 
quainted. Sometimes  one  is  compelled  to  travel  on  the  Sabbath, 
even  if  the  company  were  willing  to  stop,  as  it  happens  that  pas- 
ture cannot  be  found  in  sufficient  quantities,  though  this  does  not 
often  occur,  but  it  is  often  made  a  plea  for  traveling  on  that 
day  when  there  would  be  plenty  if  they  wished  to  stop  to  hunt 
buffalo.  The  company  in  which  I  came,  traveled,  may  be,  half 
the  Sabbaths  on  the  way.  We  had  preaching  most  of  the  days 
on  which  we  stopped.  But  I  am  dwelling  too  long  on  this  subject, 

I  desire  to  say  to  you,  if  you  have  any  influence  with  respect 
to  this  country,  I  hope  you  will  use  it  in  endeavoring  to  have  it  set- 
tled with  pious  Yankees.  Although  not  one  myself,  yet,  as  west- 
ern people  say, "I  have  a  mighty  liking  to  them."  I  do  hope  that 
it  may  be  another  New  England,  and  I  would  to  God  that  the 
mothers  of  this  country  could  only  be  from  Yankee  land.  Per- 
haps I  have  said  more  than  I  ought,  but  such  are  the  sentiments 
of  my  heart,  and  I  have  ventured  to  express  them.  Let  me  but 
have  the  choice  of  the  mothers  of  any  country,  and  I  will  feel  well 
satisfied  as  to  the  destiny  of  that  country,  either  as  to  its  moral, 
literary  or  civil  aspect.  But  ^the  moral  prosp^t  of  this  coun- 
try is  not  very  encouraging  at  this  time.  The  "  man  of  sin"  ap- 
pears to  be  making  considerable  progress  in  the  Ipwer  settlements. 
One  thing  that  makes  much  in  his  favor  is,  he  has  t)ie  influence 
of  the  H.  B.  Company ;  though  it  is  to  be  hoped  that  God  will 
thwart  his  plans,  and  that  He  will  "overturn,  overturn  till  He  come 
whose  right  it  is  to  reign."  "Till  the  stone  cut  out  of  the  moun- 
tain shall  fill  up  the  whole  earth."  May  God  hasten  it  in  His  day, 
is  my  earnest  desire  and  prayer. 

It  may  be  interesting  to  you  to  know  any  one  with  whom  I 
have  been  formerly  acquainted.  Mr.  Bacon  used  to  be  my  precep- 
tor in  music,  whom  I  suppose  you  have  often  seen.  I  would  like 
much  to  be  remembered  to  him,  if  he  is  living  there. 

I  have,  perhaps,  said  more  now  than  you  will  think  worth 
sending  more  than  two  thousand  miles,  but  I  must  aay  in  conclu- 


sion,  that  Dr.  and  Mrs,  Whitman  seem  very  near  to  me.  It  ap- 
peared almost  like  parting  with  my  mother  when  I  left  there  to 
come  to  this  place  (which  you  will  find  marked  on  the  map  of 
Oregon  in  the  November  number  of  the  Missionary  Herald,)  I 
have  spent  many  very  pleasant  hours  in  her  company  and  hope 
to  spend  more  ere  life  closes. 

Should  you  ever  receive  this,  a  letter  as  long  as  you  wish  to 
write  would  be  most  acceptable.  News  from  the  States  is  always 
scarce  at  Tshimakain  and  Waiilatpu. 

Your  true  friend, 

Andrew  Rogers,  Jr. 
Miss  Jane  A.  Prentiss, 

Quincy,  Adams  Co., 

Illinois,  U.  S.  A. 

WAIII.ATPU,  Sept.  nth,  1846. 

Mr.  Harvey  /*.  Prentiss,  Mrs,  Livonia  L  Prentiss,  My  L>ear 
Brother  an4  Sister: — It  is  but  a  few  days  since  I  received  that 
good  family  letter  bearing  date  of  March,  1836,  [1846?].  Since 
that  time  my  mind  has  been  much  upon  you  for  this  reason:  I 
hear  you  are  removing  to  the  South  for  the  sake  of  a  warmer  cli- 
mate. I  had  much  rather  you  would  come  this  way,  and  have  been 
studying  ever  since  to  see  if  I  could  not  induce  you  to  come.  There 
are  many  reasons  why  we  wish  you  to  come,  but  my  time  is  so 
limited  that  I  can  give  you  but  a  few  of  them  now.  I  shall  write 
again  this  fall  to  some  or  all  of  you,  if  permitted.  We  wish  you 
were  here  to  assist  us  in  our  work;  we  have  more  than  we  can  do» 
and  if  you  were  here  now  we  could  give  you  both  labor  and  sup- 
port and  would  be  glad  to  do  it.  I  know  you  would  like  this 
mild  and  healthy  climate  better  than  the  one  where  you  have 
gone,  at  least  we  think  so.  Take  the  map,  if  you  please,  and  just 
look  at  our  situation  on  this  Western  coast.  The  Sandwich  Is- 
lands and  China  are  our  next  door  neighbors.    I  see  I  cannot  en- 


large  upon  this  subject.  I  was  going  to  speak  of  the  facilities  for 
acquiring  competency,  if  not  wealth,  in  this  country,  but  my 
time  will  not  permit. 

A  little  reflection  will  show  you  what  I  wish  to  say  and  I 
hope  induce  you  to  come.  If  you  will  only  manage  to  get  here, 
we  are  here  to  assist  you  all  you  need  to  get  a  start,  if  you  should 
not  wish  to  continue  with  us.  Do  not  be  anxious  for  your  chil- 
dren ;  here  is  a  good  place  for  them  to  do  well  for  themselves,  both 
as  to  education  and  getting  a  living.  We  have  a  good  English 
school  here  every  winter  and  eventually  intend  to  have  an  acad- 
emy or  college.  Do  come.  I  say  this  with  all  my  heart.  You 
will  find  the  journey  a  trying  one,  but  there  is  no  diflSculty  in 
getting  here.  A  good  wagon  with  an  ox  team,  and  cows  to  change 
with,  will  in  time  bring  you  here,  and  then  I  wish  you  would 
bring  Jane.  I  want  her  here  very  much  as  a  teacher,  and  Edward, 
too.  If  you  come  they  will  come,  I  have  no  doubt,  for  last  year 
they  wrote  us  proposing  to  come  if  we  wanted  them.  The  Board 
had  rather  we  would  employ  a  farmer  than  appoint  one  and  send 
to  us.  We  expect  the  line  will  be  settled  with  England  soon,  if 
it  is  not  already,  and  that  the  United  States  will  extend  her  juris- 
diction over  us;  when  that  is  done,  we  expect  there  will  be  a  flood 
of  emigrants  rolling  this  way.  For  three  years  past  there  has 
been  large  companies  of  from  500  to  700  wagons  each  year  to  Ore- 
gon and  California. 

Brother  Kinny  says  he  would  come  to  Oregon,  if  he  had  no 
wife.  Please  tell  him  he  is  in  a  much  better  situation  for  coming  to 
Oregon  as  a  settler  than  if  he  had  none,  for  nothing  makes  bach- 
elors feel  so  much  like  getting  a  wife  as  to  come  here'and  And 
none  to  be  had.  Many  are  often  disposed  to  degrade  themselves 
enough  to  take  a  native. 

I  see  Congress  is  talking  about  starting  a  mail  across  the 
mountains.  When  that  is  accomplished,  I  shall  hope  to  hear  from 
home  friends  oftener  and  more  regular.  Mother  thinks  if  she 
should  come  here  she  would  be  afraid  of  the  Indians.  It  might 
be,  yet  I  think  she  would  soon  get  over  it.  They  never  were  more 
quiet  and  peaceable  than  now,  and  appear  to  be  getting  more  so. 


We  feel  that  your  going  to  Virginia  will  not  be  in  the  waj  of  yoar 
coming,  for  we  think  you  will  be  more  likely  to  come  here,  for  hav- 
ing come  thus  far.  I  hope  you  will  write  us  and  tell  ua  all  about 
it.  As  I  know  not  where  to  direct  this  letter,  I  shall  send  it  to 
father  to  have  him  forward  it.  I  have  written  this  in  great 
haste,  for  the  Indian  post  is  waiting  to  take  this,  with  miiny  other 
letters,  to  Walla  Walla,  where  the  boats  will  leave  to-morrow 

My  health  is  quite  good  for  me.  All  of  the  family  are  well; 
indeed,  we  have  no  sickness  at  all  in  the  family  scarcely,  although 
the  orphan  family,  before  they  came  here,  were  quite  subject  to 

Please  give  our  united  love  to  all  our  dear  friends,  and  be- 
lieve me 

Affectionately  your  sister, 

Narcissa  Whitman* 
Hon.  Stephen  Prentiss, 

Cuba,  Alleghany  Co., 

New  York. 

Waiii^atpu,  Oregon  Territory,         i 
Nov.  3rd,  1846.     f 

Mrs.  Clarissa  Prentiss,  Honored  and  Beloved  Mother:-  -It  is  with 
indescribable  pleasure  I  received  and  perused  those  excellent  line3» 
penned  by  that  hand  that  has  been  so  much  of  my  life  devoted 
to  my  comfort,  and  dictated  by  that  heart  that  has  so  often 
beat  with  emotion  for  my  good,  too  deep  for  utterance.  It  really 
seemed  as  if  the  very  fountains  of  my  heart  were  broken  up  and 
my  whole  soul  was  filled  with  emotions  indescribable.  O,  my 
mother,  my  dear  mother,  and  father!  How  I  love  to  dwell  upon 
these  blessed  sounds.  Do  I  love  these  dear  ones  less,  as  I  grow  in 
years  and  as  separation  widens?  Surely  not.  Yea,  my  heart  clings 
to  them  with  an  undying  grasp;  and  I   bless  God  that  we  have 


the  assurance  that  this  union  is  not  to  end  in  this  life,  but  will 
exist,  yea,  and    increase,  too,  through  an  unending  eternity. 

It  was  but  a  few  mornings  ago  that  I  was  reading  mother's 
letter  to  the  children,  and  husband  was  sitting  by.  Afterwards  I 
banded  it  to  him,  and  looking  at  it,  he  said  (the  tears  filling  his 
eyes),  "  Mother  writes  well  for  one  that  writes  so  seldom ;"  said  he 
*'  she  writes  better  than  any  of  her  daughters."  And  so  I  think, 
too.  I  hope  mother  will  be  encouraged,  when  she  finds  her  letters 
so  acceptable  and  doing  so  much  good,  to  write  oftener,  at  least 
once  a  year,  if  not  twice. 

I  have  not  yet  received  father's  promised  letter;  it  may  be  it 
failed  to  be  in  time  for  the  opportunity  of  a  transport  across  the 
mountains.  Mother's,  dated  March  26th,  1846,  was  sent  from  Bos- 
ton to  Westport  and  reached  me  in  about  five  months  after  it  was 
mailed.  This  brings  me  very  near  home.  Indeed,  it  is  the  first  I 
have  received  since  those  sent  by  husband.  It  would  be  well  to 
send  everything  direct  to  Westport,  to  the  care  of  Boone  &  Ham- 
ilton, and  in  the  summer  and  fall  to  Boston,  and  they  will  be 
most  sure  to  rtach  us.  There  is  a  prospect  of  a  monthly  mail  to 
be  established  soon  from  St.  Louis  to  Oregon — so  we  judge  from 
movements  in  Congress;  when  that  is  accomplished  a  new  era 
will  commence  in  our  western  world  and  a  happy  one,  too,  to  us, 
if  our  friends  will  write  us  otten. 

Since  writing  the  above  we  have  been  assembled  for  our  Tues- 
day evening  concert,  established  more  than  seven  years  ago  by 
the  two  Missions,  to  pray  for  the  cause  of  Christ  in  Oregon.  We 
have  evidence  to  believe  that  this  concert  of  prayer  has  been 
greatly  blessed  to  us,  and  this  infant  country.  We  feel  that  God 
has  heard  prayer,  for  many  precious  souls  give  evidence  of  having 
passed  from  death  to  life,  some  among  the  Indians  and  many 
more  among  our  own  countrymen.  The  standard  of  piety  and 
morals  in  the  Willamette  is  good  for  so  new  a  country.  Many 
pious  people  and  professing  Christians  have  found  their  way 
here,  and  many  ministers  of  different  denominations;  yet  there 
is  a  want  of  able  ones.  Mother  asks  what  sort  of  people  come  to 
this  country.     There  are  very  many  intelligent  and  excellent  peo- 


pie,  and  also  many  others,  who  are  lawless  and  ignorant.  It  would 
be  well  for  the  Home  Missionary  Society,  in  her  benevolence,  to 
look  this  way,  for  this  country  is  destined  to  exert  an  influence 
that  will  be  felt  the  world  over.  The  Papists  are  at  work  with 
all  their  might  to  get  the  control  of  the  country,  and  have  been 
ever  since  we  have  been  here,  nearly.  We  hope  they  will  not 
succeed.  Protestants  need  to  be  up  and  doing  in  order  to  save 
this  the  only  spot  of  the  whole  western  coast  of  North  America 
from  their  iron  grasp.  God  grant  we  may.  For  this  purpose  "we 
need  more  active  Christians,  teachers,  and  ministers  to  come  to 
this  country  from  the  East,  and  my  dear  father  will,  I  hope,  use 
all  his  powers  in  persuading  such  to  come.  I  cannot  bear  the 
thought  that  my  brothers  and  their  families  should  go  to  Virginia 
to  settle.  Why  will  they  not  come  here?  It  is  both  warm  and 
healthy.  Here  they  would  be  exerting  an  influence  that  would 
be  felt  for  good,  and  here  they  would  make  a  comfortable  living 
without  so  much  hard  labor.  I  have  written  to  Brother  H.  urging 
him  to  come  here.  We  want  him  to  help  us  very  much.  I  hope 
he  will  get  the  letter.  Brothers  H.  and  C.  £  think  would  like  the 
country,  if  once  here.  His  being  a  married  man  is  no  objection, 
but  rather  a  good  reason  why  he  should  come,  for  with  his  family 
here,  he  would  be  worth  something  to  the  country.  O,  how  I 
have  desired,  and  still  desire,  to  have  Jane  and  Edward  come  as 
teachers.  The  Lord  grant  that  they  may,  and  that  soon,  too.  I 
could  wish  that  the  Prattsburg  colony  might  be  turned  this  way, 
instead  of  going  to  Virginia.  They  are  much  needed  here,  and 
in  the  end  would  be  much  better  satisfied,  we  have  no  doubt.  I 
would  ask  father  to  come,  but  mother  says  she  would  be  afraid  of 
the  Indians.  I  have  a  widow  lady  in  my  family  who  came  over 
this  fall  that  is  fifty-seven  years  old.  She  is  an  excellent  woman, 
so  kind  and  motherly.  She  makes  me  think  of  my  own  dear 
mother  every  day,  and  what  it  would  be  to  have  her  here. 

Mother  wishes  me  to  write  about  my  children.  I  wrote  last 
spring  very  fully  about  them  all,  and  if  I  had  room  I  might 
again  say  much  more. 

We  have  a  good  school  taught  by  Mr.  Geiger,  son  of   Deacon 


Geiger,  formerly  of  Angelica.  He  is  an  excellent  young  man  and 
superior  teacher^hildren  all  happy  and  learning  fast.  Brother 
Spalding's  two  eldest  board  here  and  go  to  school,  and  we  are 
expecting  three  from  Brother  Walker's.  We  set  the  table  for 
more  than  twenty  every  day  three  times,  and  it  is  a  pleasing 
sight.  Mr.  G.  serves  the  children.  Mr.  Rogers,  the  young  man 
that  taught  last  winter,  is  still  with  us  studying  for  the  ministry. 
He  is  a  good  young  man  and  his  Christian  society  affords  me 
much  comfort.  He  is  an  excellent  singer  and  has  taught  the 
children  to  sing  admirably.  When  they  came  here  not  one  of 
them  could  make  even  a  noise  towards  singing;  now  they  consti- 
tute quite  a  heavy  choir.  None  of  them  could  read  except  the 
three  eldest  very  poorly;  now  they  are  quite  good  scholars  and  are 
making  good  progress. 

Six  families  of  immigrants  winter  with  us,  and  some  young 
men.  Three  of  them  are  at  the  saw-mill  twenty  miles  from  here. 
The  children  of  the  three  families  that  remain  here  go  to  school; 
when  they  arrived  here,  several  were  quite  sick;  one  woman  re- 
mains so  still,  having  been  afflicted  with  the  infiammatiou  of  the 

Last  Saturday,  Marcus  was  called  to  attend  a  woman  at  the 
mill  at  the  birth  of  a  son.  We  find  it  quite  agreeable  to  have 
neighbors  to  winter  with  us,  but  this  may  be  the  last,  as  a  good 
southern  route  is  now  open  into  the  head  waters  of  the  Willam- 
ette, and  all  will  wish,  probably,  to  go  that  way,  as  it  will  be 
much  nearer  and  better. 

I  must  tell  mother  of  a  luxury  we  enjoy  very  much,  and  one 
that  has  a  tendeflcy  to  make  us  very  cheerful  and  happy.  For  me 
it  has  done  much  toward  restoring  my  health  to  be  so  much  bet- 
ter than  it  has  been  for  several  years.  It  is  daily  cold  bathing. 
Our  students  and  teachers  go  out  every  morning,  winter  and  sum- 
mer and  jump  into  the  river.  Husband  does  it  frequently,  but 
not  so  regular,  on  account  of  his  business.  The  children  all  de- 
light in  it.  Both  would  be  glad  to,  all  winter,  if  we  had  conven- 
iences. In  the  summer  I  go  with  them  to  the  river,  and  now 
when  it  is  warm  enough,  and  when  it  is  cold  we  take  the  tub  in 


the  house.  I  know  father  would  like  to  live  here  on  that  account, 
and  he  would  enjoy  it  so  much,  too,  as  some  of  our  folks  do.  The 
climate  is  so  mild  and  exhilarating.  Husband  is  doing  all  he  can 
to  induce  friends  to  come.  He  has  written  to  Father  Hotchkiss 
inviting  him,  and  requested  him  to  copy  and  send  the  letter  to 
father,  and  many  others. 

I  see  I  must  soon  stop  for  the  want  of  room.  The  children  all 
send  their  love  to  their  grandparents,  and  aunts  and  uncles;  some 
of  them  will  be  able  to  write  soon  to  some  of  you. 

I  have  spoken  of  many  things  and  subjects,  but  one  still  re- 
mains about  which  I  should  like  to  write,  and  that  is  the  other 
half  of  self.  I  wish  mother  was  more  acquainted  with  him;  he  is 
all  benevolence,  has  amazing  energy  of  thought  and  action, 
nothing  is  too  hard  or  impossible  for  him  to  do,  that  can  be  done. 
I  often  think  he  cannot  last  always;  indeed,  his  strength  is  not 
what  it  used  to  be,  although  his  health  is  quite  good. 

We  try  to  do  good  to  our  neighbors  that  winter  with  us.  I 
hold  a  prayer  meeting  with  the  females  on  Wednesday,  which  is 
precious  to  us.  Thursday  evening  is  the  children's  meeting,  which  I 
superintend,  also.  Saturday  evening,  Mr.  Rogers  has  a  Bible  class, 
in  which  the  children  bring  forth  the  text  of  Scripture  they  have 
selected  on  a  given  subject.  Last  week  it  was  "  Prayer";  the  pres- 
ent week  it  is  the  "Sabbath."  Besides  this,  the  children  commit  a 
verse  a  day  which  is  got  in  the  morning  as  their  first  lesson  to  be 
recited  in  Sabbath  school. 

By  this  mother  will  see  that  both  my  hands  and  heart  are 
usefully  employed,  not  so  much  for  the  Indians  directly,  as 
my  own  family.  When  my  health  failed,  I  was  obliged  to  with- 
hold my  efforts  for  the  natives,  but  the  I/ord  has  since  filled  my 
hands  with  other  labors, and  I  have  no  reason  to  complain;  when 
I  am  not  overburdened  with  work  and  care,  I  am  happy  and 
cheerful,  but  as  I  many  times  am  straitened  with  more  than  X 
can  do  and  no  one  to  assist  but  my  children,  I  become  fretful  and 
impatient.  I  am  most  happily  provided  for  now.  I  have  a  good 
girl  in  the  kitchen,  and  the  old  lady,  which  relieves  me  a  great 


deal;  and  Mr.  Geiger  is  such  a  good  governor  and  teacher,  that 
the  children  give  me  little,  if  any,  trouble  as  to  that  part.  Of 
course  I  take  the  place  of  moderator  out  of  school.  We  pay  the 
girl  one  dollar  and  a  half  a  week;  the  widow  is  a  boarder,  but 
does  a  great  deal  in  keeping  things  straight  in  the  kitchen;  do 
not  charge  her  for  her  board. 

If  this  goes  from  the  Islands  to  Panama  and  across  the  Isthmus, 
mother  will  receive  it  in  a  short  time;  if  otherwise,  it  may  be 
some  time  before  it  will  reach  home,  if  it  ever  does.  I  would  be 
glad  to  speak  of  the  Indians,  but  one  sheet  is  too  small  to  contain 
all.  I  would  be  glad  to  say  to  my  dear  parents,  the  Indians  are 
kind  and  quiet  and  very  much  attached  to  us,  none  the  less  so 
for  having  so  many  children  about  us.  Many  that  were  on  the 
stage  when  we  came  here,  are  dead  and  new  ones  have  taken  their 
places.  And  as  husband  has  just  written  to  our  Board,  he  says 
he  never  has  felt  more  contented  and  that  he  was  usefully  em- 
ployed than  for  the  last  year  and  the  present.  May  the  I/Ord  in- 
cline the  hearts  of  my  dear  parents  and  friends  to  pray  especially 
for  us  this  winter  that  He  would  send  His  Spirit  urging  us  that 
new  souls  may  be  born  into  His  kingdom. 

We  send  much  love  to  all  our  relatives  and   friends. 

Ever  your  dutiful  and  aflfectionate  daughter, 

Mrs.  Clarissa  Prentiss, 

Cuba,  Allegheny  Co., 
.    New  York,  U.  S.  A. 

Orbgon  City,  April  6,  1848. 

To  Stephen  Prentiss^  Esq,^  and  Mrs.  Prentiss^  the  Father  and 
Mother  of  the  late  Mrs,  Whitman  of  the  Oregon  Mission — My  Dear 
Father  and  Mother  in  Christ: — ^Through  the  wonderful  interposi- 
tion of  God  in  delivering  me  from  the  hand  of  the  murderer,  it 
has  become  my  painful  dnty  to  apprise  you  of  the  death  of  your 
beloved  daughter,  Narcissa,  and  her  worthy  and  appreciated  hus- 


band,  your  honored  son-in-law,  Dr.  Whitman,  both  my  own  en- 
tirely devoted,  ever  faithful  and  eminently  useful  associates  in  the 
work  of  Christ.  They  were  inhumanly  butchered  by  their  own, 
up  to  the  last  moment,  beloved  Indians,  for  whom  their  warm 
Christian  hearts  had  prayed  for  eleven  years,  and  their  unwearied 
hands  had  administered  to  their  every  want  in  sickness  and  in 
distress,  and  had  bestowed  unnumbered  blessings;  who  claimed 
to  be,  and  were  considered,  in  a  high  state  of  civilization  and 
Christianity.  Some  of  them  were  members  of  our  church;  others 
candidates  for  admission;  some  of  them  adherents  of  the  Catho- 
lic church — all  praying  Indians.  They  were,  doubtless,  urged  on 
to  the  dreadful  deed  by  foreign  influences,  which  we  have  felt 
coming  in  upon  us  like  a  devastating  flood  for  the  last  three  or 
four  years;  and  we  have  begged  the  authors,  with  tears  in  our 
eyes,  to  desist,  not  so  much  on  account  of  our  own  lives  and  pro- 
perty, but  for  the  sake  of  those  coming,  and  the  safety  of  those  al- 
ready in  the  country.  But  the  authors  thought  none  would  be  in- 
,  jured  but  the  hated  missionaries — ^the  devoted  heretics,  and  the 
work  of  hell  was  urged  on,  and  has  ended,  not  only  in  the  death 
of  three  missionaries,  the  ruin  of  our  mission,  but  in  a  bloody 
war  with  the  settlements,  which  may  end  in  the  massacre  of 
every  family. 

God  alone  can  save  us.  I  must  refer  you  to  the  Herald  for 
my  views  as  to  the  direct  and  remote  causes  which  have  conspired 
to  bring  about  tlie  terrible  calamity.  I  cannot  write  all  tb  every 
one,  having  a  large  family  to  care  for;  Mrs.  Spalding  is  suflFering 
from  the  dreadful  exposure  during  the  flight  and  since  we  have 
been  this  country— destitute  of  almost  every  thing,  no  dwelling 
place  as  yet,  food  and  raiment  to  be  found,  many,  many  afflicted 
friends  to  be  informed,  my  own  soul  bleeding  from  many  wounds; 
my  dear  sister,  Narcissa,  with  whom  I  have  grown  up  as  a  child 
of  the  same  family,  with  whom  I  have  labored  so  long  and  so  in- 
timately in  the  work  of  teaching  the  Indians,  and  my  beloved 
Dr.  Whitman,  with  whom  I  have  for  so  many  years  kneeled  in 
praying,  taking  sweet  counsel,  have  been  murdered,  and  their 
bones  scattered  upon  the  plains — the  labors  and  hopes  of  many 
years  in  an  hour  at  an  end,  the   house  of  the  Lord,  the  mission 


house,  burned,  and  its  walls  demolished,  the  property  of  the  I/ord 
to  the  amount  of  thousands  of  dollars,  in  the  hands  of  the  rob- 
bers, a  once  large  and  happy  family  reduced  to  a  few  helpless 
children,  made  orphans  a  second  time,  to  be  separated  and  com- 
pelled to  find  homes  among  strangers;  our  fears  for  our  dear 
brothers  Walker  and  Eells  of  the  most  alarming  character  ;  our 
infant  settlements  involved  in  a  bloody  war  with  hostile  Indians 
and  on  the  brink  of  ruin — all,  all,  chill  my  blood  and  fetter  my 

The  massacre  took  place  on  the  fatal  29th  of  November  last, 
commencing  at  half  past  one.  Fourteen  persons  were  mur- 
dered first  and  last.  Nine  men  the  first  day.  Five  men  es- 
caped from  the  Station,  three  in  a  most  wonderful  manner,  one 
of  whom  was  the  trembling  writer,  with  whom  I  know  you  will 
unite  in  praising  God  for  delivering  even  one.  The  names  and 
places  of  the  slain  are  as  follows:  The  two  precious  names  already 
given,  my  hand  refuses  to  write  them  again.  Mr.  Rogers,  young 
man,  teacher  of  our  Mission  school  in  winter  of  '46;  since  then 
has  been  aiding  us  in  our  mission  work  and  studying  for  the 
ministry,  with  a  view  to  be  ordained  and  join  our  Mission;  John 
and  Francis  Sager,  the  two  eldest  of  the  orphan  family,  ages  17 
and  15;  Mr.  Kimball  of  Laporte,  Indiana,  killed  second  day,  left  a 
widow  and  five  children;  Mr.  Saunders  of  Oskaloosa,  Iowa,  left  a 
widow  and  five  children;  Mr.  Hall  of  Missouri,  escaped  to  Fort 
Walla  Walla,  was  refused  protection,  put  over  the  Columbia  river, 
killed  by  the  Walla  Wallas,  left  a  widow  and  five  children;  Mr. 
Marsh  of  Missouri,  left  a  son  grown  and  young  daughter;  Mr. 
Hoflfman  of  Elmira,  New  York;  Mr.  Gillan  of  Oskaloosa,  Iowa; 
Mr.  Sails  of  latter  place;  Mr.  Bewley  of  Missouri.  Two  lajit 
dragged  from  sick  beds  eight  days  after  the  first  massacre  and 
butchered;  Mr.  Young,  killed  second  day.  Last  five  were  un- 
married men.  Forty  woman  and  children  fell  captives  into  the 
hands  of  the  murderers,  among  them  my  own  beloved  daughter, 
Eliza,  ten  years  old.  Three  of  the  captive  children  soon  die<f,  left 
without  parental  care,  two  of  them  your  dear  Narcissa's,  once  a 
widow  woman's.  The  young  women  were  dragged  from  the 
house  by  night  and  beastly  treated.    Three  of  them  became  wives 







to  the  murderers.  One,  the  daughter  of  Mrs.  Kimball,  became 
the  wife  of  him  who  killed  her  father— often  told  her  of  it.  One, 
Miss  Bewley,  was  taken  twenty  miles  to  the  Utilla  and  became 
the  wife  of  Hezekiah,a  principal  chief  and  member  of  our  church 
who,  up  till  that  time,  had  exhibited  a  good  character.  Bight 
days  after  the  first  butchery,  the  two  families  at  the  saw-mill,, 
twenty  miles  distant,  were  brought  down  and  the  men  spared  to 
do  work  for  the  Indians.  This  increased  the  number  of  the  cap- 
tives to  forty-seven,  after  the  three  children  died.  In  various 
•  '•'A  ways  they  were  cruelly  treated  and  compelled  to  cook  and  work 

late  and  early  for  the  Indians. 

i  As  soon  as  Mrs.  Spalding  heard  of  my  probable  death  and  the 

captivity  of  Eliza,  she  sent  two  Indians  (Nez  Perces)  to  effect  her 
deliverance,  if  possible.  The  murderers  refused  to  give  her  up 
until  they  knew  whether  I  was  alive,  as  I  had  escaped  their  hands, 
and  whether  the  Americans  would  come  up  to  avenge  the  death  of 
their  countrymen.  Should  the  Americans  show  themselves,  every 
woman  and  child  should  be  butchered.  The  two  sick  men  had 
just  been  beaten  and  cut  to  pieces  before  the  eyes  of  the  help- 
less children  and  women,  their  blood  spilled  upon  the  floor,  and 
■  their  mangled  bodies  lay    at  the  door   for  forty-eight  hours,  over 

. ;_  which  the  captives  were  compelled  to  pass  for  wood  and  water. 

■1  •  Eliza  says  when  she  heard  the   heavy  blows  and   heard  dying 

■  groans,  she   stopped   her  ears.    Such    was  and  such  had  been  for 

||  several  days  the  situatioil  of  Eliza,  when  the  two  Nez  Perces,  par- 

..>!  ticular  friends  to  our  children,  told  Eliza  they  must  return   with- 

out her.     The  murderers  would  not   give  her  up.    She  had   given 
:•.  up  her  father  as  dead,  but  her   mother    was  alive   and  up  to   this 

..:":;]  hour  she  hoped  to  reach  her  bosom,  but  now  this  hope  went  out, 

^i't\  and  she  began  to   pine.    Besides,  she  was   the   only  one  left    who 

\UK  understood  the  language,  and    was  called   up  at  all  hours  of   the 

;-   '  night  and    kept  out   for  hours  in  the  cold    and  wet,  with    almost 

no  clothing  left  by  the  hand  of  the  robbers,  to  interpret  for  whites 
and  Indians,  till  she  was  not  able  to  stand  upon  her  feet,  and 
then  they  beset  her  lying  upon  the  floor — bed  she  had  none — 
till  her  voice  failed  from  weakness. 



I  had  reached  home  before  the  Indians  who  went  for  her  re- 
turned, and  shared  with  my  wife  the  anguish  of  seeing  the  Indians 
return  without  our  child.  Had  she  been  dead,  we  could  have  giv- 
en her  up;  but  to  have  a  living  child  a  captive  in  the  hands  of 
Indians  whose  hands  were  stained  with  the  blood  of  our  slain 
friends,  and  not  able  to  deliver  her,  was  the  sharpest  dagger  that 
ever  entered  my  soul.  Suffice  it  to  say,  we  found  our  daughter  at 
Port  Walla  Walla  with  the  ransomed  captives,  too  weak  to  stand, 
a  mere  skeleton,  her  mind  as  much  injured  as  her  health.  Through 
the  astonishing  goodness  of  God  she  has  regained  her  health  and 
strength,  and  her  mind  has  resumed  its  usual  tone. 

The  captives  were  delivered  by  the  prompt  interposition  and 
judicious  management  of  Mr.  Odgen,  Chief  Factor  of  the  H.  H.  B. 
Co.,  to  whom  too  much  praise  cannot  be  awarded.  He  arrived  at 
Walla  Walla  Dec.  12th.  In  about  two  weeks  he  succeeded  in 
ransoming  all  the  captives  for  blankets,  shirts,  guns,  ammuni- 
tion, tobacco,  to  the  amount  of  some  five  hundred  dollars.  They 
were  brought  into  the  fort  on  Dec.  30th.  Myself  and  those  with 
me  arrived  on  the  first  of  January.  Oh,  what  a  meeting — remnants 
of  once  large  and  happy  families;  but  our  tears  of  grief  were 
mingled  with  tears  of  joy.  We  had  not  dared  to  hope  that  de- 
liverance could  come  so  soon    and  so  complete. 

For  some  time  previous  to  the  massacre  the  measles,  followed 
by  the  dysentery,  had  been  raging  in  the  country.  The  families 
at  Waiilatpu  had  been  great  sufferers.  I  arrived  at  Waiilatpu  the 
22nd  of  November;  eight  days  before  the  dreadful  deed.  All  the 
doctor's  family  had  been  sick,  but  were  recovering;  three  of  the 
children  were  yet  dangerously  sick;  besides  Mr.  Osborn,  with  his 
sick  family,  were  in  the  same  house.  Mrs.  Osborn  and  three  chil- 
dren were  dangerous;  one  of  their  children  died  during  the  week. 
A  young  man,  Mr.  Bewley,  was  also  very  sick.  The  doctor's  hands 
were  xnore  than  full  among  the  Indians;  three  and  sometimes 
Sve  died  in  a  day.  Dear  sister  Whitman  seemed  ready  to  sink 
under  the  immfense  weight  of  labor  arid  care.  But  like  an  angel 
of  mercy,  she  continued  to  administer  with  her  ever-ready  hand 
to  the  wants  of  all.    Late  and   early,  night  and  day,  she   was  b}' 


the  bed  of  the  sick.,  the  dying,  and  the  afflicted.  During  the  week» 
I  enjoyed  several  precious  seasons  with  her.  She  was  the  same 
devoted  servant  of  the  Lord  she  was  when  we  enjoyed  like  prec- 
ious seasons  in  our  beloved  Prattsburg  many  years  ago,  ready 
to  live  or  die  for  the  name  of  the  I/ord  Jesus  Christ.  Saturday 
the  Indians  from  the  Utilla,  sent  for  the  doctor  to  visit  their  sick. 
He  wished  me  to  accompany  him.  We  started  late,  rode  in  a 
heavy  rain  through  the  night,  arrived  in  the  morning.  The  doc- 
tor attended  upon  the  sick,  and  returned  on  the  Sabbath  on 
account  of  the  dangerous  sickness  in  his  family.  I  remained  till 
Wednesday.  Monday  morning  the  doctor  assisted  in  burying  an 
Indian;  returned  to  the  hou&e  and  was  reading- -several  Indians,, 
as  usual  were  in  the  house;  one  sat  down  by  him  to  attract  his 
attention  by  asking  for  medicine;  another  came  behind  him  with 
tomahawk  concealed  under  his  blanket  and  with  two  blows  in 
the  back  of  the  head,  brought  him  to  the  floor  senseless,  probably,, 
but  not  lifeless;  soon  after  Telaukaikt,  a  candidate  for  admission 
in  our  church,  and  who  was  receiving  unnumbered  favors  every 
day  from  brother  and  sister  Whitman,  came  ih  and  took  particu- 
lar pains  to  cut  and  beat  his  face  and  cut  his  throat;  but  he  still 
lingered  till  near  night.  As  soon  as  the  firing  commenced  at  the 
different  places,  Mrs.  Hayes  ran  in  and  assisted  sister  Whitman, 
in  taking  the  doctor  from  the  kitchen  to  the  sitting-room  and 
placed  him  upon  the  settee.  This  was  before  his  face  was  cut. 
His  dear  wife  bent  over  him  and  mingled  her  flowing  tears  witk 
his  precious  blood.  It  was  all  she  could  do.  They  were  her  last 
tears.  To  whatever  she  said,  he  would  reply  "no"  in  a  whisper^ 
probably  not  sensible.  John  Sager  was  sitting  by  the  doctor 
^yhen  he  received  the  first  blow,  drew  his  pistol,  but  his  arm  was. 
seized,  the  room  filling  with  Indians,  and  his  head  was  cut  to 
pieces.  He  lingered  till  near  night.  Mr.  Rogers,  attacked  at  the 
water,  escaped  with  a  broken  arm  and  wound  in  the  head,  and 
rushing  into  the  house,  shut  the  door.  The  Indians  seemed  to- 
have  left  the  house  now  to  a«sist  in  murdering  others.  Mr.  Kim- 
ball, with  a  broken  arm  rushed  in ;  both  secreted  themselves  up- 
stairs. Sister  Whitman  in  anguish,  now  bending  over  her  dying; 
husband  and  now  over  the  sick;  now  comforting  the  flying,  scream- 


ing  children,  was  passing  by  the  window,  when  she  received  the 
first  shot  in  her  right  breast,  and  fell  to  the  floor.  She  immedi- 
ately arose  and  kneeled  by  the  settee  on  which  lay  her  bleeding 
husband,  and  in  humble  prayer  commended  her  soul  to  God  and 
prayed  for  her  aear  children  who  were  about  to  be  made  a  second 
time  orphans  and  to  fall  into  the  hands  of  her  direct  murderers. 
I  am  certain  she  prayed  for  her  murderers,  too.  She  now  went  into 
the  chamber  with  Mrs.  Hayes,  Miss  Bewley,  Catharine,  and  the 
sick  children.  They  remained  till  near  night.  In  the  meantime 
the  doors  and  windows  were  broken  in  and  the  Indians  entered 
and  commenced  plundering,  but  they  feared  to  go  into  the  cham- 
ber. They  called  for  sister  Whitman  and  brother  Rogers  to  come 
down  and  promised  they  should  not  be  hurt.  This  promise  waa 
often  repeated,  and  they  came  down.  Your  dear  Narcissa,  faint 
with  the  loss  of  blood,  was  carried  on  a  settee  to  the  door  by 
brother  Rogers  and  Miss  Bewley.  Every  corner  of  the  room  was 
crowded  with  Indians  having  their  guns  ready  to  fire.  The  chil- 
dren  had  been  brought  down  and  huddled  together  to  be  shot. 
Eliza  was  one.  Here  they  had  stood  for  a  long  time  surrounded 
by  guns  pointing  at  their  breasts.  She  often  heard  the  cry  "Shall 
we  shoot?"  and  her  blood  became  cold,  she  says,  and  she  fell  upon 
the  floor.  But  now  the  order  was  given,  '*Do  not  shoot  the  chil* 
dren,'*  as  the  settee  passed  through  the  children  over  the  bleeding, 
dying  body  of  John.  Fatal  moment!  The  settee  advanced  about 
its  length  from  the  door,  when  the  guns  were  discharged  from 
without  and  within,  the  powder  actually  burning  the  faces  of  the 
children.  Brother  Rogers  raised  his  hand  and  cried,  "my  God,**^ 
and  fell  upon  his  face,  pierced  with  many  balls.  But  he  fell  not 
alone.  An  equal  number  of  the  deadly  weapons  were  leveled  at  the 
settee  and,  oh !  that  this  discharge  had  been  deadlly.  But  oh !  Father 
of  Mercy,  so  it  seemed  good  in  thy  sight.  She  groaned,  she  lingered. 
The  settee  was  rudely  upset. — Oh,  what  have  I  done?  Can  the 
aged  mother  read  and  live?  Think  of  Jesus  in  the  hands  of  the 
cruel  Jews.  I  thought  to  withhold  the  worst  facts,  but  then  they 
would  go  to  you  from  other  sources,  and  the  uncertainty  would 
be  worse  than  the  reality.    Pardon  me,  if  I  have  erred. 

Francis  at  the  same  time  was  dragged  from  the  children  and 


shot;  all  three  now  lay  upon  theground,  groaning,  struggling,  dy- 
ing. As  they  groaned,  the  Indians  beat  them  with  their  whips  and 
clubs,  and  tried  to  force  their  horses  over  them.  Darkness  dis- 
persed the  Indians,  but  the  groans  of  the  dying  continued  till  in 
night.  Brother  Rogers  seemed  to  linger  the  longest.  A  short 
time  before  Mr.  Osborn  and  family  left  the  hiding  place,  he  was 
heard  to  say  in  a  faint  voice,  "Lord  Jesus,  come  quickly,"  and  all 
was  silent.  The  next  morning  they  were  seen  to  be  dead,  by  the 
children.  But  what  a  sight  for  those  dear  lambs — made  a  second 
time  fatherless,  motherless;  and  my  dear  Eliza  stood  with  them, 
but  she  covered  her  face  with  her  hands — she  says  she  could  not 
look  uJ)on-  her  dear  Mrs.  Whitman,  always  like  a  mother  to  her. 
The  dead  bodies  were  not  allowed  to  be  removed  till  Wednesday 
morning,  when  they  were  gathered  together.  Eliza  and  some  of 
the  other  girls  sewed  sheets  around  them,'"a  large  pit  was  dug  by  a 
Frenchman  and  some  friendly  Indians,  and  they  were  buried  to- 
gether, but  so  slightly  that  when  the  army  arrived  at  the  station, 
they  found  that  the  wolves  had  dug  them  all  up,  eaten  their  flesh, 
and  scattered  their  bones  upon  the  plains.  "  O  God,  the  heathen 
are  come  into  thine  inheritance;  thy  holy  temple  have  they  defiled 
The  bodies  of  thy  servants  have  they  given  to  be  meat  unto  the 
fowls  of  the  heaven,  the  flesh  of  thy  saints  unto  the  beasts  of  the 
earth.  Their  blood  have  they  shed  like  water  round  about  Jeru- 
salem ;  and  there  was  none  to  bury  them.  Help  us,  O  God  of  our 
Salvation,  for  the  Glory  of  thy  name." 

Some  hair  from  the  sacred  head  of  your  dearest  daughter  was 
found  by  the  army,  I  believe  rolled  in  a  piece  of  paper,  doubt- 
less cut  and  put  away  by  her  own  hand  some  two  years  ago,  A 
lock  was  obtained  by  Dr.  Wilcox  of  East  Bloomfield,  New  York, 
which  was  handed  to  me  the  other  day.  With  great  satisfaction  I 
send  it  to  her  deeply  afflicted  father  and  mother.    Precious  relic! 

And  now,  shall  I  attempt  to  sooth  your  bleeding  hearts?  It 
would  be  like  one  drowning  man  stretching  out  his  hand  to 
hold  up  another.  I,  myself,  am  in  the  deepest  waters  of  afflic- 
tion. My  dear  brother  and  sister  Whitman  no  more;  their  mis- 
sion house  demolished;  myself  and  family  driven  from  our  first 


own  home,  and  the  little  church  which  we  had  been  gathered 
around;  our  brothers,  Walker  and  Hells,  perhaps,  slain  and  their 
wives  and  children  captives  in  the  hands  of  the  murderers.  "  But 
why  art  thou  disquieted,  oh  my  soul?"  "Even  so,  Father,  for  so  it 
seemeth  good  in  Thy  sight."  "This  world  is  poor  from  shore  to 
shore."  There  is  no  place  like  heaven,  and  it  has  seemed  doubly 
precious  since  the  day  my  dear  associates  ended  their  toils,  and 
left  this  world  of  blood  and  sin  to  enter  upon  the  unending  song 
of  Moses  and  the  Lamb.  I  know  where  you  will  go,  my  honored 
father  and  mother  in  Christ,  when  you  have  read  this  letter,  you 
will  go  to  the  Mercy  Seat,  and  there  you  will  find  balm  for  your 
deeply  wounded  souls,  for  you  know  how  to  ask  for  it.  And  when 
there,  you  will  not  forget  the  scattered  sheep  and  the  trembling 
lambs  of  our  broken  mission. 

At  the  time  of  the  massacre,  Perrin  Whitman,  nephew  of  Dr. 
Whitman,  was  at  The  Dalles  in  the  family  of  Mr.  Hinman,  whom 
we  had  employed  to  occupy  thestation  which  had  been  lately  trans- 
ferred to  our  mission  by  the  Methodist  mission.  On  hearing  of 
the  bloody  tragedy,  they  left  the  station  and  came  to  the  Wal- 
lamette.  He  is  here.  The  little  half-breed  Spanish  boy  by  the 
name  of  David  Malin  was  retained  at  Walla  Walla.  I  fear  he 
will  fall  into  the  hands  of  the  priests  who  remain  in  the  country. 
Catherine,  Elizabeth,  Matilda,  Henrietta  and  Mary  Ann,we  brought 
with  us  to  this  place;  Mary  Ann  has  since  died.  For  the  other 
four  we  have  obtained  good  places  and  they  seem  satisfied  and 
happy.  Catharine  is  in  the  family  of  the  Rev.  Mr.  Roberts,  Super- 
intendent of  the  Methodist  mission. 

Three  Papists,  one  an  Indian  formerly  from  Canada  and  late 
from  the  state  of  Maine,  had  been  in  the  employ  of  the  doctor  a 
few  weeks;  one  a  half  breed  with  Cayuse  wife,  and  one  a  Canadian 
who  had  been  in  the  employ  of  the  doctor  for  more  than  a  year, 
seemed  to  have  aided  in  the  massacre,  and  probably  secured  most 
of  the  money,  watches  and  valuable  property.  The  Canadian  came 
down  with  the  captives,  was  arrested,  brought  before  a  justice, 
bound  over  for  trial  at  next  court  charged  with  having  aided  in 
the  murders.    The  night  before  he  was  arrested,  he  secreted  in  the 


ground  and  between  the  boards  of  a  house  considerable  of 
Mr.  HoflFman's  money  and  a  watch  of  one  of  the  widows.  The 
Canadian  Indian,  Jo  Lewis,  shot  Francis  with  his  own  hand  and 
was  the  first  to  commence  breaking  the  windows  and  doors;  is  now 
with  the  hostile  Indians.  The  half-breed  named  Finley  was 
camped  near  the  station,  and  in  his  lodge  the  murderers  held  their 
councils  before  and  during  the  massacre.  He  was  at  the  head  of 
the  Cayuses  at  the  battle  near  the  Utilla;  managed  by  pretended 
friendship,  to  attract  the  attention  of  our  officers,  while  his  war- 
riors, unobserved,  surrounded  our  army.  As  soon  as  they  had 
gained  their  desired  position,  he  wheeled  and  fired  his  gun,  as  the 
signal  for  the  Indians  to  comnience.  Although  they  had  the  ad- 
vantage of  the  ground,  far  superior  in  number,  and  the  first  fire, 
they  were  completely  defeated,  driven  from  the  field  and  finally 
from  their  possession  of  the  country,  and  expect  to  fortify  at  the 
mission  station  at  Waiilatpu.  The  Cayuses  have  removed  their 
families  and  their  stock  over  Snake  river  into  the  Palouse  coun- 
try in  the  direction  of  brothers  Walker  and  Bells.  Our  army  came 
upon  them  at  Snake  river  as  they  about  were  to  cross.  About  1,500 
head  of  cattle  and  the  whole  Cayuse  camp  were  completely  in  their 
hands.  But  here  our  officers  were  again  for  the  third  and  fourth 
time  outwitted  by  8om«  Indians  riding  up  to  them  and  pretead- 
ing  friendship,  saying  that  some  of  their  own  cattle  were  in  the 
band,  and  begged  time  to  separate  them.  Our  commander  having 
received  orders  not  to  involve  the  innocent  with  the  guilty,  gave 
them  till  morning.  It  is  said  his  men  actually  wept  at  the  terri- 
ble mistake.  Next  morning,  as  might  be  expected,  most  of  the 
cattle  and  nearly  all  the  Cayuse  property  had  been  crossed  over 
and  were  safe.  Our  army  started  away  with  some  500  head.  The 
Indians,  with  the  pretended  friendly  ones  at  the  head,  fought  all 
day.  At  night,  being  double  the  number  of  the  whites,  the  In- 
dians retook  their  cattle.  The  whites  were  obliged  to  retreat  to 
the  station.  The  Indians  continued  to  fight  them  through  the 
night  and  the  next  day.  The  third  day  the  officers  reached  the 
station,  none  killed,  but  seven  wounded,  one  badly,  six  of  the  In- 
dians killed  and  some  thirty  wounded.  The  commander  and 
half  of  the  army  immediately  started  for  this  country  for  provis- 


ions,  ammunition  and  more  men.  If  the  few  left  are  not  soon 
reinforced  and  supplied,  they  will  be  in  danger  of  being  cut  off, 
and  the  Indians  will  be  down  on  the  settlements.  The  com- 
mander was  accidentally  killed  on  his  way  down. 

The  Lord  has  transferred  us  from  one  field  of  labor  to  an- 
other. Through  the  kindness  of  Rev.  Mr.  Clark,  Mr.  Smith  and 
others,  we  have  been  brought  to  this  place,  "Tualatin  Plains." 
Mrs.  Spalding  has  a  large  school,  and  I  am  to  preach,  God  assist- 
ing, at  three  stations  through  the  summer. 

As  I  cannot  write  to  all,  I  wish  this  letter  printed  and  copies 
of  the  papers  sent  to  Rev.  David  Greene,  Mission  House,  Boston, 
Mass.;  Dudley  Allen,  M.  D.,  Kinsman,  Trumbull  Co.,  Ohio;  Rev. 
C.  F.  Scoville,  Holland  Patent,  Oneida  Co.,  New  York.;  Calvin  C. 
Stowe,  Lane  Seminary,  Cincinnati,  Ohio;  Mr.  Seth  Paine,  Troy, 
Bradford  Co.,  Penn.;  Mr.  G.  W.  Hoffman,  Elmira,  Chemung  Co., 
New  York;  Hon.  Stratton  H.  Wheeler,  Wheeler,  Steuben  Co., 
New  York,  and  Christian  Observer,  Phildelphia,  Penn. 

Yours  in  the  deep  waters  of  affliction, 

H.  H.  Spai,ding. 
Hon.  Stephen  Prentiss,  Esq., 
West  Almond, 
Allegheny  Co.,  New  York. 


[The  following  letters  of  Mrs.  Whitman,  with  an  occasional 
one  from  her  husband,  were  secured  after  those  preceding  were 
arranged  for  printing.  This  statement  is  made  to  show  why 
there  is  a  break  in  the  chronological  arrangement. — GEoi  H. 
HiMES,  Secretary.] 

Pi^ATTE  River,  Just  above  the  Forks,  \ 
June  3d,  1836.     j 

Dear  Sister  Harriet  and  Brother  Edward: — Friday  eve,  six 
o'clock.  We  have  just  encamped  for  the  night  near  the  bluffs 
over  against  the  river.  The  bottoms  are  ia.soft,  wet  plain,  and  we 
were  obliged  to  leave  the  river  yesterday  for  the  bluffs.  The  face 
of  the  country  yesterday  afternpon  and  today  has  been  rolling 
sand  bluffs,  mostly  barren,  quite  unlike  what  our  eyes  have  been 
satiated  with  for  weeks  past.  No  timber  nearer  than  the  Platte^ 
and  the  water  tonight  is  very  bad—got  from  a  small  ravine.  We 
have  usually  had  good  water  previous  to  this. 

Our  fuel  for  cooking  since  we  left  timber  (no  timber  except 
on  rivers)  has  been  dried  buffalo  dung  ;  we  now  find  plenty  of  it 
and  it  answers  a  very  good  purpose,  similar  to  the  kind  of  coal 
used  in  Pennsylvania  (I  suppose  now  Harriet  will  make  up  a  face 
at  this,  but  if  she  was  here  she  would  be  glad  to  have  her  supper 
cooked  at  any  rate  in  this  scarce  timber  country).  The  present 
time  in  our  iourney  is  a  very  important  one.  The  hunter  brou/^ht 
us  buffalo  meat  yesterday  for  the  first  time.  Buffalo  were  seen  today 
but  none  have  been  taken.  We  have  some  for  supper  tonight.  Hus- 
band is  cooking  it — no  one  of  the  company  professes  the  art  but 
himself.  I  expect  it  will  be  very  good.  Stop — I  have  so  much  to 
say  to  the  children  that  I  do  not  know  in  what  part  of  my  story 
to  begin.    I  have  very  little  time  to  write.      I  will    first  tell  you 


what  our  company  consists  of.  We  are  ten  in  number;  five  mis- 
sionaries, three  Indian  boys  and  two  young  men  employed  to  as- 
sist in  packing  animals. 

Saturday,  4th.  Good  morning,  H.  and  E.  I  wrote  last  night 
till  supper;  after  that  it  was  so  dark  I  could  not  see.  I  told  you 
how  many  bipeds  there  was  in  our  company  last  night;  now  .for 
the  quadrupeds :  Fourteen  horses,  six  mules  and  fifteen  head  of 
cattle.  We  milk  four  cows.  We  started  with  seventeen,  but  we 
have  killed  one  calf,  and  the  Fur  Company,  being  out  of  provision, 
have  taken  one  of  our  cows  for  beef.  It  is  usually  pinching 
times  with  the  Company  before  they  reach  the  bufifalo.  We  have 
had  a  plenty  because  we  made  ample  provision  at  Liberty.  We 
purchased  a  barrel  of  flour  and  baked  enough  to  last  us,  with 
killing  a  calf  or  two,  until  we  reached  the  buffalo. 

The  Fur  Company  is  large  this  year;  we  are  really  a  moving 
village — nearly  400  animals,  with  ours,  mostly  mules,  and  70  men. 
The  Pur  Company  have  seven  wagons  drawn  by  six  mules  each, 
heavily  loaded,  and  one  cart  drawn  by  two  mules,  which  carries 
a  lame  man,  one  of  the  proprietors  of  the  Company.  We  have 
two  wagons  in  our  company.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  S.,  husband  and  myr 
self  ride  in  one,  Mr.  Gray  and  the  baggage  in  the  other.  Our  In- 
.dian  boys  drive  the  cows  and  Dulin  the  horses.  Young  Miles 
leads  our  forward  horses,  four  in  each  team.  Now  E.,  if  you  want 
to  see  the  camp  in  motion,  look  away  ahead  and  see  first  the  pilot 
-and  the  captain,  Fitzpatrick,  just  before  him;  next  the  pack  ani- 
mals,.all  mules,  loaded  with  great  packs;  soon  after  you  will  see 
the  wagons,  and  in  the  rear,  our  company.  We  all  cover  quite  a 
space.  The  pack  mules  always  string  along  one  after  the  other 
just  like  Indians. 

There  are  several  gentlemen  in  the  company  who  are  going 
over  the  mountains  for  pleasure.  Capt.  Stewart  (Mr.  Lee  speaks 
of  him  in  his  journal — he  went  over  when  he  did  and  returned) 
he  is  an  Englishman  and  Mr.  Celam.  We  had  a  few  of  them  to  tea 
with. us  last  Monday  evening,  Capis.  Fitzpatrick,  Stewart,  Major 
Harris  and  Celam. 


I  wish  I  could  describe  to  you  how  we  live  so  that  you  can 
realize  it.  Our  manner  of  living  is  far  preferable  to  any  in  the 
States.  I  never  was  so  contented  and  happy  before,  neither  have 
I  enjoyed  such  health  for  years.  In  the  morning  as  soon  as  the 
day  breaks  the  first  that  we  hear  is  the  words,  "  Arise  !  Arise  !** — 
then  the  mules  set  up  such  a  noise  as  you  never  heard,  which  puts 
the  whole  camp  in  motion.  We  encamp  in  a  large  ring,  baggage 
and  men,  tents  and  wagons  on  the  outside,  and  all  the  animals 
except  the  cows,  which  are  fastened  to  pickets,  within  the  circle. 
This  arrangement  is  to  accommodate  the  guard,  who  stand  regu- 
larly every  night  and  day,  also  when  we  are  in  motion,  to  protect 
our  animals  from  the  approach  of  Indians,  who  would  steal  them. 
As  I  said,  the  mules*  noise  brings  every  man  on  his  feet  to  loose 
them  and  turn  them  out  to  feed. 

Now,  H.  and  E.,  you  must  think  it  very  hard  to  have  to  get 
up  so  early  after  sleeping  on  the  soft  ground,  when  you  find  it 
hard  work  to  open  your  eyes  at  seven  o'clock.  Just  think  of  me 
—every  morning  at  the  word,  "  Arise  !"  we  all  spring.  While  the 
horses  are  feeding  we  get  breakfast  in  a  hurry  and  eat  it.  By 
this  time  the  words,  "  Catch  up  !  Catch  up,"  ring  through  the 
camp  for  moving.  We  are  ready  to  start  usually  at  six,  travel 
till  eleven,  encamp,  rest  and  feed,  and  start  again  about  two; 
travel  until  six,  or  before,  if  we  come  to  a  good  tavern,  then  en- 
camp for  the  night. 

Since  we  have  been  in  the  prairie  we  have  done  all  our  cook- 
ing. When  we  left  Liberty  we  expected  to  take  bread  to  last  us 
part  of  the  way,  but  could  not  get  enough  to  carry  us  any  dis- 
tance. We  found  it  awkward  work  to  bake  out  of  doors  at  first, 
but  we  have  become  so  accustomed  to  it  now  we  do  it  very  easily. 

Tell  mother  I  am  a  very  good  housekeeper  on  the  prairie.  I 
wish  she  could  just  take  a  peep  at  us  while  we  are  sitting  at  our 
meals.  Our  table  is  the  ground,  our  table-cloth  is  an  India-rubber 
cloth  used  when  it  rains  as  a  cloak;  our  dishes  are  made  of  tin — 
basins  for  teacups,  iron  spoons  and  plates,  each  of  us,  and  several 
pans  for  milk  and  to  put  our  meat  in  when  we  wish  to  set  it  on 


the  table.  Bach  one  carries  his  own  knife  in  his  scabbard,  and  it 
is  always  ready  for  use.  When  the  table  things  are  spread,  after 
making  our  own  forks  of  sticks  and  helping  ourselves  to  chairs, 
we  gather  around  the  table.  Husband  always  provides  my  seat,  uid 
in  a  way  that  you  would  laugh  to  see.  It  is  the  fashion  of  all  this 
country  to  imitate  the  Turks.  Messrs.  Dunbar  and  AUis  have 
sapped  with  us,  and  they  do  the  same.  We  take  a  blanket  and 
lay  down  by  the  table,  and  those  whose  joints  will  let  them  fol- 
low the  fashion;  others  take  out  some  of  the  baggage  (I  suppose 
yon  know  that  there  is  no  stones  in  this  country;  not  a  stone  have 
I  seen  of  any  size  on  the  prairie).  For  my  part  I  6z  myself  as 
gracefully  as  I  can,  sometimes  on  a  blanket,  sometimes  on  a  box, 
just  as  it  is  convenient.  I/et  me  assure  you  of  this,  we  relish  our 
food  none  the  less  for  sitting  on  the  ground  while  eating.  We 
have  tea  and  a  plenty  of  milk,  which  is  a  luxury  in  this  country. 
Our  milk  has  assisted  us  very  much  in  making  our  bread  since  we 
have  been  journeying.  While  the  Fur  Company  has  felt  the  w^nt 
of  food,  our  milk  has  been  of  great  service  to  us;  but  it  was  con- 
siderable work  for  us  to  supply  ten  persons  with  bread  three  times 
a  day.  We  are  done  using  it  now.  What  little  flour  we  have  left 
we  shall  preserve  for  thickening  our  broth,  which  is  excellent.  J 
never  saw  any  thing  like  buffalo  meat  to  satisfy  hunger.  We  do 
not  want  any  thing  else  with  it.  I  have  eaten  three  meals  of  it 
and  it  relishes  well.  Supper  and  breakfast  we  eat  in  our  tent. 
We  do  not  pitch  it  at  noon.  Have  worship  immediately  after 
supper  and  breakfast. 

Noon. — The  face  of  the  country  today  has  been  like  that  of 
yesterday.  We  are  now  about  30  miles  above  the  forks,  and  leav- 
ing the  bluffs  for  the  river.  We  have  seen  wonders  this  forenoon. 
Herds  of  buffalo  hove  in  sight  ;  one,  a  bull,  crossed  our  tr^il  and 
ran  upon  the  bluffs  near  the  rear  of  the  camp.  We  took  the 
trouble  to  chase  him  so  as  to  have  a  near  view.  Sister  Spalding 
and  myself  got  out  of  the  wagon  and  ran  upon  the  bluff  to  see 
him.  This  band  was  quite  willing  to  gratify  our  curiosity,  seeing 
it  was  the  first.  Several  have  been  killed  this  forenoon.  The 
Company  keep  a  man  out  all  the  time  to  hunt  for  the  camp. 


Edward,  if  I  write  much  more  in  this  way  I  do  not  know  as 
you  can  read  it  without  great  difficulty.  I  could  tell  you  much 
more,  but  as  we  are  all  ready  to  move  again,  so  farewell  for  the 
present.  I  wish  you  were  all  here  witl;  us  going  to  the  dear  In- 
dians. I  have  become  very  much  attached  to  Richard  Sak-ah- 
too-ah.  *T  is  the  one  you  saw  at  our  wedding;  he  calls  me  moth- 
er; I  love  to  teach  him — to  take  care  of  him,  and  hear  them  talk. 
There  are  five  Nez  Perces  in  the  company,  and  when  they  are  to- 
gether they  [chatter  finely.  Samuel  Temoni.  the  oldest  one,  has 
just  come  into  the  camp  with  the  skin  and  some  of  the  meat 
of  a  buffalo  which  he  has  killed  himself^  He  started  this  fore- 
noon of  his  own  accord.  It  is  what  they  like  dearly,  to  hunt  buf- 
falo. So  long  as  we  have  him  with  us  we  shall  be  supplied  with 

I  am  now  writing  backwards.  Motiday  morning. — I  begun  to 
say  something  here  that  I  could  not  finish.  Now  the  man  from 
the  mountains  has  come  who  will  take  this  to  the  office.  I  have 
commenced  one  to  sister  Hull  which  I  should  like  to  send  this 
time  if  I  could  finish  it.  We  have  just  met  him  and  we  have 
stopped  our  wagons  to  write  a  little.  Give  my  love  to  all.  I  have 
not  told  you  half  I  want  to.  We  are  all  in  health  this  morning 
and  making  rapid  progress  in  our  journey.  By  the  4th  of  July 
our  captain  intends  to  be  at  the  place  where  Mr.  Parker  and 
husband  parted  last  fall.  We  are  a  month  earlier  passing  here 
thai!  they  were  last  spring.  Husband  has  begun  a  letter  to  pa 
and  ma,  and  since  he  has  cut  his  finger  so  it  troubles  him  to 
write  to  the  rest.  As  this  is  done  in  a  hurry  I  don't  know  as  you 
can  read  it.  Tell  mother  that  if  I  had  looked  the  world  over  I 
could  not  have  found  one  more  careful  and  better  qualified  to 
transport  a  female  such  a  distance.    Husband  says,  "  stop." 

Farewell  to  all. 

Narcissa  Prentiss. 


On  Pi^atte  Rivbr,  30  Mii^es  above  the  Forks,  1 

June  4th,  1836.     J 

Dear  Father  and  Mother  Prentiss : — You  will  be  anxious  to 
hear  from  us  at  this  distance  and  learn  our  situation  and  pro- 
gress. We  have  been  greatly  blest  thus  far  on  our  journey.  We 
have  had  various  trials,  it  is  true,  but  they  have  mostly  been  over- 
ruled for  our  good.  Narcissa's  health  is  much  improved  from 
what  it  was  when  she  left  N.  Y.  We  failed  of  going  from  Liberty 
to  Bellevue  as  was  expected  in  the  Fur  Go's,  steamboat.  We  were 
waiting  at  Liberty  for  the  boat  for  some  time  and  thought  we 
would  go  on  with  our  cattle,  horses  and  wagons,  and  let  Mr.  Allis 
from  the  Pawnee  agency  stay  with  the  ladies  and  go  on  the  boat. 
Accordingly  Messrs.  Spalding  and  Gray  went  on  and  I  was  to  join 
them  at  Cantonment  Leavenworth.  In  the  meantime  Mrs.  Sat- 
terlee  died  and  the  boat  passed  but  refused  to  stop  for  us.  Mr. 
Spalding  wrote  me  he  would  wait  eight  miles  the  other  side  of 
the  garrison  until  I  came  up,  so  that  when  the  boat  passed  I  did 
not  send  an  express  as  I  otherwise  should  have  done,  but  proceeded 
to  hire  a  team  to  take  us  on;  but  when  we  arrived  at  the 
garrison  he  had  crossed  the  river  and  gone  directly  on  for  Belle- 
vue and  had  been  gone  for  three  days,  which  caused  me  to.  have 
to  send  an  express  for  him,  which  did  not  overtake  him  until  they 
were  within  forty  miles  of  the  Platte.  I  followed  with  the  women 
and  baggage,  with  a  hired  team.  We  met  our  teams  the  fourth 
day  on  their  return.  From  that  on  we  were  greatly  favored  with 
fair  weather,  never  having  to  encounter  any  rainstorm  or  serious 
shower.  We  have  not  been  once  wet  even  to  this  time,  and  we 
are  now  beyond  where  the  rains  fall  much  in  summer. 

We  had  several  days  delay  from  my  going  ahead  to  see  Maj. 
Dougherty's  brother,  who  was  very  sick  and  sent  for  me  when  he 
learned  I  was  coming.  It  was  Sabbath  and  we  were  within  18 
miles  of  the  Otto  Agency,  which  is  on  the  Platte,  where  Mr. 
Dougherty  lives.  On  Monday  I  sent  the  man  who  came  for  me  af- 
ter the  party,  and  I  went  to  see  Fitzpatrick,  the  leader  of  the  Fur 
caravan,  with  whom  we  were  to  travel.     I  found  him  encamx>ed 


ready  for  a  start  on  Thursday  morning,  about  25  miles  from  the 
Otto  Agency.  When  I  returned  our  party  had  not  arrived  and  did 
not  come  in  until  Wednesday,  the  man  who  was  to  pilot  them 
having  lost  his  way.  « 

We  had  great  difficulty  in  crossing  the  Platte  which,  together 
with  repairs  to  our  wagons,  detained  us  until  Saturday  noon,  May 
2ist,  and  he  (Pitzpatrick)  had  been  gone  from  Sunday.  We  felt 
much  doubt  about  overtaking  them,  but  we  pushed  on,  and  after 
ferrying  the  Horn  in  a  skin  boat  and  making  a  very  difficult  ford 
of  the  Loup,  we  overtook  the  Company  at  a  few  miles  below  the 
Pawnee  villages  on  Wednesday  evening,  We  then  felt  that  we 
had  been  signally  blessed,  thanked  God  and  took  courage.  We 
felt  it  had  been  of  great  service  to  us  that  we  had  been  disap- 
pointed in  these  several  particulars,  particularly  as  it  tested  the 
ability  of  our  ladies  to  journey  in  this  way.  We  have  since  made 
good  progress  every  day,  and  are  now  every  way  well  situated, 
having  plenty  of  good  buffalo  meat  and  the  cordial  co-operation 
of  the  company  with  whom  we  are  journeying. 

June  6th. — We  have  just  met  the  men  by  whom  we  can  send 
letters  and  have  to  close  without  farther  particulars  or  ceremony. 

With  Christian  regards  to  your  family,  farewell. 
Yours  affectionately, 

Marcus  Whitman. 

WiEi<ETPOO,  July  4th,  1838. 

My  Dear  Sister  Perkins: — Your  letter  was  handed  me  on  the 
8th  inst.,  a  little  after  noon,  and  I  must  say  I  was  a  little  sur- 
prised to  receive  a  return  so  soon.  Surely,  we  are  near  each  other. 
You  will  be  likely  to  have  known  opportunities  of  sending  to  us> 
more  frequently  than  I  shall  your  way,  which  I  hope  you  will 
not  neglect  because  you  have  not  received  the  answer  to  yours.  I 
do  not  intend  to  be  so  long  again  in  replying  as  I  have  this  time. 


Wh«n  I  received  yours,  I  was  entirely  alone.  My  husband  had 
gone  to  brother  Spalding's  to  assist  him  in  putting  up  a  house, 
and  soon  after,  we  had  the  privilege  of  preparing  and  entertain- 
ing Mr.  and  Mrs.  McDonald  and  family  of  Colville.  They  came 
by  the  way  of  brother  Spalding's,  spent  nearly  a  week  with 
them  and  then  came  here.  They  left  here  last  Thursday,  and  are 
still  at  Walla  Walla.  Had  a  very  pleasant,  agreeable  visit  with 
them.  Find  Mrs.  McDonald  quite  an  intelligent  woman;  speaks 
English  very  well,  reads  and  is  the  principal  instructor  of  their 
children.  She  is  a  correspondent,  also,  with  myself  and  sister 
Spalding.  She  appears  more  thoughtful  upon  the  subject  of  re- 
ligion than  any  I  have  met  with  before,  and  has  some  consistent 
views.  What  her  experimental  knowledge  is,  I  am  unable  to  say. 
It  would  be  a  privilege  to  have  her  situated  near  us,  so  that  we 
could  have  frequent  intercourse;  it  would,  no  doubt  be  profitable. 

You  ask  after  my  plan  of  proceedings  with  the  Indians,  etc. 
I  wish  I  was  able  to  give  you  satisfactory  answers.  I  have  no 
plan  separate  from  my  husband's,  and  besides  you  are  mistaken 
about  the  language  being  at  command,  for  nothing  is  more  diffi- 
cult than  for  me  to  attempt  to  conyey  religious  truth  in  their 
language,  especially  when  there  are  so  few,  or  no  terms  expressive 
of  the  meaning.  Husband  succeeds  much  better  than  I,  and  we 
have  good  reason  to  feel  that  so  far  as  understood,  the  truth  affects 
the  heart,  and  not  a  little,  too.  We  have  done  nothing  tor  the 
females  separately;  indeed,  our  house  is  so  small,  and  only  one 
room  to  admit  them,  and  that  is  the  kitchen.  It  is  the  men  only 
that  frequent  our  house  much.  Doubtless  you  have  been  with 
the  Indians  long  enough  to  discover  this  feature,  that  women  are 
not  allowed  the  same  privileges  with  the  men.  I  scarcely  see 
them  except  on  the  Sabbath  in  our  assemblies.  I  have  frequently 
desired  to  have  more  intercourse  with  them,  and  am  waiting  to 
have  a  room  built  for  them  and  other  purposes  of  instruction. 
Our  principal  effort  is  with  the  children  now,  and  we  find  many 
very  interesting  ones.  But  more  of  this  in  future  when  I  have 
ixiOre  time. 

Mr.  Pamburn  has  sent  a  horse  for  me   to  ride  to  his  place  to- 


morrow.  Mrs.  Pambrun  has  been  out  of  health  for  some  time, 
and  we  have  fears  that  she  will  not  recover.  As  I  have  consider- 
able preparations  to  make  for  the  visit,  must  defer  writing  more 
at  present.     In  haste,  I  subscribe  myself, 

Your  affectionate  sister  in  Christ, 


P.  S. — I  long  to  hear  from  Mrs.  Lee. 

Walla  Walla,  nth. 

My  Dear  Sister: — I  am  still  here.  The  brigade  arrived  yester- 
day and  having  time  and  opportunity  to  send  home  for  this  letter, 
both  are  sent  by  the  return  boats.  We  have  just  received  three 
or  four  letters  from  our  friends  at  home,  they  being  the  first  news 
received  since  we  bade  them  farewell.  Find  it  good  to  know 
what  is  going  on  there,  although  all  is  not  of  a  pleasing  character. 
Our  Sandwich  Island  friends  give  us  pleasing  intelligence  of  the 
glorious  display  of  the  power  of  God  in  converting  that  heathen 

people  in  such  multitudes. 

Kvej  yours, 

N.  Whitman. 
Rev.  Mrs.  H.  K.  W.  Perkins, 


La  Dalls. 

WiELETPOO,  Nov.  5th,  1838. 

My  Dear  Sister  Perkins: — I  did  not  think  when  i  received 
your  good  long  letter  that  I  should  have  delayed  until  this  time 
before  answering  it.  But  so  varied  are  the  scenes  that  have 
passed  before  me,  so  much  company  and  so  many  cares,  etc.,  be- 
sides writing  many  letters  home,  that  I  beg  you  will  excuse  me. 
Notwithstanding  all  this,  I  have  often,  very  often,  thought  of  you 
and  wished  for  the  privilege  of  seeing  you.  I  must  confess  I  do 
not  like  quite  so  well  to  think  of  you  where  you  now  are  as  when 


you  were  nearer.  Why  did  you  go?  Some  of  our  sisters  here 
might  just  as  well  as  not  have  spent  a  short  season  with  you  this 
fall  (for  they  have  nothing  else  to  do,  conparatively  speaking) 
rather  than  to  have  you  and  your  dear  husband  lose  so  much 
time  from  your  interesting  field  of  labour;  and  besides  we  fear 
the  influence  of  the  climate  of  the  lower  country  upon  your 
health.  Our  prayer  is  that  the  Lord  will  deal  gently  with  you 
and  bless  and  preserv'c  you  to  be  a  rich  and  lasting  good  to  the 
benighted  ones  for  whom  you  have  devoted  your  life. 

How  changed  the  scene  now  with  us  at  Wieletpoo  from  what 
it  has  been  in  former  days.  Instead  of  husband  and  myself 
stalking  about  here  like  two  solitary  beings,  we  have  the  society 
of  six  of  our  brethren  and  sisters  who  eat  at  our  table  and  expect 
to  spend  the  winter  with  us.  This  is  a  privilege  we  highly  praise, 
especially  when  we  come  to  mingle  our  voices  in  prayer  and  praise 
together  before  the  mercy  seat,  and  hear  the  word  of  God  preached 
in  our  own  language  from  Sabbath  to  Sabbath,  and  to  commune 
together  around  the  table  of  our  dear  Son  and  Saviour  Jesus 
Christ.  Those  favours,  dear  sister,  almost  make  us  forget  we  are 
on  heathen  ground.  Since  I  last  wrote  yuu  we  have  enjoyed  re- 
freshing seasons  from  the  hand  of  our  Heavenly  Father  in  the 
conviction  and  conversion  of  two  or  three  individuals  in  our 
family.  Doubtless  Brother  Lee  has  given  you  the  particulars,  yet 
I  wish  to  speak  of  it  for  our  encouragement  who  have  been  en- 
gaged in  the  concert  of  prayer  on  Tuesday  evening  for  the  year 
past.  I  verily  believe  we  have  not  prayed  in  vain,  for  our  revival 
seasons  have  been  on  that  evening,  and  I  seem  to  feel,  too,  that 
the  whole  atmosphere  in  all  Oregon  is  effected  by  that  meeting, 
for  the  wicked  know  far  and  near,  that  there  are  those  here  who 
pray.  We  have  every  reason  to  be  assured  that  were  there  more 
faith  and  prayer  and  consecration  to  the  work  among  ourselves, 
we  should  witness  in  the  heathen  around  us  many  turning  to 
the  Lord.  If  I  know  my  own  heart  I  think  I,  too,  desire  to  be 
freed  from  so  many  worldly  cares  and  perplexities,  and  that  my 
time  may  be  spent  in  seeking  the  immediate  conversion  of  these 
dear   heathen  to    God.     O,  what  a  thought  to  think  of   meeting 


them  among  the  blood-washed  throng  around  the  throne  of  God ! 
Will  not  their  songs  be  as  sweet  as  any  we  can  sing?  What  joy 
will  then  fill  our  souls  to  contemplate  the  privilege  we  now  enjoy 
of  spending  and  being  spent  for  their  good.  If  we  were  constantly 
to  keep  our  eyes  on  the  scenes  that  are  before  us,  we  should 
scarcely  grow  weary  in  well  doing,  or  be  disheartened  by  the  few 
trials  and  privations  through  which  we  are  called  to  pass. 

Dear  sister,  I  have  written  in  great  haste  and  hope  you  will 
excuse  me.  Wishing  and  expecting  to  hear  from  you  soon,  of 
your  prosperity  and  happiness,  with  much  love  and  sisterly 
affection  to  you  and  yours,  believe    me. 

Ever  yours  in  the  best  of  bonds, 

Narcissa  Whitman. 
Rev.  Mrs.  H.  K.  W.  Perkins, 


WiKi^KTPOO,  Feb.  i8th,  1839. 

My  Dear  Sister: — I  received  your  letter  last  week,  although 
written  in  Dec.  We  had  some  time  ago  the  pleasure  of  reading  of 
your  husband's  visit  to  the  Willamette,  in  an  acccount  which  he 
gives  the  particulars  relative  to  the  protracted  meeting  there.  Be 
assured  we  rejoiced  with  you  and  angels  in  heaven  at  such  a  glor- 
ious display  of  the  power  of  our  God,  and  stretch  out  our  hearts 
to  desire  a  like  blessing  upon  ourselves  and  our  heathen  neigh- 

I  am  much  interested  in  the  people  at  Vancouver,  and  am 
pleased  to  hear  of  the  ladies'  improvement,  and  earnestly  hope  the 
good  work  may  extend  to  that  place  also,  and  |that^your  deten- 
tion there  may  result  in  great  good  to  many  souls. 


The  Lord  will  take  care  of  those  Roman  priests  there.  It  is 
doubtless  for  some  wise  purpose  he  has  permitted  them  to  enter 
this  country.  May  we  be  wise  and  on  the  alert,  and  show  our- 
selves as  true,  faithful,  energetic  in  our  Master's  work  as  they  do, 
and  we  shall  have  no  cause  to  fear,  for  there  are  more  for  us  than 
against  us.  I  trust  it  has  had  some  influence  upon  us,  their  pres- 
•ence  in  this  country;  at  least  we  feel  it  our  duty  to  use  every 
possible  efl'ort  to  obtain  the  language  of  the  people,  and  not  hav- 
ing as  good  an  opportunity  amid  the  cares  of  our  family  as  we 
could  wish,  we,  husband,  self  and  little  Alice,  left  our  dwelling 
and  went  about  sixty-five  miles  to  a  camp  of  Indians,  in  January, 
and  was  gone  nearly  three  weeks,  and  received  much  benefit.  Pre- 
vious to  this,  husband  had  bepn  over  to  Brother  S.*s  to  attend  a  pro- 
tracted meeting,  held  at  the  same  time  with  yours  at  the  W.  And 
now  we  are  on  the  eve  of  another  departure.  We  expect  to-mor- 
row morn  to  start  on  a  visit  to  Brother  S.'s  to  attend  a  meeting  of 
the  mission,  and  also  another  protracted  meeting  with  the  Indians, 
when  it  is  expected  that  nearly  all  the  Nez  Perces  will  be  present. 
We  feel  deeply  anxious  for  our  people,  and  it  seems  sometimes  as 
if  the  blessing  was  almost  within  reach  for  them,  but  it  is  with- 
held, and  doubtless  because  the  Lord  sees  that  we  are  not  pre- 
pared to  receive  it.  O,  for  that  deep  humility,  strong  faith,  re- 
pentance and  union  of  soul  in  prayer  which  was  the  secret  of  suc- 
cess in  your  meeting,  and  which  characterizes  every  revival  of  re- 
ligion. But  I  must  be  excused  from  writing  more  at  this  time. 
SUall  want  to  hear  from  you  just  as  soon  as  you  shall  have  ar- 
rived home.  Should  judge  from  sister  Walker's  letter  from  you 
that  the  dear  little  babe,  Henry  Johnson,  had  got  considerable 
hold  of  its  mother's  aflfections  already.  Precious  trust,  that,  dear 
sister — an  immortal  mind  to  rear  for  Eternity.  The^  Lord  bless 
you  and  give  you  grace  and  wisdom  to  train  that  child  for  His 
glory,  both  in  this  world  and  hereafter,  and  make  you  feel  contin- 
ually that,  what  ever  you  do  for  him,  you  do  it  as  belonging  to 
the  Lord,  as  given  to  Him  and  only  a  lent  blessing  to  you,  to  train 
up  for  Him.    But  more  of  this  another  time. 


With  kind  regards  to  your  husband  and  Brother  Lee,  who  we 
hope  is  again  cheered  with  the  society  of  his  fellow  associates 
by  this  time,  and  a  kiss  for  the  little  one, 

I  am  your  affectionate  sister, 

N.  Whitman. 

P.  S. — Mrs.  W.  will  tell  you  her  story  herself  as  she  has  more 

time  than  1  at  present. 

N.  W. 

Rev.  Mrs.  Perkins, 


Care  of 

Lieut.  P.  C.  Pambrun, 

Fort  Walla  Walla. 

WiELETPOO,  March  23,  1839. 

My  Dear  Sister: — Yours  of  the 8th  inst.  I  received  the  evening 
of  my  return  to  this  place  from  Clearwater.  It  had  been  waiting 
me  but  a  day  or  two,  I  believe.  I  am  happy  to  hear  that  you  are 
once  more  so  near  us  again.  I  received  a  hint  from  Sister  White 
in  her  last  letter  that  yourself  and  husband  were  on  the  way,  or 
soon  would  be,  to  pay  us  a  visit.  I  fear  my  last  letter  informing 
you  of  my  absence  has  discouraged  your  coming.  Had  I  received 
the  least  intimation  that  it  were  possible  for  you  to  visit  us  while 
our  sisters  were  all  here,  I  would  have  been  at  home  without  faiL 
The  open  winter  and  spring  has  made  it  more  favourable  for 
them  to  leave  for  the  upper  station  much  earlier  than  was  ex- 
pected. Thej^  left  the  first  of  March  just  before  I  returned.  We 
met  them',  however,  on  the  Palouse,  after  they  had  been  out  five 
days.  All  was  well;  the  babe  was  enduring  the  journey  as  well  as 
could  be  expected.  I  hope  you  will  still  think  of  coming  this 
season.     We  shall  be  happy  to  see  you. 

I  visited  Mrs.  Pambrun  on  Monday  of  this  week — found  her 


in  much  better  health  than  I  once  feared  she  ever  would  be 
again.  She  certainly  talks  English  very  well.  I  found  myself 
able  to  obtain  all  the  information  concerning  Vancouver  I  could 
wish.  Maria  has  been  with  me  a  short  time,  and  for  her  sake  I 
would  have  been  happy  to  have  had  her  remain  longer;  but  she 
could  not  be  persuaded  to  stay  from  her  mother  any  longer.  We 
have  a  daughter  of  Mr.  McKay's  with  us  now — for  little  more 
than  a  year,  fehe  improves  very  much  and  promises  to  make  a 
valuable  person  if  she  can  be  kept  long  enough. 

You  wished  me  to  write  something  about  my  little  girl.  I  do 
not  know  what  to  tell  you  than  to  say  she  is  a  large,  healthy  and 
strong  child,  two  years  old  the  14th  of  this  month.  She  talks 
both  Nez  Perces  and  English  quite  fluently,  and  is  much  inclined 
to  read  her  book  with  the  children  of  the  family,  and  sings  all 
our  Nez  Perces  hymns  and  several  in  English.  Her  name  is  Alice 
Clarissa.  You  dreamed  of  seeing  her,  you  say.  I  hope  it  will  be 
a  reality  soon,  for  I  am  very  anxious  to  see  young  Henry  John- 
son, too.  I  am  glad  he  learns  to  bear  the  yoke  so  well,  not  in  his 
youth,  but  in  his  infancy.  Exposures  in  journeyings  in  this 
country  appear  to  be  a  benefit  rather  than  an  injury  to  our  chil- 
dren. I  have  taken  several  with  Alice,  and  they  have  generally 
been  in  the  winter.  When  she  was  nine  months  old  we  went  to 
Brother  Spalding's  to  attend  upon  our  sister  at  the  birth  of  their 
child.  It  was  in  November,  and  we  returned  in  December  by 
way  of  Snake  river,  in  a  canoe.  It  was  a  tedious  voyage,  but  we 
neither  of  us  received  any  injury. 

We  intend  to  be  very  free  from  worldly  cares  this  season,  and 
apply  ourselves  entirely  to  the  missionary  work  of  studying  the 
language  and  teaching.  After  our  successful  trial  of  last  winter's 
encamping  with  the  Indians  husband  feels  that  he  has  no  excuse 
for  not  taking  me  again  and  again,  and  I  can  make  no  objec- 
tion, notwithstanding  it  would  be  far  easier  for  me  to  stay  at 
home  with  my  child,  and  perhaps  better  for  her;  but.  the  roving 
habits  of  the  Indians  make  it  necessary  for  us  either  to  do  so,  or 
else  spend  the  greater  part  of  our  time  alone,  during  their  ab- 
f  rom  the  Station.     Husband  is  appointed  to  commence  an  out-sta- 


tion  on  the  Snake  river  at  the  mouth  of  the  Tukanon,  and  besides 
spending  some  time  there  during  the  fishing  season,  we  intend 
to  go  to  Grand  Round  with  the  Kayuses. 

Brother  and  Sister  Smith  will  probably  go  somewhere  in  the 
heart  of  the  Nez  Perce  country,  beyond  Brother  Spalding's,  in  or- 
der to  commence  translating  the  Scriptures  immediately.  We 
find  work  enough  to  do  for  all  hands,  and  our  daily  prayer  is 
that  God  will  pour  out  His  spirit  on  these  benighted  minds  and 
turn  their  darkness  into  light,  and  make  them  His. 

I  hope  you  will  continue  to  write  often  and  freely.  I  do  not 
see  how  you  get  along  and  learn  so  many  languages.  What  is 
the  particular  benefit?  We  hear  many  spoken,  but  we  intend  to 
learn  only  one,  and  make  that  the  general  one  for  the  country. 
We  are  all  enjoying  good  health.  Received  a  letter  from  Sister 
Spalding  saying  that  Sister  Gray  was  happily  the  mother  of  a 
little  son — had  a  remarkably  short  and  easy  sickness  and  is  doing 
well.    The  *babe  weighed  nine  pounds. 

Please  give  my  kind  regards  to  your  husband  and  Brother 
Lee.  Hope  he  finds  the  monotony  of  Wascopam  much  changed 
by  the  return  of  its  former  occupants,  particularly  when  tliere  is 
such  a  pleasing  addition. 

Rev.  Mrs.  Perkins, 


Yours  in  love, 

N.  Whitman. 

W1E1.KTP00,  Wali^a  WAI.1.A  River,  Oregon  Territory,  1 

May  17th,  1839.      J 

My  Dear  Jane: — This  is  a  late  hour  for  me  to  commence  my 
home  correspondence.  Yesterday  Mr.  Ermatinger,  who  com- 
mands the  expedition  instead  of  Mr.  McLeod  and  McKay,  left 
here,  after  spending  a  night  with  us,  for  the  mountains.  We  have 

*Capt.  J.  H.  D.  Gray,  of  Astoria. 


felt  much  uncertainty  about  letters  sent  this  way  reaching  you, 
this  year.  There  is  some  doubt  in  Mr.  E.'s  mind  about  his  being 
able  to  go  as  far  as  the  American  Rendevous;  if  he  does  not,  there 
probably  will  be  no  one  to  take  them  and  bear  them  on,  and  it 
must  be  a  known  hand,  too,  for  it  is  not  safe  to  trust  letters  to 
those  reckless  beings  who  inhabit  the  Rocky  Mountains.  Besides 
this  reason,  we  have  b-en  so  much  on  the  wing  since  the  first  day 
of  January,  that  it  has  not  been  easy  to  write.  If  you  have  re- 
ceived my  fall  letters,  they  will  show  you  where  and  how  we  were 
situated  for  the  winter.  In  December,  just  three  months  after 
the  arrival  of  the  re-enforcement,  Mrs.  Walker  gave  birth  to  a  fine 
son,  here  in  our  house.  Mr.  Smith  had  but  just  removed  into  the 
new  house  built  last  fall  and  winter  after  my  husband's  return 
from  Vancouver.  She  did  not  recover  without  three  relapses;  suf- 
fered much  from  sore  breasts  and  nipples,  and  what  to  me  would 
be  the  greatest  affliction,  no  nipples  at  all.  Her  poor  babe  had  to 
depend  upon  a  foreign  native  nurse  or  milk  from  the  cows. 

Mrs.  Gray  had  a  son  born  in  March,  the  twentieth — recovered 
in  a  short  time. 

I  said  to  you  that  we  had  been  on  the  wing.  January  the  first 
day,  husband  started  to  go  to  Brother  Spalding's  to  attend  a  pro- 
tracted meeting;  after  the  close,  and  on  his  return,  he  formed  a 
plan  of  going  and  living  with  the  Indians  for  the  benefit  of  having 
free  access  to  the  language  and  to  be  free  from  care  and  company. 
He  had  no  difficulty  to  persuade  me  to  accompany  him,  for  I  was 
nearly  exhausted,  both  in  body  and  mind,  in  the  labour  and  care 
of  our  numerous  family.  Accordingly  we  left  home  on  the  23rd 
of  January.  It  was  about  fifty  miles  from  our  place;  we  arrived 
on  the  third  day;  had  a  pleasant  journey  and  quite  warm  for  the 
season  of  the  year;  we  slept  in  a  tent  and  made  a  fire  before  the 
mouth  of  it.  We  had  not  been  there  but  two  or  three  days  before 
it  became  very  cold  and  snowed  some.  This  with  the  smoke 
made  Alice  cry  some,  and  we  were  obliged  to  put  up  a  lodge 
around  the  fire  at  the  mouth  of  the  tent  to  prevent  the  smoke 
from  troubling  us.     While  there  I  attempted  to  write  you  about 


us,  but  was  soon  obliged  to  give   it  up.     I  will  make  one  extract 
from  what  I  did  write  : 

"Sab.  at  Tukanon,  Jan.  27,  1839. — '^^^s  has  been  a  day  of  pe-: 
culiar  interest  here.  Could  you  have  been  an  eye  witness  of  the 
scenes  you  would,  as  I  do,  have  rejoiced  in  being  thus  privileged. 
The  morning  worship  at  daybreak  I  did  not  attend.  At  midday 
I  was  present.  Husband  talked  to  them  of  the  parable  of  the  rich 
man  and  Lazarus;  all  listened  with  eager  attention.  After 
prayer  and  singing,  an  opportunity  was  given  for  those  who  had 
heavy  hearts  under  a  sense  of  sin,  and  only  those,  to  speak  if  they 
wished  it.  For  a  few  moments  all  sat  in  silence;  soon  a  promi- 
nent and  intelligent  man  named  Timothy  broke  the  silence  with 
sobs  weeping.  He  arose,  spoke  of  his  great  wickedness,  and  how 
very  black  his  heart  was;  how  weak  and  insufficient  he  was  of 
himself  to  effect  his  own  salvation;  that  his  only  dependence 
was  in  the  blood  of  Christ  to  make  him  clean  and  save  his  spul 
from  sin  and  hell.  He  was  followed  by  a  brother,  who  spoke 
much  to  the  same  effect.  Next  came  the  wives  of  the  first  and  of 
the  second,  who  seemed  to  manifest  deep  feelings.  Several  others 
followed;  one  in  particular,  while  confessing  her  sins,  her  tears 
fell  to  the  ground  so  copiously  that  I  was  reminded  of  the  weep- 
ing "  Mary  who  washed  her  Saviour's  feet  with  her  tears."  All 
manifested  much  deep  feeling;  some  in  loud  sobs  and  tears;  oth- 
ers in  anxious  and  solemn  countenance.  You  can  better  imagine 
my  feelings  than  I  can  describe  them  on  witnessing  such  a  scene 
in  heathen  lands.  They  had  but  recently  come  from  the  meeting 
at  Brother  Spalding's.  We  know  not  their  hearts  or  motives  of 
action,  but  our  sincere  prayer  is  that  they  all  may  be  gathered  to 
His  fold  as  the  children  of  His  flock. 

"O,  my  dear  Jane,  could  you  see  us  here  this  beautiful  eve, 
the  full  moon  shining  in  all  her  splendor,  clear,  yet  freezing  cold, 
my  little  one  sleeping  by  my  side,  husband  at  worship  with  the 
people  within  hearing,  and  I  sitting  in  the  "door  of  the  tent" 
writing,  with  my  usual  clothing  except  a  shawl,  and  handker- 
chief on  my  head,  and  before  me  a  large  comfortable  fire  in  the 
open  air.     Do  you  think   we  suffer?     No,  dear  Jane;  I  have  not 


realized  so  much  enjoyment  for  a  long  time  as  I  have  since  I 
have  been  here.  I  know  mo  lier  will  say  it  is  presumption  for 
them  to  expose  themselves  and  that  child  to  the  inclemencies  of 
such  a  season.  We  are  all  much  better  prepared  to  endure  and 
secured  from  the  cold  than  any  we  see  about  us,  and  ought  not 
to  say  we  suflfer;  and  besides,  Alice's  health  has  improved  since 
she  left  the  house.  But  the  advantages  we  expect  to  derive  from 
associations  with  and  benetiting  them  will  more  than  compen- 
sate us  for  the  little  inconvenience  we  now  experience.  The 
meeting  is  closed  and  I  write  no  more." 

I  was  not  able  to  write  more  after  this.  We  stayed  into  the 
third  week  and  were  necessarily  called  home  sopner  than  was  ex- 
pected. We  had  been  home  but  just  a  week  when  husband  was 
called  to  attend  the  meeting  of  our  mission.  I  was  permitted  to 
accompany  him.  We  started  on  Tuesday  noon  in  a  rainstorm, 
and  reached  there  on  Friday  a  little  after  noon,  making  no  miles 
in  three  days  on  horseback,  Alice  riding  with  her  father.  This 
was  in  Feb.  In  March  we  returned,  but  not  in  the  same  way. 
Here  I  think  I  must  stop,  for  if  I  should  go  into  particulars  it 
would  take  more  time  than  I  can  command  at  present. 

Mr.  Hall  and  wife  have  arrived  from  the  Sandwich  Islands. 
They  have  come  for  the  benefit  of  Mrs.  H.'s  health;  brought  a 
printing  press,  which  is  stationed  at  Mr.  S.'s,  and  next  week  hus- 
band expects  to  go  there  to  make  arrangements  for  the  benefit  of 
Mrs.  H.'s  health.  She  is  affected  with  a  spinal  irritation  and  ap- 
pears just  like  L.  Linsley;  sits  up  but  very  little;  was  carried 
there  in  a  boat  up  the  Snake  river.  He  thinks  he  can  cure  her. 
He  has  had  several  cases  since  he  has  been  here,  all  with  good 
success.  Others  write  us  if  Mrs.  Hall  is  benefited,  they  will  prob- 
ably come.  We  feel  closely  united  to  that  mission.  Our  number 
of  correspondents  increase.  Mrs.  Judd  and  Mrs.  Whitney  write  to 

The  Indians  we  encamped  with  were  Nez  Perces.  The  most 
of  them  were  not  so  hardened  in  sin;  or,  rather,  they  were  not  so 
proud  a  people  as  our  people,  the  Wieletpoos,  are;  the  most  of  ours 
have  been  absent  during  the  winter,  and  returned  just  the  time 


we  returned  from  Tukanon.  Husband  spent  more  than  usual 
time  in  worship  and  instructing  them,  and  Instead  of  yielding  to 
the  truth  they  oppose  it  vigourously,  and  to  this  day  some  of 
them  continue  to  manifest  bitter  opposition. 

You  know  not  how  much  we  are  expecting  Brother  and  Sister 
Judson,  and  if  we  do  not  see  him  in  July  by  the  ship,  I  shall  feel 
that  he  is  coming  across  the  mountains  with  Brother  Lee.  We 
need  help  very  much,  and  those  who  will  pray,  too.  In  this  we 
have  been  disappointed  in  our  helpers  last  come,  particularly  the 
two  Revs,  who  have  gone  to  the  Flatheads.  They  think  it  not 
good  to  have  too  many  meetings,  too  many  prayers,and  that  it  is 
wrong  and  unseemly  for  a  woman  to  pray  where  there  are  men, 
and  plead  the  necessity  for  wine,  tobacco,  etc.;  and  now  how  do 
you  think  I  have  lived  with  such  folks  right  in  my  kitchen  for 
the  whole  winter?  If  you  can  imagine  my  feelings  you  will  do 
more  than  I  can  describe.  To  have  such  dampers  thrown  upon  us 
when  we  were  enjoying  such  a  precious  revival  season  as  we  were 
when  they  came,  is  more  than  I  know  how  to  live  under.  This,  with 
so  much  care. and  perplexity,  nearly  cost  me  a  fit  of  sickness;  and 
I  do  not  know  but  it  would  have  taken  my  life  had  it  not  been 
for  the  journey  I  was  permitted  to  take  the  last  of  the  winter. 
What  I  write  here  had  better  be  kept  to  yourselves  lest  it  should 
do  injury. 

We  have  just  this  moment  received  the  news  that  the  ship 
from  England  had  arrived,  but  has  brought  no  letters  for  us  from 
our  dear  friends,  because  the  ships  had  not  arrived  from  the  States 
to  the  Islands  when  she  passed.  We  know  not  when  we  shall 
hear  from  home.  I  do  not  know  where  to  send  this  because  you 
say  you  visit  Onondaga  next  summer.  O,  how  I  long  to  hear 
about  them  there.  O,  that  you  would  all  write  me,  and  each  take 
a  different  subject,  so  as  to  tell  me  all  the  news  you  can. 

With  much  love  from  husband,  Alice  and  myself  to  you  all 
and  all  with  whom  you  are  concerned,  adieu. 

Your  sister,  in  haste, 

Narcissa  Whitman. 


P.  S. — A.  C.  talks  much,  sings  much,  loves  to  read  her  book,  and 
every  morning  at  worship  repeats  her  verse  as  regularly  as  morning 
comes;  and  appears  to  take  a  part  in  the  worship,  especially  in 
the  singing,  as  if  she  was  as  old  as  her  mother;  and  often  is  very 
much  disappointed  if  we  do  not  give  the  tunes  she  is  acquainted 
with;  and  she  and  her  mother  often  talk  about  her  relatives  in 
the  States.  I  might  write  half  a  sheet  about  our  dear  daughter, 
but  have  not  time.  Mr.  Hall  says  much  to  us  about  the  evils  of 
allowing  her  to  learn  the  native  language,  as  well  as  our  corres- 
pondents there.  I  can  assure  you  we  feel  deeply  for  her.  We 
know  not  what  is  our  duty  concerning  her.  In  order  to  prevent 
it  it  appears  that  I  must  take  much  of  my  time  from  intercourse 
with  the  natives.  I  cast  myself  upon  the  Lord.  I  know  He  will 
direct  in  every  emergency,  and  so  farewell.  Pray  for  us  and  the 
heathen.  We  hope  and  pray  for  a  revival  of  religion.  If  our  own 
hearts  were  united  and  right  we  should  see  it  soon,  and  a  general 
one,  too.  M.  W. 

N.  W. 

A.  C.  W. 
Miss  Jane  A.  Prentiss, 



WiEi<ETPOO,  June  25th,  1839. 

My  Dear  Sister: — Your  letter  of  April  inst.  I  received  but  a 
few  days  ago,  or  it  would  have  been  answered  much  sooner.  You 
make  some  important  inquiries  concerning  my  treatment  of  my 
precious  child,  Alice  Clarissa,  now  laying  by  me  a  lifeless  lump  of 
clay.  Yes,  of  her  I  loved  and  watched  so  tenderly,  I  am  bereaved. 
My  Jesus  in  love  to  her  and  us  has  taken  her  to  himself. 

Last  Sabbath,  blooming  in  health,  cheerful  and  happy  in 
herself  and  in  the  society  of  her  much  loved  parents,  yet  in  one 
moment  she  disappeared,  went  to  the  river  with  two  cups  to  get 
some  water  for  the  table,  fell  in  and  was  drowned.  Mysterious 
event!  we  can  in  no  way  account  for  the  circumstances  connected 


with  it,  otherwise  than  that  the  Lord  meant  it  should  be  so. 
Husband  and  I  were  both  engaged  in  reading.  She  had  just  a 
few  minutes  before  been  reading  to  her  father;  had  got  down  out 
of  his  lap,  and  as  my  impression,  was  amusing  herself  by  the  door 
in  the  yard.  After  a  few  moments,  not  hearing  her  voice,  I  sent 
Margaret  to  search  for  her.  She  did  not  find  her  readily,  and  in- 
stead of  coming  to  me  to  tell  that  she  had  not  found  her,  she 
went  to  the  garden  to  get  some  radishes  for  supper;  on  seeing  her 
pass  to  the  water  to  wash  them,  I  looked  to  see  if  Alice  was  with 
her,  but  saw  that  she  was  not.  That  moment  I  began  to  be 
alarmed,  for  Mungo  had  just  been  in  and  said  there  were  two  cups 
in  the  river.  We  immediately  inquired  for  her,  but  no  one  had 
seen  her.  We  then  concluded  she  must  be  in  the  river.  We 
searched  down  the  river,  and  up  and  down  again  in  wild  dismay, 
but  could  not  find  her  for  a  long  time.  Several  were  in  the  river 
searching  far  down.  By  this  time  we  gave  her  up  for  dead.  At 
last  an  old  Indian  got  into  the  river  where  she  fell  in  and  looked 
along  by  the  shore  and  found  her  a  short  distance  below.  But  it 
was  too  late;  she  was  dead.  We  made  every  effort  possible  to 
bring  her  to  life,  but  all  was  in  vain.  On  hearing  that  the  cups 
were  in  the  river,  I  resolved  in  my  mind  how  th6y  could  get 
there,  for  we  had  not  missed  them.  By  the  time  I  reached  the 
water-side  and  saw  where  they  were,  it  came  to  my  recollection 
that  I  had  a  glimpse  of  her  entering  the  house  and  saying,  with 
her  usual  glee,  **ha,  ha,  supper  is  most  ready"  (for  the  table  had 
just  been  set),  "let  Alice  get  some  water,"  at  the  same  time  taking 
two  cups  from  the  table  and  disappearing.  Being  absorbed  in 
reading  I  did  not  see  her  or  think  anything  about  her — which 
way  she  went  to  get  her  water.  I  had  never  known  her  to  go  to 
the  river  or  to  appear  at  all  venturesome  until  within  a  week  past. 
Previous  to  this  she  has  been  much  afraid  to  go  near  the  water 
anywhere,  for  her  father  had  once  put  her  in,  which  so  eflfectually 
frightened  her  that  we  had  lost  that  feeling  of  anxiety  for  her  in 
a  measure  on  its  account.  But  she  had  gone;  yes,  and  because  my 
Saviour  would  have  it  so.  He  saw  it  necessary  to  afflict  us,  and 
has  taken  her  away.  Now  we  see  how  much  we  loved  her,  and 
you  know  the  blessed  Saviour  will    not  have  His  children   bestow 


an  undue  attachment  upon  creature  objects  without  reminding 
us  of  His  own  superior  claim  upon  our  affections.  Take  warning, 
dear  sister,  by  our  bereavement  that  you  do  not  let  your  dear  babe 
get  between  your  heart  and  the  Saviour,  for  you  like  us,  are  sol- 
itary' and  alone  and  in  almost  the  dangerous  necessity  of  loving 
too  ardently  the  precious  gift,  to  the  neglect  of  the  giver. 

Saturday  evening,  29 — After  ceasing  effort  to  restore  our  dear 
babe  to  life,  we  immediately  sent  for  Brother  Spalding  and  others 
to  come  to  sympathize  and  assist  in  committing  to  the  grave  her 
earthly  remains.  Tuesday  afternoon  Mr.  Hall  reached  here.  Mr. 
S.  and  wife  took  a  boat  and  came  down  the  river  to  Walla  Walla, 
and  reached  here  Thursday  morning,  nine  o'clock,  and  we  buried 
her  that  afternoon,  just  four  days  from  the  time  her  happy 
spirit  took  its  flight  to  the  bosom  of  her  Saviour.  When  I  write 
again,  I  will  give  you  some  particulars  of  her  short  life,  which 
are  deeply  interesting  to  me,  and  will  be  to  you,  I  trust,  for  you, 
too,  are  acquainted  with  a  mother's  feelings  and  a  mother's  heart. 

Probably  we  may  return  to  Clearwater  with  Brother  and 
Sister  S.,  as  it  is  necessary  for  my  husband  to  go  on  busine&<«  for 

the  mission.  Dear  sister,  do  pray  for  me  in  this  trying  bereave- 
ment, for  supporting  grace  to  bear  without  murmuring  thought, 
the  dealings  of  the  blessed  God  toward  us,  and  that  it  may  be 
sanctified  to  the  good  of  our  souls  and  of  these  heathen  around 

O!  on  what  a  tender  thread  bangs  these  mortal  frames,  and 
how  soon  we  vanish  and  are  gone.  She  will  not  come  to  me,  but 
I  shall  soon  go  to  her.  Let  me  speak  to  you  of  the  great  mercy 
of  my  Redeemer  toward  one  so  unworthy.  You  know  not,  neither 
can  I  tell  you,  how  much  He  comforts  and  sustains  me  in  this 
trying  moment.  He  enables  me  to  say,  "The  Lord  gave  and  the 
Lord  hath  taken  away,  blessed,  ever  blessed,  be  the  name  of  the 

Sister  Spalding  sends  love  to  you  and  will  write  you  soon. 

In  haste,  as  ever  your  affectionate,  but  now  afflicted  sister  in 
Christ,  N.  Whitman. 

Rev.  Mrs.  H.  K.  W.  Perkins, 



WlEi^ETPOO,  July  26th,  1839. 

Very  Dear  Sister: — You  know  not  how  like  an  angel's  visit 
your  dear  husband's  presence  has  been  to  me,  now  in  my  truly 
lonely  situation,  for  my  dear  husband  has  been  absent  for  a  week. 
This  added  to  the  death  of  my  precious  Alice  has  almost  over- 
come me.  He  proposes  to  leave  early  in  the  morning;  I  would 
gladly  detain  him  if  I  could  till  my  husband's  return.  I  thought 
I  must  write  a  few  lines  to  endeavor  to  persuade  you  to  under- 
take a  visit  to  us  when  he  comes  to  go  to  the  general  meeting.  I 
think  I  have  removed  all  his  objections  and  made  it  appear  easy 
for  him  to  carry  your  dear  babe.  Now  if  you  knew  how  easy  we 
get  along  in  traveling  with  children,  you  would  not  hesitate  for 
a  moment.  I  need  not  say  that  I  want  to  see  you  very  much  and 
shall  expect  you  will  come,  and  we  will  go  together  to  brother 
Spalding's.  Do  come;  it  will  do  you  good;  it  will  do  us  all  good 
to  meet  together  and  mingle  our  prayers  and  tears  before  the 
throne  of  grace. 

I  have  been  talking  to  your  husband  much  about  Alice. 
When  I  see  you  I  can  tell  you  all.  I  am  not  able  to  say  any- 
thing about  her  now  for  want  of  time.  It  would  do  me  much 
good  to  see  little  Henry,  and  I  shall  feel  that  you  will  come  and 
will  have  no  occasion  to  regret  or  feel  that  you  have  lost  time  by 
it.  We  shall  expect  to  have  a  meeting  of  our  National  Associa- 
tion, which  we  anticipate  will  be  interesting  to  us  all,  especially 

You  will  excuse  this  hasty  note,  I  trust.  I  will  write  more 
next  time,  if  you   do  not  come. 

Believe  me  ever  your  affectionate  sister  in  the  Lord. 

N.  Whitman. 

P.  S. — I  ought  to  have  said  before  this  that  your  kind  and 
sympathizing  letter  was  a  cordial  to  my  afflicted  heart.  Remem- 
ber me  to  Brother  Lee  and  kiss  the  babe  for  me. 

N.  W. 
Rev.  Mrs.  H.  K.  W.  Perkins, 



Waiilatpu,  Jan.  ist,  1840. 

My  Dear  SisUr  Perkins: — I  have  been  trying  to  imagine  a  rea- 
son for  so  long  silence,  for  I  have  received  no  letters  from  you 
since  writing  my  two  last.  Hope  you  have  not  been  sick.  You 
have  had  much  company,  I  know,  as  well  as  we  here.  We  hear 
from  you,  notwithstanding,  and  our  hearts  greatly  rejoice  to  learn 
of  the  success  of  your  labours  there.  Brother  Hall  has  favoured  us 
with  the  perusal  of  your  husband's  letters.  O,  that  we  could  be 
with  you  in  the  gracious  visitations.  My  soul  longs,  yea,  thirsts, 
for  seasons  like  many  I  have  been  witness  and  partaker  of,  in  my 
native  land.  I  am  lired  of  living  at  this  poor  dying  rate.  To  be 
a  missionary  in  name  and  to  do  so  little  or  nothing  for  the  bene- 
fit of  heathen  souls,  is  heart-sickening.  I  sometimes  almost  wish  to 
give  my  place  to  others  who  can  do  more  for  their  good.  With  us 
we  need  more  prayer  and  holy  living.  But  with  our  hearts  divid- 
ed between  our  appropriate  missionary  work  and  getting  a  living, 
how  can  we  expect  it  otherwise? — yet  this  is  no  excuse.  We  think 
of  you  often,  and  daily  are  you  remembered  at  the  Throne  of  Grace. 
We  rejoice  that  our  Indians  attend  your  meetings.  O,  that  their 
hardened  hearts  might  be  touched  by  the  power  of  Divine  Truth, 
and  they  be  made  to  taste  the  dying  and  redeeming  love.  Avery 
few  are  with  us  for  the  winter  and  I  have  a  school  of  about  twen- 
ty. Their  being  absent  so  much  of  the  time  is  exceedingly  try- 
ing to  us.  Do  write  me  and  let  me  learn  how  you  enjoy  the  prec- 
ious seasons  your  husband  writes  of. 

How  does  young  Henry  do?  Sweet  babe,  I  should  like  dearly 
to  see  him  and  his  mother,  also.     Sister  Spalding  has  a  son. 

Kind  regards  to  your  husband  and  believe  me  as  ever, 

Your  affectionate  sister,  in  bonds  of  Christian  love, 

N.  Whitman. 


Waiii^atpu,  W.  W.  River,  Oregon  Territory,! 

Oct.  loth,  1840.      i 

My  Dear  Father: — It  does  us  a  great  deal  of  good  to  receive 
letters  from  our  dear  parents,  although  it  is  no  oftener  than  once 
in  two  years.  I  am  sorry  my  letters  are  so  long  in  reaching  home, 
and  can  see  no  good  reason  for  it, especially  after  they  get  into 
the  States.  I  write  twice  a  year  regularly  many  letters,  but  do  not 
receive  answers  to  all  I  write.  I  am  happy  to  hear  that  father 
and  mother  have  found  a  permanent  resting  place  and  did  not  re- 
move to  the  west.  It  is  a  pleasure  to  me  to  think  of  them  as  sta- 
tionary and  not  moving  about.  It  does  us  good  to  know  all  the 
particulars  about  those  we  love,  and  we  may  rest  assured  that  the 
Lord  will  take  care  of  them,  and  not  leave  them  to  suffer  when 
old  age  is  upon  them.  We  have  recently  heard  much  about  home 
and  friends  from  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Littlejohn,  who  are  now  with  us. 
She  was  the  Miss  Sadler  that  lived  at  Brother  Hall's,  when  I  left. 
It  makes  me  teel  quite  acquainted  with  home  scenes  once  more. 
It  is  good  to  associate  with  warm-hearted  revival  Christians  on?e 
more.  We  have  none  in  our  mission  of  as  high-toned  piety  as  we 
could  wish,  especially  among  those  who  came  in  our  last  re-en- 
forcements. They  think  it  is  wrong  for  females  to  pray  in  the  pres- 
ence of  men,  and  do  not  allow  it  even  in  our  small  circles  here. 
This  has  been  a  great  trial  to  me,  and  I  have  almost  sunk  under 
it.  Mr.  Clark  and  company  have  been  with  us  now  for  nearly 
two  months  past,  and  we  have  had  many  precious  seasons  of 
prayer  and  social  worship  together,  which  seems  like  revival  sea- 
sons at  home  that  I  used  to  enjoy. 

We  wish  they  had  come  out  under  the  Board,  both  for  our 
sakes,  theirs  and  the  mission  cause.  We  fear  they  will  suffer.  At 
any  rate,  they  cannot  do  any  thing  at  present,  and  for  a  good 
while  to  come,  of  missionary  work,  but  take  care  of  themselves. 
We  hope  no  more  will  come  in  this  way.  Those  who  came  last 
year  got  themselves  into  difficulty  when  they  first  started;  it  in- 
creased all  the  way,  and  they  still  are  not  reconciled  and  we  fear 
never  will  be.  They  are  living  upon  us;  have  done  nothing  yet 
but  explore  a  little,  and   appear   to   know   not    what   to  do,  but 


rather  die  than  to  give  up  their  plans  and  say  to  the  Christian 
"world,  it  is  wrong  to  go  out  in  opposition  to  the  Board. 

Mr.  Munger  we  have  employed  to  finish  our  house.  Men  of 
g^reat  funds  might  go  into  the  field  and  do  good,  but  poor  Chris- 
tians cannot,  even  if  they  depend  upon  irresponsible  churches. 
What  the  Lord  will  do  with  them  we  know  not.  Mrs.  Griffin's 
health  was  poor  when  she  came,  and  since  she  has  been  with  us 
this  summer  she  has  been  quite  laid  by  with  spinal  complaint. 

But  enough  of  this.  Our  trials  dear  father  knows  but  little 
about.  The  missionaries'  greatest  trials  are  but  little  known  to 
the  churches.  I  have  nsver  ventured  to  write  about  them  for 
fear*  it  might  do  hurt.  The  man  who  came  with  us  is  one  who 
never  ought  to  have  come.  My  dear  husband  has  suffered  more 
from  him  in  consequence  of  his  wicked  jealousy,  and  his  great 
pique  towards  me,  than  can  be  known  in  this  world.  But  he  suf- 
fers not  alone — ^the  whole  mission  suffers,  which  is  most  to  be  de- 
plored. It  has  nearly  broken  up  the  mission.  This  pretended 
settlement  with  father,  before  we  started,  was  only  an  excuse,  and 
from  all  we  have  seen  and  heard,  both  during-  the  journey  and 
since  we  have  been  here,  the  same  bitter  feeling  exists.  His  prin- 
cipal aim  has  been  at  me;  as  he  has  said,  ** Bring  out  her  charac- 
ter," "Expose  her  character;"  as  though  I  was  the  vilest  creature 
on  earth.  It  is  well  known  I  never  did  anything  before  I  left 
home  to  injure  him,  and  I  have  done  nothing  since,  and  my  hus- 
band is  as  cautious  in  speaking  and  thinking  evil  of  him  or  treat- 
ing him  unkindly,  as  my  own  dear  father  would  be,  yet  he  does 
not,  nor  has  he,  received  the  same  kindness  from  him  since  we 
have  been  missionaries  together. 

Every  mind  in  the  mission  that  he  has  had  access  to,  he  has 
tried  to  prejudice  against  us,  and  did  succeed  for  a  while,  which 
was  the  cause  of  our  being  voted  to  remove  and  form  a  new  station. 
This  was  too  much  for  my  husband's  feelings  to  bear,  and  so  many 
arrayed  against  him  and  for  no  good  reason.  He  felt  as  if  he 
must  leave  the  mission,  and  no  doubt  would  have  done  it,  had 
not  the  Lord  removed  from  us  our  beloved  child.  This  affliction 
softened  his  feelings  and  made  him  willing  to  suffer  the  will  of 


the  Lord,  although  we  felt  that  we  were  suffering  wrongfully. 
The  death  of  our  babe  had  a  great  affect  upon  all  in  the  mission; 
it  softened  their  hearts  towards  us,  even  Mr.  S.*s  for  a  season.  I 
never  have  had  any  difficulty  with  his  wife;  she  has  treated  me 
very  kindly  to  my  face,  but  recently  I  have  learned  that  she  has 
always  partook  of  the  feelings  of  her  husband.  I  have  always 
loved  her  and  felt  as  if  no  one  could  speak  against  her.  The  Lord 
in  His  providence  has  brought  things  around  in  such  a  way,  that 
all  see  and  feel  where  the  evil  lies,  and  some  of  them  are  writing 
to  the  Board  and  proposing  measures  to  have  an  overture  and  set- 
tlement made,  and  it  may  require  his  removal  or  return  to  effect 
it;  not  so  much  for  his  treatment  toward  us  as  some  others  also. 
A  particular  charge  brought  against  him  is  duplicity.  It  is  pain- 
ful for  me  to  write  thus  concerning  us  here;  and  this  is  but  a 
small  item  of  what  might  be  said.  I  have  long  had  a  desire 
to^  have  some  few  judicious  friends  know  our  trials,  so  that 
they  may  understand  better  how  to  pray  for  us.  If  this  mission 
fails,  it  will  be  because  peace  and  harmony  does  not  dwell  among 
its  members.  Our  ardent  desire  and  prayer  is  that  it  may  not 
fail.  It  is  this-  state  of  things  among  us  that  discourages  us. 
When  we  look  at  the  people  and  the  provideuce  of  God,  we  are 
more  and  more  encouraged  every  year. 

Sincethe  return  of  the  Indians  this  fall,  it  has  seemed  as  if 
we  were  on  the  eve  of  a  revival.  Many  of  the  principal  Indians  are 
deeply  affected  by  the  truth;  some  manifest  it  by  bitter  opposi- 
tion, which  does  not  discourage  us,  although  our  faith  is  greatly 

19th — Dear  Father:—!  have  been  interrupted  in  writing  this 
letter  on  account  of  ill  health.  It  affects  me  unfavorably  to  write 
much;  indeed,  I  am  pretty  much  confined  to  my  room,  which  is  a 
very  comfortable  place,  the  most  so  of  any  I  have  found  since  I  have 
been  here.  Since  writing  the  above  on  the  morning  of  the  i6th, 
a  message  arrived  and  took  my  husband  away  as  in  a  moment. 
It  was  from  our  Brother  Smith,  about  a  hundred  and  eighty  miles 
from  here.  He  wrote  that  the  Indians  were  asking  him  to  give 
them  property  and  food,  and  wishing  him  to  pay  for  the  land  he  oc- 


cupied.  He  told  them  he  could  not  say  anything  about  it;  they  be- 
came very  angry  and  told  him  to  move  off  to-morrow;  he  said  he 
could  not,  but  they  still  insisted  upon  it  with  great  insolence,  until 
he  was  obliged  to  tell  them  he  would  go.  Sister  Smith  writes  me 
that  they  are  afraid  for  their  lives  and  ihey  ask  for  help  immediately 
to  come  and  remove  them.  Husband  has  gone  and  expects  to  be 
obliged  to  bring  them  away  here.  What  the  result  will  be  the  Lord 
only  knows.  The  two  principal  instigators  are  brothers  to  the 
Indian  who  went  to  the  United  States  for  some  one  to  come  and 
teach  them,  that  we  read  about  as  the  first  news  west  of  the  Rocky 
mountains.  How  transient  is  the  missionaries'  home.  I  believe 
we  most  of  us  feel  that  "wc  have  no  abiding  city  here." 

I  seldom  write  home  without  speaking  of  one  or  both  of  us 
being  absent  or  about  to  be.  We  journey  a  great  tleal  and  that, 
with  other  causes,  has  nearly  worn  me  out,  and  my  husband,  too. 
I  cannot  say  all  I  should  like  for  want  of  time  and  strength. 
P|irt  of  the  contents  of  this  sheet,  ought  not  to  be  circulated;  it 
may  do  hurt.  I  do  not  wish  it  made  public,  for  any  one  to  make 
an  ill  use  of  it. 

I  am  almost  discouraged  about  Marcus  ever  finding  time  to 
write  many  letters  to  our  friends  at  home;  he  has  written  none  for 
a  year  past;  he  would  if  he  could;  he  is  away  now  and  I  do  not 
know  when  he  will  return. 

I  began  to  write  about  the  state  of  the  people.  Of  late  my 
heart  yearns  over  them  more  than  usual.  They  feel  so  bad,  dis- 
appointed, and  some  of  them  angry  because  husband  tells  them 
that  none  of  them  are  Christians;  that  they  are  all  of  them  in 
the  broad  road  to  destruction,  and  that  worshipping  will  not  save 
them.  They  try  to  persuade  him  not  to  talk  such  bad  talk  to 
them,  as  they  say,  but  talk  good  talk,  or  tell  some  story,  or  his- 
tory, so  that  they  may  have  some  Scripture  names  to  learn.  Some 
threaten  to  whip  him  and  to  destroy  our  crops,  and  for  a  long 
time  their  cattle  were  turned  into  our  potato  field  every  night  to 


see  if  they  could  not  compel  him  to  change  his  course  of  instruc- 
tion with  them. 

These  things  did  not  intimidate  us;  it  only  drove  us  to  a 
throne  of  grace  with  greater  earnestness  to  plead  for  blessings  to 
descend  upon  them.  Our  hearts  only  pant  for  time  to  have  our 
whole  minds  given  up  to  instructing  them  without  being  distract- 
ed with  so  many  cares  w^hich  are  necessarily  upon  us,  not  for  our- 
selves so  much  as  for  others.  It  has  and  still  seems  as  if  a  rich 
blessing  was  near  at  hand  for  us  and  them,  and  sometimes  I  al- 
most seem  to  grasp  it.  Why  does  the  blessing  stay  ?  Is  it  be^ 
cause  there  is  so  few  hands  to  labour  and  there  is  much  rubbish 
to  be  cleared  away?  Or  is  it  because  of  our  unbelief  and  impiety 
of  heart?  Doubtless,  both.  O,  for  more  deep  and  ardent  piety  in 
every  heart;  .but  particularly  in  my  own  and  husband's.  Will 
dear  father  pray  that  missionaries  may  be  more  holy  and  heaven- 
ly-minded, and  less  selfish.  Could  the  churches  at  home  be  set 
down  in  heathen  lands  and  see  and  know  their  missionaries  as 
they  know  themselves,  O  how  they  would  pray  for  them  and  feel 
and  sympathize  with  them. 

When  will  Christians  cease  to  feel  that  their  missionaries 
are  such  good  people  that  they  do  not  need  to  feel  and  pray  for 
them  as  they  pray  for  one  another. 

Dear  Sister  Jane  writes  that  the  Lord  will  do  wonders  for  the 
heathen  world  this  year,  and  we  expect  it,  too,  and  may  our 
hopes  be  realized. 

I  wish  it  did  not  hurt  me  so  to  write.  I  am  very  weak  and 
feeble,  and  much  thinking  or  excitement  overcomes  me.  I  should 
have  got  well  long  ago,  I  think,  if  it  were  possible  for  me  to  be 
quiet,  with  so  many  people  about  me  and  so  much  transpiring;. 
Rest  is  not  for  us  in  this  world.  Dear  mother  says  it  seems  as 
if  she  might  see  us  again  in  this  world.  I  do  not  know  as  I  have 
such  a  thought;  although  it  may  not  be  impossible.  I  have 
long  felt  it  more  probable  that  we  should  never  meet,  and 
have  thought  more  of  meeting  my  friends  in  heaven  than  in 
this  world,  unless  the  Providence  of   God  should  make   it  neces- 


sary  for  us  to  leave  the  field.  Our  united  choice  would  be  to  live 
and  die  here — to  spend  our  lives  for  the  salvation  of  this  people. 
Yes,  dear  parents,  we  hav%  ever  been  contented  and  happy,  not- 
withstanding all  our  trials,  and  let  come  what  will,  we  had 
rather  die  in  the  battle  than  to  retreat,  if  the  Lord  will  only  ap- 
pear for  us  and  remove  all  that  is  in  the  way  of  His  salvation; 
take  up  every  stumbling  block  out  of  our  hearts  and  from  this 
mission,  and  prosper  His  own  cause  here.  Our  ardent  prayer  is^ 
Lord  let  not  this  mission  fail;  for  our  Board  says  it  is  the  last 
effort  they  shall  make  for  the  poor  Indians: — and  may  the  dear 
Christians  at  home  feel  to  urge  up  their  requests  to  God  in  our 
behalf.    This  is  what  we  need  more  than  anything  else. 

Once  more,  dear  father,  farewell.  The  Lord  deal  gently  with 
my  beloved  parents  in  the  decline  of  life;  support  them  in  death, 
and  safely  house  them  and  us  in  His  presence  forever. 

As  ever,  I  remain,  your  affectionate  daughter, 

Narcissa  Whitman. 
Hon.  Stephen  Prentiss, 


Allegheny  County 

New  York,  U.  S.  A. 

Waiii^atpu,  W.  W.  River,  Oregon  Territory,  \ 

Oct.  9th,  1840.     j 

My  Dear  Mother: — I  cannot  express  the  satisfaction  we  en- 
joyed in  receiving,  beholding  and  perusing  dear  mother's  own 
letter;  her  own  words  and  thoughts,  written  with  her  own  hand. 
It  arrived  the  first  of  June.  An  Indian  brought  it  with  other 
letters  from  Walla  Walla  after  dark.  We  were  in  bed  and  had 
just  got  to  sleep  when  he  announced  that  letters  had  come.  We 
could  not  wait  until  morning,  but  lighted  a  candle  and  read 
them.    I  received  no  other  communications  except  what  was  con- 


tained  in  that  sheet  from  father,  mother  and  Harriet,  from  the 
States;  but  some  from  the  Islands.  It  was  enough  to  transport 
me  in  imagination  to  that  dear  circle  I  ioved  so  well,  and  to  pre- 
vent sleep  from  returning  that  night.  I  have  long  looked  and 
longed  for  something  that  would  seem  like  conversing  with  dear 
mother  once  more,  and  now  it  has  arrived;  I  know  not  how  to  ex- 
press my  gratitude  to  her  for  it.  O,  could  my  dear  parents  know 
how  much  comfort  it  would  be  to  their  solitary  children  here, 
they  would  each  of  them  fill  out  a  sheet  as  often  as  once  a  month 
and  send  it  to  the  Board  for  us.  How  I  should  like  to  know 
what  each  of  them  are  doing  and  how  they  feel  from  week  to  week.  It 
would  be  better  to  me  than  books,  papers,  or  clothing.  I  have 
enough  of  everything  and  more  than  I  can  find  time  to  read.  If 
dear  father  can  afi'ord  to  pay  the  postage  on  my  letters  home  and 
his  own  and  mother's  to  me  as  often  as  I  want  to  hear  from  them, 
we  will  be  perfectly  satisfied.  I  ask  for  nothing  else.  The  Beard 
are  constantly  sending  us  books  and  papers  and  boxes  of  cloth- 
ing. There  are  two  barrels  now  at  Vancouver  for  us  from  Brother 
Judson,  and  have  been  since  June;  also  one  from  Rushville  and  a 
box  from  Lysander.  I  expect  we  have  letters  in  Brother  Judson*s 
barrel,  which  accounts  for  our  not  receiving  any  from  them.  We 
are  looking  for  them  up  every  day  now.  In  some  of  my  first 
letters  I  did  ask  for  some  clothing  to  be  sent  me.  It  was  more 
because  Mrs.  Hull  made  me  promise  to  write  for  what  I  wanted, 
than  because  I  needed  them.  I  do  not  need  to  have  dear  father 
send  me  anything,  for  others  do,  and  what  is  not  sent  I  can  do 
without.  We  are  well  provided  for;  the  churches  take  good  care  of 
their  missionaries.  Our  chief  desire  is  to  be  found  faithful  stew- 
ards in  that  which  is  committed  to  our  trust. 

I  received  a  letter  in  August  from  Sister  Jane  written  in  March. 
I  am  happy  to  hear  that  she  and  Edward  are  so  wisely  engaged. 
Hope  they  will  let  nothing  interrupt  them  in  tlieir  studies  until 
E.  becomes  fitted  for  the  ministry  and  the  missionary  field.  Jane 
says  she  has  had  a  call  to  go  to  the  Sandwich  Islands;  I  am  glad 
she  does  not  go.  If  she  goes  anywhere  single,  she  must  come  and 
live  with  us;  shall  write  to  her  to  that  effect.  I  wrote  to  father 
and    mother  in    May  last    and    sent  them   across  the   mountains; 


hope  they  have  been  received  by  this  time.  In  that  I  mentioned 
we  were  about  to  start  to  Colvilie  on  a  medical  visit.  Mrs.  Walk- 
er has  a  little  daughter — second  child.  We  went  and  returned 
in  little  less  than  three  weeks,  130  miles.  This  is  hard  riding  for 
us.  Husband  is  gone  so  much  of  his  time  and  has  so  many  im- 
portant duties  at  home,  being  alone,  that  he  feels  as  if  he  must 
perform  his  journeys  as  rapidly  as  possible.  On  our  return  we 
moved  into  our  new  house — find  it  very  comfortable  and  much 
easier  to  do  our  work.  Mrs.  Munger  was  confined  the  25th  of 
June;  recovered  well — had  a  daughter.  We  left  immediately  for 
Mr.  Spalding's  to  attend  the  general  meeting  of  the  mission. 
Soon  after  we  returned  the  Lord  was  pleased  again  to  visit  our 
family  with  sickness  and  death.  Mother  will  recollect  that  in  the 
spring  of  183K  we  had  a  man  and  his  wife  sent  us  from  the  Sand- 
wich Island  (natives)  as  missionaries.  They  came  to  assist  us  in 
our  domestic  labours.  He  was  taken  sick  before  we  went  to  the 
meeting,  but  recovered  and  he  and  his  wife  went  with  us.  He 
was  sick  and  recovered  several  times,  but  every  relapse  brought 
him  much  lower  than  before.  He  died  the  8th  of  August  of  in- 
flammation of  the  bowels.  Our  loss  is  very  great.  He  was  so 
faithful  and  kind — always  ready  and  anxious  to  relieve  us  of  every 
care,  so  that  we  might  give  ourselves  to  our  appropriate  mission- 
ary work — increasingly  so  to  the  last.  He  died  as  a  faithful 
Christian  missionary  dies — happy  to  die  in  the  field — rejoiced 
that  he  was  permitted  to  come  and  labour  for  the  good  of  the 
Indians,  while  his  heart  was  in  heaven  all  the  time.  Who  that 
could  witness  him  in  his  dying  moments  and  see  the  calm  and 
sweet  serenity  of  his  countenance,  but  what  would  feel  it  a  priv- 
ilege to  be  a  missionary — to  be  the  means  of  saving  one  such  soul 
from  the  midst  of  heathen  darkness.  His  wife  is  just  so  faithful, 
but  she  is  a  feeble  person.  I  know  not  how  I  could  do  without 
her;  so  we  feel  concerning  him.  But  the  Lord  saw  different.  He 
had  higher  employment  for  him  in  heaven.  Dear  mother,  we  feel 
that  the  Lord  means  something  by  his  repeated  affliction;  every 
year  we  have  had  a  death  in  our  family  since  we  have  been  here. 
I  feel  as  if  it  would  be  our  turn  soon  and  we  know  not  how  soon. 
In  about    a  month    after  Joseph's  death,  I    was    taken    with    in- 


flammation  of  thejkidneys  and  was  brought  very  low.  But  the  Lord 
in  mercy  raised  me  up  again  and  I  got  able  to  be  about  in  a  short 
time;  but  since  that  I  got  down  again  and  have  been  ever  since 
unable  tojsee  to  my  work.  Have  been  taking  medicine  now  for 
some  time  and  begin  to  feel  as  if  I  should  be  quite  well  again ; 
but  do  not  expect  to  be  able  to  engage  in  teaching  again  this 
winter.  It  is  quite  a  trial  to  be  laid  aside  when  so  much  needs  to 
be  done.  But  missionaries  wear  out  quick  where  they  have  al- 
ways so  much  to  do,  and  it  will  be  so,  so  long  as  there  are  so  few 
in  the  field. 

We  are  thronged  with  company  now  and  have  been  for  some 
time  past,  and  may  be  through  the  winter.  I  often  think  of 
what  mother  used  to  say — "I  wish  Narcissa  would  not  always, 
have  so  much  company."  It  is  well  for  me  now  that  I  have  had 
so  much  experience  in  waiting  upon  company,  and  I  can  do  it 
when  necessary  without  considering  it  a  great  task.  As  we  are 
situated,  our  house  is  the  missionaries'  tavern,  and  we  must  accom^ 
modate  more  or  less  the  whole  time.  Mr.  Gray  and  family  are 
removed  from  Lapwai  (Mr.  Spalding's  station)  and  are  now  with 
us  until  they  can  build  anew,  or  rather  until  after  his  wife's  con- 
finement. He  has  an  Hawaiian  wife  lately  from  the  Islands. 
Mr.  Griffin  and  Mr.  Munger  and  their  wives,  who  came  out  last 
summer  as  self-supporting  missionaries,  are  here  also.  In  August 
Rev.  Mr.  Clark,  Philo  Littlejohn,  and  Mr.  Smith  with  their  wives, 
arrived;  they  have  come  independent  of  the  Board,  also.  We  have 
no  less  than  seven  missionary  families  in  our  two  houses.  We 
feel  that  we  need  much  patience  and  wisdom  to  get  along  with 
so  many,  and  much  strength.  We  are  in  peculiar  and  somewhat 
trying  circumstances  in  relation  to  them.  We  are  underthe  Ameri- 
can Board  and  they  have  come  out  in  opposition,  or  in  other  words  to 
try  to  live  independently  of  the  Board.  This  they  will  find  very  diffi- 
cult, or  next  to  impossible  to  do,  and  some  of  them  begin  to  see 
it  so.  We  cannot  sell  to  them,  because  we  are  missionaries  and 
did  not  come  to  be  traders;  and  if  we  did  we  should  help  them  to 
establish  an  opposition  Board.  But  we  can  give  them,  and  report 
to  the  Board,  which  is  not  so  agreeable  to  them.  Their  means  are 
very  limited  and  they  will  suffer   before  they  can    get  help  from 


the  churches,  if  they  have  it  at  all.  Those  who  have  come  this 
year  are  excellent  people  and  we  wish  they  were  under  the  Board, 
for  we  need  their  labours  very  much.  We  should  keep  Mr.  Little- 
John  and  his  wife  with  us  if  we  had  any  claim  ui>oii  them.  Ma 
is  acquainted  with  them ;  he  is  Augusta's  brother. 

What  a  comfort  it  is  to  us  that  mother  and  father  still  live  to 
pray  for  us,  and  may  they  long  continue  to.  For  they  can  never 
realize  how  much  grace  and  wisdom,  patience,  forbearance 
brotherly  kindness,  love  and  charity;  yea,  every  Christian  grace,, 
meekness  and  humility,  their  daughter  needs. 

Once  more,  dear  mother,  farewell. 

Fmm  your   ever  affectionate  daughter. 


P.  S. — Your  children  both  send  much  love.  I  had  hoped  that 
ma  would  have  received  a  letter  at  this  time  from  her  son  Mar- 
cus; but  it  is  almost  like  hoping  against  ho})e,  so  long  as  his 
cares  and  duties  are  so  complicated. 

Oct.  2oth,  1840. 

My  Dear  Sister  Harriet: — Your  letter,  although  short,  was 
very  good  and  pleased  me  much;  and  now  what  do  you  think 
it  would  have  been  to  me,  how  much  good  would  it  have  done 
your  brother  and  me,  if  it  had  been  a  whole  sheet  and  well  filled 
as  I  fill  mine.  I  have  written  you  separately  a  long  letter,  and 
one  to  Edward.  You  did  not  tell  me  that  you  had  received  any. 
Always  tell  me  how  many  letters  of  mine  you  have  received,  and 
what  their  dates  are,  and  then  I  shall  know  if  you  get  all  I  write 
home.  When  I  write  you,  I  always  wish  to  have  you  receive  them, 
and  if  I  know  what  you  receive,  then  I  shall  know  what  you 
hear  from  me. 

You  did  not  t»;ll  me  what  you  are  doing  and  what  company 
you  keep;  what  female  meetings  you  attend,  and  whether  you  are 
doing  good  in  the  cause  of  Christ.     What  books  do  you  read?  Do 


you  comfort  ma  by  reading  to  her  such  books  as  Dwight*s  The- 
ology, Doddridge*s  Rise  and  Progress,  Milner*s  Church  History, 
etc.,  as  Narcissa  used  to  do  in  her  younger  days?  What  progress 
are  you  making  in  the  divine  life?  You  see  there  are  many 
things  I  wish  you  to  tell  me — enough  to  fill  more  than  one  sheet. 
I  am  happy  to  hear  that  J.  and  E.  have  gone  to  prepare  to  become 
missionaries,  and  that  you  have  a  wish  to  be  here  with  me.  I 
should  like  to  have  you  here  very  much,  and  I  hope  you  will  pre- 
pare yourself  for  it.  I  know  dear  mother  would  willingly  give 
up  Harriet  to  go  to  the  heathen  if  the  Lord  should  call  her.  This 
is  what  you  ought  to  live  for  as  well  as  me,  for  there  is  nothing 
so  desirable.  I  may  send  for  you  yet,  and  you  would  do  well  to 
prepare  yourself.  I  think  of  proposing  to  Jane  to  come  and 
teach  school  here  next  time  I  write  her.  Dear  Harriet,  honour 
the  Saviour  everywhere  you  go;  be  entirely  devoted  to  Him.  You 
will  never  regret  it.  Do  write  me  often  and  fully.  Write  a  little 
oftener  and  send  me  more  than  one  sheet  a  year.  It  will  be  good 
for  you  to  cultivate  the  talent  of  writing.  Yes,  do  more  than  I 
used  to,  and  then  you  will  not  regret  that  you  did  not  do  it  more, 
as  I  do  now  when  I  am  obliged  to  write  so  often  and  so  much. 
Those  of  the  family  that  do  not  write  me,  I  am  afraid  I  shall  for- 
get to  inquire  after  them,  or  write  them.  You  all  have  more  time 
than  I,  and  more  strength,'  too. 

Your  dear  brother  is  not  at  home;  if  he  was  he  would  send 
much  love.  As  it  is  I  send  it  for  him.  Think  of  him  traveling 
alone  this  cold  weather.  The  first  after  he  left  his  warm  home, 
the  wind  blew  very  hard  and  cold, — he  with  but  two  blankets, 
sleeping  on  the  ground  alone;  and  since,  it  has  rained  almost 
every  day,  and  sometimes  snowed  a  little.  I  do  not  know  when 
he  will  come  hdme. 

Farewell,  dear  Harriet.  Pray  much  for  your  sister  who  loves 
you  and  sends  much  love  to  you  and  all  the  brothers  and  sisters. 

Tell  me  more  about  Stephen's  children  and  H.'s  and  E.'s;  you 
know,  Harriet,  mine  is  dead.  Before  this  I  have  written  all  about 
her;  tell  me  if  you  have  seen  it.     Adieu, 

Your  affectionate  sister, 



Waiii.ati'I-,  March  2n(l.  1841. 

My  Deaf  Sister: — \Vc  ure  in  «lecp  trial  and  atflicliun.  Our 
Brother  Munger  iii  perfectly  insane  and  we  are  tric<l  to  know 
how  to  get  along  with  him.  He  claims  it  as  a  duty  we  owe  him, 
as  the  representative  of  Christ's  church,  to  obey  him  in  all  things. 
He  is  our  lawgiver,  as  Moses  was  to  the  children  of  Israel.  Last 
Sabbath  was  the  accomplishment  of  all  things  to  him — a  glorious 
Sabbath;  the  bringing  in  of  all  things — the  Judgment  Day. 
Brother  Perkins  will  recollect  some  features  in  his  prayers  while 
he  was  here,  which  we  now  see  in<licated  a  mind  not  sound  on 
all  points.  Now  don't  let  your  faith  in  (lod  be  staggered  by 
what  has  happened  unto  him.  He  has  been  thinking  upon  some 
points  so  long  and  so  deeply  that  his  mind  has  lost  its  balance. 
He  has  been  nearly  so  before,  his  wife  tells  me,  but  not  so  entire- 
ly gone.  Poor  Sister  M. — her  trials  are  very  great.  To  see  him 
die  in  a  happy  state  of  mind  would  be,  comparatively,  a  light 
affliction.  He  has  been  inclining  this  way  so  long  we  see  but 
little  or  no  hope    he  will  ever   be  any  !>etter. 

When  your  husband  left  us  we  were  all  of  us  at  work  with 
our  own  hearts  to  get  them  right  for  the  blessing  of  God  upon 
us.  He  was  pleas*;d  to  sh(.)w  some  of  us  our  hearts;  at  least  me  mine 
as  I  never  saw  it  before,  and  I  trust  it  has  been  a  profitable  lesson  to 
me.  The  work  seemed  t<j  go  on  gradually  and  we  hope  effectually, 
but  frequently  during  this  time  we  all  felt  our  feelings  destroyed 
by  Brother  Munger's  prayers,  and  ventured  to  speak  to  him  of  it, 
but  to  our  surprise  he  did  not  receive  it  with  that  Christian 
meekness  and  improvement  we  exi)ected  in  him,  but  appeared  to 
be  more  and  more  strengthened  in  his  preconceived  notions  and 
feelings  of  himself,  until  he  plainly  convinced  us  by  his  strange 
actions  that  he  was  deranged. 

Efforts  have  been  made  by  my  husband  and  Mr.  Gray  to  re- 
store him,  but  all  prove  ineffectual.  He  sent  to  be  present  at  our 
family  worship  this  morning,  but  we  felt  it  would  be  no  wor- 
ship and  deferred  his  coming  until   after,  and  now  he  is  waiting 


for  his  troops  to  come  in  who,  some  of  them,  appear  very  unwill- 
ing to  obey  orders. 

Brother  Littlejohn  has  gone  to  see  Mr.  Clark  at  Mr.  Smith's. 
We  are  expecting  his  return  this  week,  also  Mr.  C.  What  will  be 
done  with  him,  we  know  not,  but  preparations  must  be  made  to 
take  him  home,  if  possible. 

Do  pray  for  his  afflicted  wife,  and  may  the  I/ord  teach  us  all 
a  lesson  for  our  profit,  and  show  us  the  debt  of  gratitude  we  owe 
him  for  the  merciful  preservation  of  our  reason  to  us. 

I  could  say  much  more,  but  I  have  snatched  this  moment  to 
write  what  I  have,  and  must  close.  ^ 

Give  much  love  to  the  Sisters  Brewer  and  Lee,  if  with  you. 

Affectionately  your  sister  in  Christ, 

N.  Whitman. 

Mrs.  Elvira  Perkins, 


Waiii^atpu,  May  30th,  1841. 
My  Dear  Brother  Edward: — Yesterday  Mr.  Ermatinger  left  us 
to  go  to  Fort  Hall  and  the  Rendezvous,  and  we  sent  our  package 
of  letters  to  our  friends  by  him.  There  being  still  another  oppor- 
tunity of  writing,  I  embrace  it  for  tomorrow.  Husband  is  to  send 
an  Indian  to  overtake  him  on  account  of  some  business  forgotten 
to  be  attended  to  while  he  was  here.  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Munger,  who 
I  hope  you  will  see,  left  more  than  three  weeks  ago  with  the  main 
party  who  have  the  goods,  and  Mr.  E.  is  to  overtake  them. 

Since  writing  Jane's  letter,  much  has  transpired  of  interest  to 
us.  Mr.  Pambrun,  of  whom  you  have  often  heard  me  speak,  re- 
ceived an  injury  while  riding  out  a  little  way  from  his  fort  by 
his  horse  losing  the  rope  out  of  his  mouth  and  running  and  surg- 
ing, which  threw  him  repeatedly  upon  the  horn  of  his  saddle  and 


finally  upon  the  ground.  He  was  5M)  bruised  and  maimed  in  the 
abdomen,  that  he  was  unable  tu  move  and  was  carried  to  the  house 
on  blankets.  He  died  in  four  days  after  the  injury,  a  most  pain- 
fal  death.  He  died  as  he  lived,  saying  that  he  was  a  Christian, 
bnt  giving  no  evidence  that  he  was  one  in  heart.  He  was  a  Ro- 
man Catholic.  Your  brother  went  and  stayed  with  him  during  his 
sickness  until  he  died.  He  was  so  anxious  to  die  to  be  relieved 
from  pain  and  sufTcring,  that  he  plead  with  the  doctor  to  give  him 
something  to  stupefy  him  so  that  he  might  die  quick.  When  he 
was  in  the  last  agonies  he  insisted  on  having  an  emetic  given  him 
ana  when  he  could  not  prevail  on  the  doctor  or  Mr.  Rogers,  who 
was  with  him  when  he  was  hurt  and  sick,  he  sent  for  his  men  to 
take  him  and  carry  him  out  my  that  he  might  get  it  himself,  but 
he  did  not  succeed  and  gave  up  to  die  without  it. 

His  poor  family  feel  the  loss  very  much;  he  was  their  main 
support;  had  nine  children,  the  youngest  an  infant  three  weeks 
old.  His  wife  is  a  half-breed.  He  gave  me  his  little  daughter, 
Harriet,  the  one  just  before  he  died.  We  know  not  what 
the  Lord  means  by  this  providence,  but  we  hope  good  will  result 
to  His  cause  and  his  afflictions  may  be  sanctified  to  the  living. 

Dear  brother,  this  is  the  Sabbath  day.  At  this  time  you  are 
doubtless  engaged  in  the  worship  of  God  in  the  sanctuary,  a  priv- 
ilege I  once  enjoyetl,  but  now  am  deprived  of.  Our  minds  suffer 
for  the  want  of  such  privileges.  Yet  in  our  deprivation  we  have 
our  enjoyments,  for  we  can  worship  God  in  our  own  dwellings 
and  find  Him  here  present  with  us.  At  times  the  special  presence 
of  His  Holy  Spirit  appears  to  be  manifest,  and  he  seems  to  be 
reaching  down  His  hand  filled  with  blessings  to  this  dying  people. 
The  work  is  a  great  work ;  but  how  few  and  feeble  are  the  labourers 
already  in  the  field.  Our  earnest  prayer  is  that  more  labourers 
might  be  sent  to  aid  us  in  our  work;  men  after  God's  own  heart, 
and  not  easily  discouraged. 

The  present  is  a  time  of  unusual  quiet — not  an  Indian  is  to  be 
seen  about  us  all  are  scattered  in  little  groups  far  and  near,  dig- 
ging their  kamas  root,  and  taking  salmon.     Here  is  the  mission- 


ary*s  trial  in  this  country.  The  people  are  with  him  so  little  of 
the  time,  and  they  are  so  scattered  that  he  cannot  go  with  them, 
for  but  few  are  in  a  place.  Notwithstanding  our  discouragements, 
I  feel  that  we  would  not  be  situated  differently  if  we  could.  We 
would  not  be  out  of  the  field  for  any  consideration  whatever,  so 
long  as  the  J^ord  has  any  work  for  us  to  do  here.  I  wish  Jane  was 
here  to  help  me.  When  I  hear  from  you  again  I  shall  know  what 
to  do  about  sending  to  the  Board  to  have  her  come,  if  Kdward  can 
spare  her  and  will  still  go  on  with  his  studies.  I  hope  you  will 
remember  what  I  have  written  to  you  in  the  other  letter,  and  do 
as  I  have  asked  you  to  do,  for  your  own  sake  as  well  as  mine.  You 
seem  to  be  very  near  to  us.  It  is  almost  June  now,  and  I  hope 
this  letter  will  reach  you  in  safety  and  speedily.  Mrs.  Littlejohn 
has  become  the  mother  of  a  fine  Oregon  boy;  they  will  go  home 
now  as  soon  as  they  can  get  an  opportunity  by  ship.  Whether 
you  see  them  or  not,  after  they  return  I  know  not.  Many  others 
are  getting  discouraged  and  wishing  to  leave,  and  others  are  great- 
ly disappointed  in  the  country.  I  went  to  Walla  Walla  two  weeks 
ago  to  attend  Mr.  P.'s  funeral  and  spent  about  two  weeks  with 
the  family.  They  sent  for  me  to  come  home,  for  Mrs.  Littlejohn 
was  sick,  but  I  did  not  get  home  until  her  babe  was  born.  She  is 
doing  well  and   her  babe  also. 

Dear  Jane,  I  hear  much  of  your  watching  and  taking  care  of 
the  sick.  Do  be  more  careful  of  your  own  health;  I  fear  for  you; 
you  will  wear  out  too  soon,  I  have  not  been  able  to  do  much  such 
work  since  I  have  been  here. 

Your  brother  often  speaks  of  you  and  has  intended  to  write 

you  both,  but  has  been  pulled  this  way  and  that,  so  that  he  has 

not  had  time.     Adieu;  our  love  to  you  both.     I  have  not  written 

to   pa  and    ma,  as  I  intended,  but  husband  has,  which  you  may 

read  if  you  see  Mrs.  Munger. 

Your  sister, 

N.  Whitman. 

Dear  Sister  Jane: — It  would  be  a  pleasure  to  see  you,  and  I  am 
meditating  how  it  could  be,  as  you  have  come  almost  half  way. 


I  was  just  telling  Nurcissa  what  an  interest  I  had  taken  in  your- 
self ever  since  I  was  introdurod  to  you  at  your  t'athcr's  house  by 
Mr.  Hamiltun  at  the  close  of  a  ]irayer  meetiufr.  That  was  the  first 
introduction  to  the  family.  Fn>ui  that  moment  my  heart  has 
been  towards  the  family.  Hut  vou  smile,  1  sup])ose,  and  say  it 
was  Narcissa;  no,  it  was  Jane:  Nareissa  was  in  Hutlpr.  I  presume 
you  will  have  no  recullertion  of  the  iutrudurtion;  if  so,  let  it  rest 
on  my  recollection,  which  is  vivid.  I  trust  you  are  happily  em- 
ployed in  aiding  ICdward.  It  is  a  noble  work.  ICncourage  him 
to  study  and  toil.  Tell  him  to  finish  his  education  before  he  gives 
his  mind  any  liberty  to  rove.  Let  usefulness  be  his  motto.  Ob- 
stacles can  be  overcome.     With  much  love  to  you  both, 

Your  brother, 

M A RC ( 'S  Win TM A N . 

I  would  send  you  some  specimens  uf  the  country  if  it  were 
not  so  difficult  to  pack  them  acri>ss  the  mountains. 

May  17th,  1H42. — 1  send  this  f<»r  the  scriip  my  dear  husband 
has  written  you,  mure  than  for  what  I  have  written.  It  may  do 
you  good  to  £et  even  that  from  him  wh»>  is  so  dear  to  your  sister 
and  to  you,  I  trust.  It  was  returned  last  spring,  and  I  cuuld  not 
send  it  by  ship.  Rogers  has  just  said  that  he  would  call  on  you, 
so  that  you  can  ask  him  as  many  questions  as  you  can  think  of, 
and  if  he  returns  you  can  send  by  him  next  spring. 

Adieu,  dear  E.  Your  sister, 

N.  W. 

WAiii.ATPr,  March  ist,  1842. 

My  Dear  Jane  and  Eihcard: — I  was  busy  all  the  forenoon  in 
preparing  my  husband  fur  his  departure.  He  left  about  two 
o'clock  P.  M.  to  go  on  a  professi(.)nal  visit  to  Brother  Walker's,  and 
I  am  once  more  left  alone  in  this  house  with  no  other  company 
than  my  two  little  half-breed  girls,  Mary  Ann  Bridger  and  Helen 
Mar  Meek.     Since  he  left  I  have  copied  a  letter  of  one   sheet  and 


a  half  for  him  to  Brother  Spalding  and  written  a  short  one  to 
Sister  S.,  besides,  which  kept  me  until  nearly  dark,  although  I 
wrote  with  all  my  might,  for  we  had  detained  an  Indian  who 
was  going  that  way,  to  take  them,  and  before  I  could  get  them 
completed  he  began  to  be  quite  impatient.  I,  however,  pacified 
him  by  giving  him  something  to  eat  to  beguile  his  time,  and 
when  he  left  gave  him  a  good  piece  of  bread  to  eat  on  the  way. 
The  Indians  do  us  many  favours  in  this  way,  and  get  as  many 
from  us  in  return,  for  they  are  always  glad  of  something  from  us 
to  eat  on  the  way.  Since  I  got  my  letters  off  I  regulated  my 
house  some,  got  my  own  and  little  girl's  supper  and  some  toast 
and  tea  for  a  sick  man  who  has  been  here  a  few  days,  from  Walla 
Walla  to  be  doctored;  attended  family  worship  and  put  my  little 
girls  to  bed,  and  have  set  me  down  to  write  a  letter  to  Jane  and 
Edward,  my  dear  brother  and  sister  that  I  left  at  home  in  Angel- 
ica more  than  six  years  ago.  Since  or  just  as  I  seated  myself  to 
write.  Brother  Gray  came  in  to  get  some  medicine  for  the  sick 
man.  He  is  in  Packet's  lodge  a  few  steps  from  the  door,  and  he 
is  the  man  who  attends  to  my  wants,  such  as  milking,  getting 
water,  wood,  etc.  He  is  a  half-breed  from  the  east  side  of  the 
mountains  and  was  brought  up  at  Harmony  mission,  but  came 
to  the  mountains  about  eight  years  ago  and  has  since  become  a 
Catholic.  Brother  Gray  has  built  him  a  new  house  and  it  is 
quite  a  piece  from  us.  Thus  lonely  situated,  what  would  be  the 
enjoyment  to  me  if  K.  and  J.  would  come  in  and  enjoy  my  soli- 
tude with  me.  Surely  solitude  would  quickly  vanish,  as  it  almost 
appears  to,  even  while  I  am  writing.  Jane,  I  wish  you  were  here 
to  sleep  with  me,  I  am  such  a  timid  creature  about  sleeping  alone 
that  sometimes  I  suflfer  considerably,  especially  since  my  health 
has  been  not  very  good.  It,  however,  gives  me  the  opportunity 
for  the  exercise  of  greater  trust  and  confidence  in  my  heavenly 
protector  in  whose  hands  I  am  always  safe  and  happy  when  I 
feel  myself  there.  My  eyes  are  much  weaker  than  when  I  left 
home  and  no  wonder,  I  have  so  much  use  for  them.  I  ain  at 
times  obliged  to  use  the  spectacles  Brother  J.  G.  so  kindly  fur- 
nished me.  I  do  not  know  what  I  could  do  without  them;  so 
much  writing  as  we  have  to    do,  both  in  our   own  language   and 


the  Nez  Perccs;  and,  besides,  we  have  no  way  to  feast  our  minds 
with  knowledge  necessary  for  health  and  spirituality  without 
reading, and  here  the  strength  of  the  eyes  are  taxe<l  again. 

Out  of  compassion  to  my  eyes  and  exhausted  frame,  dear 
ones,  I  must  bid  you  good-night.  Vou  may  hear  from  me  to- 
morrow, perhaps,  if  I  am  not  interrupted  with  company. 

2d — After  attending  to  thedutiesuf  the  morning, and  as  I  was 
nearly  done  hearing  my  children  read,  two  native  women  came 
in  bringing  a  miserable  looking  child,  a  l)oy  between  three  and 
four  years  old,  and  wished  me  to  take  him.  He  is  nearly  naked, 
and  they  said  his  mother  had  thrown  him  away  and  gone  off 
with  another  Indian.  His  father  is  a  Spaniard  and  is  in  the 
mountains.  It  has  been  living  with  its  grandmother  the  winter 
past,  who  is  an  old  and  adultertms  woman  and  has  no  compas- 
sion for  it.  Its  mother  has  several  others  by  different  white  men» 
and  one  by  an  Indian,  who  are  treated  miserably  and  scarcely 
subsist.  My  feelings  were  greatly  excited  for  the  poor  child  and 
felt  a  great  disposition  to  take  him.  Soon  after  the  old  grand- 
mother came  in  and  said  she  would  take  him  to  Walla  Walla 
and  dispose  of  him,  there  and  accordingly  took  him  away.  Some 
of  the  women  who  were  in,  compassionated  his  case  and  followed 
after  her  and  would  not  let  her  take  him  away,  and  returned 
with  him  again  this  eve  to  see  what  I  would  do  about  him.  I 
told  her  I  could  not  tell  because  my  husband  was  gone.  What  I 
fear  most  is  that  after  I  have  kept  him  awhile  some  of  his  rela- 
tives will  come  and  take  him  away  and  my  labour  will  be  lost  or 
worse  than  lost.  I,  however,  told  them  they  might  take  him 
away  and  bring  him  again  in  the  morning,  and  in  the  meantime  I 
would  think  about  is.  The  care  of  such  a  child  is  very  great  at 
first— dirty,  covered  with  body  and  head  lice  and  starved — his 
clothing  is  apart  of  a  skin  dress  that  does  not  half  cover  his 
nakedness,  and  a  small  bit  of  skin  over  his  shoulders. 

Helen  was  in  the  same  condition  when  I  took  her,  and  it  was 
a  long  and  tedious  task  to  change  her  habits,  young  as  she  was, 
but  little  more  than  two  years  old.     She  was  so  stubborn  and  fret- 


ful  and  \9anted  to  cry  all  the  time  if  she  could  not  have  her  own 
way.  •  We  have  so  subdued,  her  that  now  she  is  a  comfort  to  us, 
although  she  requires  tight  reins  constantly. 

Mary  Ann  is  of  a  mild  disposition  and  easily  governed  and 
makes  but  little  trouble.  She  came  here  last  August.  Helen 
has  been  here  nearly  a  year  and  a  half.  The  I/ord  has  taken  our 
own  dear  child  away  so  that  we  may  care  for  the  poor  outcasts  of 
the  country  and  suflfering  children.  We  confine  them  altogether 
to  English  and  do  not  allow  them  to  speak  a  word  of  Nez 

Read  a  portion  of  the  Scriptures  to  the  women  who  were  in 
today,  and  talked  awhile  with  them.  Baked  bread  and  crackers 
today  and  made  two  rag  babies  for  my  little  girls.  I  keep  them 
in  the  house  most  of  the  time  to  keep  them  away  from  the  na- 
tives, and  find  it  difficult  to  employ  their  time  when  I  wish  to 
be  engaged  with  the  women.  They  have  a  great  disposition  to 
take  a  piece  of  board  or  a  stick  and  carry  it  around  on  their 
backs,  if  I  would  let  them,  for  a  baby,  so  I  thought  I  would  make 
them  something  that  would  change  their  taste  a  little.  You  won- 
der, I  suppose,  what  looking  objects  Narcissa  would  make.  No 
matter  how  they  look,  so  long  as  it  is  a  piece  of  cloth  rolled  up 
with  eyes,  nose  and  mouth  marked  on  it  with  a  pen,  it  answers 
every  purpose.  They  caress  them  and  carry  them  about  the  room 
at  a  great  rate,  and  are  as  happy  as  need  be.  So  much  for  my 

I  have  not  told  you  that  we  have  a  cooking  stove,  sent  us 
from  the  Board,  which  is  a  great  comfort  to  us  this  winter,  and 
enables  me  to  do  my  work  with  comparative  ease,  now  that  I 
have  no  domestic  help. 

We  have  had  but  very  little  snow  and  cold  this  winter  in  this 
valley.  The  thermometer  has  not  been  lower  than  20°  below 
freezing;  but  in  every  direction  from  us  there  has  been  an  unu- 
sual quantity  of  snow,  and  it  still  remains.  Husband  expects  to 
find  snow  beyond  the  Snake  river,  which  he  would  cross  today 
if  he  has  been  prospered,  and  may  perhaps  be  obliged  to  make 
snow  shoes  to  travel  with.    I/ast   night  was  a  very  windy  night. 


«nd  the  same  today,  but  it  is  still  now.  Brother  Walker  is  situ- 
ated directly  north  of  us,  so  that  it  is  not  likely  that  the  snow 
will  decrease  any  in  going.  It  is  uncertain  when  he  will  return 
if  prospered  and  not  hindered  with  the  snow.  He  expects  to  be 
gone  only  four  weeks.  May  the  Lord  preserve  and  return  him  in 
afety  and  in  His  own  time,  and  keep  me  from  anxiety  concern- 
ing him.    (roodnight,  J.  and  H. 

jd. — Dear  Jane,  this  has  been  washing-day,  and  I  have  cleaned 
house  some:  had  a  native  woman  to  help  me  that  does  the  hard- 
est part.  I  am  unal)le  to  <lo  my  heavy  work  and  have  been  for 
two  years  past. 

This  evening  an  Indian  has  been  in  who  has  been  away  all 
winter.  I  have  been  reading  to  him  the  fifth  chapter  of  Matiliew. 
Bvery  word  of  it  seemed  to  sink  deep  into  his  heart;  and  O  may 
it  prove  a  savour  of  life  to  his  soul.  He  thinks  he  is  a  Christian, 
but  we  fear  to  the  contrary.  His  mind  is  somewhat  waked  up 
about  his  living  with  two  wives.  I  would  not  ease  him  any,  but 
urged  him  to  do  his  duty.  Others  are  feeling  upon  the  subject, 
particularly  the  women;  and  why  should  they  ntit  feel? — they  are 
the  sufferers. 

The  little  boy  was  brought  to  me  again  this  morning  and  I 
conld  not  shut  my  heart  against  him.  I  washed  him,  oiled 
and  bound  up  his  wounds,  and  dressed  him  and  cleaned  his  head 
of  lice.  Before  he  came  his  hair  was  cut  close  to  his  head  and  a 
strip  as  wide  as  your  finger  was  shaved  from  ear  to  car,  and  also 
from  his  forehead  to  his  neck,  crossing  the  other  at  right  angles. 
This  the  boys  had  done  to  make  him  look  ridiculous.  He  had  a 
bum  on  his  foot  where  they  said  he  had  been  pushed  into  the  fire 
for  the  purpose  of  gratifying  their  malicious  feelings,  and  because 
be  was  friendless.  He  feels,  however,  as  if  he  had  got  into  a 
strange  place,  and  has  tried  to  run  away  once  or  twice.  He  will 
soon  get  accustomed,  I  think,  and  be  happy,  if  I  can  keep  him 
away  from  the  native  children.  So  much  about  the  boy  Marshall. 
I  can  write  no  more  tonight. 


4th. — There  has  been  almost  constant  high  wind  ever  since 
husband  left  and  increasingly  cold.  Feel  considerably  anxious 
concerniifg  him,  lest  the  deep  snow  and  cold  may  make  his  jour- 
ney a  severe  one.  At  the  best  it  is  very  wearing  to  nature  to 
travel  in  this  country.  He  never  has  been  obliged  to  encounter  so 
much  snow  before,  and  I  do  not  know  how  it  will  aflfect  him.  He 
is  a  courageous  man,  and  it  is  well  that  he  is  so  to  be  a  physician 
in  this  country.  Common  obstacles  never  affect  him;  he  goes 
ahead  when  duty  calls.  Jane  and  Edward,  you  know  but  little 
about  your  brother  Marcus,  and  all  I  can  tell  you  about  him  at 
this  time  is  that  he  is  a  bundle  of  thoughts. 

Met  this  afternoon  for  a  female  prayer  meeting;  only  two  of 
us — Sister  Gray  and  myself — yet  they  are  precious  seasons  to  us, 
especially  when  Jesus  meets  with  us,  as  He  often  does.  I  am 
blessed  with  a  lovely  sister  and  an  excellent  associate  in  Sister 
Gray,  and  I  trust  that  I  am  in  some  measure  thankful,  for  I  have 
found  by  experience  that  it  is  not  good  to  be  alone  in  our  cares 
and  labours. 

9th. — Last  evening  received  a  letter  from  Sister  Walker  dated 
Feb.  2ist,  in  which  she  expresses  some  fears  lest  husband  should 
not  arrive  in  season  on  account  of  the  deep  snow.  The  probabil- 
ity is  that  he  has  had  as  much  as  one  day  on  snow  shoes  if  not 
more.  We  are  having  our  winter  now,  both  of  cold  and  snow. 
During  the  last  twenty-four  hours  there  has  been  quite  a  heavy 
fall  of  snow  in  the  valley,  and  it  is  doubtless  doubled  in  the 

Last  eve  I  spent  at  Bro.  Gray's,  after  the  monthly  coi^cert. 
We  opened  some  boxes  that  have  just  arrived  from  the  Board  to 
the  mission,  containing  carding,  spinning  and  weaving  appara- 
tus, clothing  and  books.  Our  goods  often  get  wet  in  coming  up 
the  river,  and  we  are  often  obliged  to  open,  dry  and  repack  again. 
We  have  abundant  evidence  that  our  Christian  friends  in  the 
States  have  not  forgotten  us,  by  the  donations  we  receive  from 
time  to  time.  My  work  last  eve  was  such  cold  and  damp  work 
that  it  gave  me  many  rheumatic  pains  all  night,  and  besides  it 


took  us  so  long  that  [  feci  uniible  tu  write  much  more  tonight. 
There  is  still  another  evening's  work  of  the  same  kind,  which 
must  be  done  as  soon  as  trimorrnw.  Wc  take  the  eve  because  Bro. 
G.  has  so  much  labour  during  the  day,  and  then  our  children  are 
all  in  bed.    Goodnight,  Jane. 

9th.— While  I  was  thinking  about  preparing  to  retire  to  rest 
last  eve,  Bro.  Gray  came  in  to  see  if  I  could  go  over  and  see  and 
aid  in  the  arrangement  of  the  other  boxes.  I  finally  mustered 
courage  to  go,  because  they  were  anxious  to  have  it  out  of  the 
way.  Found  it  an  easier  job  than  was  expected,  because  there 
was  but  one  that  needed  drying. 

Attended  maternal  meeting  this  afternoon.  Sister  G.  and  I 
make  all  the  effort  our  time  and  means  will  permit  to  edify  and 
instruct  ourselves  in  our  resjM)nsible  maternal  duties.  Read  this 
p.  m.  the  report  of  the  New  York  City  .Association  for  1840,  and 
what  a  feast  it  was  to  us!  It  is  a  comforting  thought  to  us  iu  a 
desert  land  to  know  that  we  are  so  kindly  remembered  by  sister 
Associations  in  our  beloved  land.  Hut  the  constant  watch  and 
care  and  anxiety  of  a  missionary  mother  cannot  be  known  by 
them  except  by  experience.  Sister  G.  has  two  of  her  own  and  I 
have  three  half-breeds.  1  believe  I  feel  all  the  care  and  watchful- 
ness over  them  that  I  should  il  they  were  my  own.  I  am  sure 
they  are  a  double  tax  upon  my  patience  and  perseverance,  partic- 
ularly Helen;  she  wants  to  rule  everyone  she  sees.  She  keeps  me 
on  guard  continually  lest  she  should  get  the  upper  hand  of  me. 
The  little  boy  appears  to  l)e  of  a  pretty  good  disposition,  and  I 
think  will  be  easy  to  govern.  He  proves  to  be  j-ounger  than  I 
first  thought  he  was;  he  is  not  yet  three  years  old — probably  he 
is  the  same  age  Helen  was  when  she  came  here.  His  old  grand- 
mother has  l>een  in  to  see  him  today,  but  appears  to  have  no  dis? 
position  to  take  him.  She  wanted  I  should  give  her  something 
to  eat  every  now  and  then,  because  I  had  got  the  child  to  live 
with  me  and  take  care  of,  also  old  clothes  and  shoes.  So  it  is 
with  them;  the  moment  you  do  them  a  favour  you  place  yourself 
under  lasting  obligations  to  them  and  must  continue  to  give  to 
keep  their  love  strong  towards  you.     I  make  such  bungling  work 


of  writing  this  eve  I  believe  I  will  stop,  for  I  can  scarcely  keep 
my  head  up  and  eyes  open.  So  good  night,  J.,  for  you  do  not 
come  to  sleep  with  me,  and  I  must  content  myself  with  Mary 

nth. — Dear  Jane,  I  am  sick  tonight  and  in  much  pain — have 
been  scarcely  able  to  crawl  about  all  day.  The  thought  comes 
into  my  mind,  how  good  to  be  relieved  of  care  and  to  feel  the 
blessing  of  a  sympathizing  hand  administering  to  the  necessities 
of  a  sick  and  suffering  body,  and  whose  presence  would  greatly 
dispel  the  gloom  that  creeps  over  the  mind  in  spite  of  efforts  to 
the  contrary.  But  I  must  not  repine  or  murmur  at  the  dealings 
of  my  Heavenly  Father  with  me,  for  he  sees  it  necessary  thus  to 
afflict  me  that  His  own  blessed  iqiage  may  be  perfected  in  me. 
O,  what  a  sinful,  ungrateful  creature  I  am — proud  and  disobedi- 
ent. I  wonder  and  admire  the  long-suflfering  patience  of  God 
with  me,  and  long  to  be  free  from  sin  so  that  I  shall  grieve  Him 
no  more.  But  there  is  rest  in  heaven  to  the  weary  and  wayworn 
traveler,  and  how  blessed  that  we  may  "hope  to  the  end  for  the 
grace  that  shall  be  given  unto  us  at  the  revelation  of  Jesus 
Christ."  Pray  for  us,  J.  and  E.,  for  we  need  your  prayers  daily. 

I2th. — I  would  that  I  could  describe  to  you  what  I  have  felt 
and  passed  through  since  writing  the  above.  Before  I  could  ^et 
to  bed  last  night  I  was  seized  with  such  severe  pains  in  my  stom- 
ach and  bowels  that  it  was  with  difficulty  that  I  could  straighten 
myself.  I  succeeded  in  crawling  about  until  I  got  something  to 
produce  perspiration,  thinking  it  might  proceed  from  a  cold,  and 
went  to  bed.  About  two  o*clock  in  the  morning  Sister  Gray  sent 
for  me,  for  she  was  sick  and  needed  my  assistance.  When  I  was 
waked  I  was  in  a  profuse  perspiration.  What  to  do  I  did  not 
know.  Neither  of  them  knew  that  I  was  sick  the  day  before.  I 
at  last  concluded  that  I  would  make  the  effort  to  go,  casting  my- 
self for  preservation  on  the  mercy  of  God.  Mr.  Cook,  the  man 
who  came  after  me,  made  a  large  fire  for  me  in  my  room,  and  I 
was  enabled  to  dress  and  dry  myself  without  getting  cold,  the 
weather  having  moderated  some  from  what  it  was  a  few  days  ago. 


I  bundled  myself  pretty  well  and  went  with  Mr.  C.'s  assist  a  nce^ 
for  I  felt  but  very  li